Advertisement

Indicators of Ecosystem Response and Recovery

  • John R. Kelly
  • Mark A. Harwell
Part of the Springer Advanced Text in Life Sciences book series (SATLIFE)

Abstract

To facilitate effective protection of environmental systems subjected to anthropogenic activities, there must be basic understanding of three areas: how the variety of biological components of ecosystems are exposed to stress; how the ecosystems respond to that disturbance; and how they recover or adapt. Given a solid understanding of ecosystem exposure-response-recovery relationships and their uncertainties, we might reasonably balance risks to ecological systems with risks and benefits to other systems of human concern, such as economic or societal systems. While the approach to the problem seems straightforward, the simple fact is that we presently lack sufficient ecological understanding in all three areas for most environmental stresses. With limited ability to make reliable stress-response predictions, we are greatly constrained in making appropriate environmental decisions. Consequently, instances of unexpected, adverse effects on the environment from a particular human activity continue to intermingle with instances of expensive over-protection from other activities. In principle, ecological risk assessment would minimize these problems.

Keywords

Striped Bass Ecological Risk Assessment Ecosystem Response Chemical Stress Anthropogenic Stress 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amundson RG, Weinstein LH (1980) Effects of airborne fluoride on forest ecosystems. In: Proceedings of Symposium on Effects of Air Pollutants on Mediterranean and Temperate Forest Ecosystems. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Pacific SW Forest Experiment Station General Technical Report PSW-43, Berkeley, California. pp. 63–78Google Scholar
  2. Baker JM (1973) Recovery of salt marsh vegetation from successive oil spillages. Environ Pollut 4: 223–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bormann FH, Likens GE (1979) Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem. New York: Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  4. Freedman B, Hutchinson TC (1980) Long-term effects of smelter pollution at Sudbury, Ontario, on forest community composition. Can J Bot 58: 2123–2140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gordon AG, Gorham E (1963) Ecological effects of air pollution from an iron-sintering plant at Wawa, Ontario. Can J Bot 41: 1063–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Grime JP (1979) Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. Chichester, UK: WileyGoogle Scholar
  7. Harris GP (1980) Temporal and spatial scales in phytoplankton ecology. Mechanisms, methods, models, and management. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 37: 877–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Harwell MA, Cropper WP, Ragsdale HL (1978) Nutrient cycling and stability: A reevaluation. Ecology 58: 660–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Harwell MA, Cropper WP Jr, Ragsdale HL (1981) Analyses of transient characteristics of a nutrient cycling model. Ecol Modelling 12: 105–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Harwell MA, Hutchinson TC, with Cropper WP Jr, Harwell CC, Grover HD (1985) Environmental Consequences of Nuclear War. Volume II. Ecological and Agricultural Effects. Chichester, UK: WileyGoogle Scholar
  11. Harwell MA, Harwell CC, Weinstein DA, Kelly JR (1987) Anthropogenic Stresses on Ecosystems: Issues and Indicators of Response and Recovery. ERC-153. Ithaca, NY: Ecosystems Research Center, 32 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Harwell MA, Harwell CC, JR Kelly (1986) Regulatory endpoints, ecological uncertainties, and environmental decision-making. Oceans 86 Proceedings 3:993–998. Washington DC: Marine Technology SocietyGoogle Scholar
  13. Hutchinson TC, Freedman W (1978) Effects of experimental spills on subarctic boreal forest vegetation near Norman Wells, N.W.T., Canada. Can J Bot 56: 2424–2433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kelly JR, Duke TW, Harwell MA, Harwell CC (1987) An ecosystem perspective on potential impacts of drilling fluid discharges on seagrasses. Environ Manage 11 (4): 537–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kelly JR, Levin SA (1986) A comparison of aquatic and terrestrial nutrient cycling and production processes in natural ecosystems, with reference to ecological concepts of relevance to some waste disposal issues. In: Kullenberg G (ed) The Role of the Oceans as a Waste Disposal Option. NATO Advanced Research Workshop Series. Dodrecht Holland: D. Reidel Publishing CoGoogle Scholar
  16. Levin SA (1987) Scale and predictability in ecological modeling. In: Vincent TL, Cohen Y, Grantham WJ, Kirkwood GP, Skowronski JM (eds) Modeling and Management of Resources Under Uncertainty. Lecture Notes in Biomathematics 72. Berlin: Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  17. Levin SA, Kimball KD, McDowell WH, Kimball SH (eds) (1984) New perspectives in ecotoxicology. Environ Manage 8 (5): 375–442Google Scholar
  18. Likens GE (1983) A priority for ecological research. Bull Ecol Soc Amer 64: 234–243Google Scholar
  19. Limburg KE, Levin SA, Harwell CC (1986a) Ecology and estuarine impact assessment: Lessons learned from the Hudson River and other estuarine experiences. J Environ Manage 22: 255–280Google Scholar
  20. Limburg KE, Moran MA, McDowell WH (1986b) The Hudson River Ecosystem. New York: Springer-VerlagCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Miller PL (1973) Oxidant-induced community change in a mixed conifer forest. In: Naegle JA (ed) Air Pollution Damage to Vegetation. Adv Chem Series No 122, Washington DC: American Chemical Society, pp. 101–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Noble IR, Slatyer RO (1980) The use of vital attributes to predict successional changes in plant communities subject to recurrent disturbances. Vegetatio 43: 5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Odum EP (1985) Trends expected in stressed ecosystems. Bioscience 35: 419–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. O’Neill RV, DeAngelis DL, Waide JB, Allen TFH (1986) A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems. Monographs in Population Biology 22. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University PressGoogle Scholar
  25. Paine RT (1974) Intertidal community structure: experimental studies on the relationship between a dominant competitor and its principal predator. Oecologia 15: 93–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Paine RT (1980) Food webs: linkage, interaction strength, and community infrastructure. J Animal Ecol 49: 667–685Google Scholar
  27. Rapport DJ, Regier HA, Hutchinson TC (1985) Ecosystem behavior under stress. Amer Nat 125 (5): 617–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Reiners WA (1983) Disturbance and basic properties of ecosystem energetics. In: Mooney HA, Godron M (eds) Disturbance and Ecosystems. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 83–98Google Scholar
  29. Schindler DW (1987) Detecting ecosystem responses to anthropogenic stress. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 44, Supplement No. 1: 6–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schindler DW, Mills KH, Malley DF, Findlay DL, Shearer JA, Davies IJ, Turner MA, Linsey GA, Cruikshank DR (1985) Long-term ecosystem stress: The effects of years of experimental acidification on a small lake. Science 228: 1395–1401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smith WH (1980) Air pollution — a 20th century allogenic influence on forest ecosystems. In: Proceedings of Symposium on Effects of Air Pollutants on Mediterranean and Temperate Forest Ecosystems. U.S.D.A. Forest Service Pacific SW Forest Experiment Station General Technical Report PSW-43, Berkeley, CA, pp. 79–87Google Scholar
  32. Steele JH (ed) (1978) Spatial Pattern in Plankton Communities. NATO Conference Series IV: Marine Sciences, Vol. 3. New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  33. Stommel H (1963) Varieties of oceanographic experience. Science 139: 572–576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tschirley FH (1969) Defoliation in Vietnam. Science 167: 779–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Webster JR, Waide JB, Patten BC (1975) Nutrient recycling and the stability of ecosystems. In: Howell FG, Gentry JB, Smith MH (eds) Mineral Cycling in Southeastern Ecosystems. ERDA CONF-740513, Springfield, VA: NTISGoogle Scholar
  36. Weinstein LW, Bunce HWF (1981) Impact of emissions from an alumina reduction smelter on the forests at Kitimat, B.C.: A synoptic review. In: Proceedings of the 74th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, Philadelphia, PA, June 21–26, 1981, pp. 2–16Google Scholar
  37. Woodwell GM (1970) Effects of pollution on the structure and physiology of ecosystems. Science 168: 429–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • John R. Kelly
    • 1
  • Mark A. Harwell
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Ecosystems Research CenterCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  2. 2.Center for Environmental ResearchCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations