Gender and Thought: The Role of the Self-Concept

  • Hazel Markus
  • Daphna Oyserman


In the continuing analysis of sex and gender differences, there is a growing awareness of the possibility of fundamental differences in how women and men perceive themselves and their worlds, in how they take meaning, and in how they come to know or reason (e.g., Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, & Tarule, 1986; Block, 1984; Cantor & Kihlstrom, 1987; Chodorow, 1987; Gilligan, 1982; Miller, 1986; Ruddick, 1980). The nature of these differences and the psychological structures and mechanisms that mediate them are not well understood. Such differences are likely to be subtle and not easily isolated but when closely analyzed may prove powerful. Our goal is to examine the divergent theories of the self that can be held by men and women and to explore how they may influence basic perceptual and cognitive processes.


Mental Rotation Spatial Ability Current Perspective Gender Schema Normative Task 
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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

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  • Hazel Markus
  • Daphna Oyserman

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