Advertisement

δ13C Measurements as Indicators of Carbon Flow in Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems

  • B. Fry
  • E. B. Sherr
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 68)

Abstract

Stable isotope ratios provide clues about the origins and transformations of organic matter. A few key reactions control the isotopic composition of most organic matter. Isotopic variations introduced by these reactions are often passed on with little change so that isotopic measurements can indicate natural pathways and flows “downstream” from these key reactions. When chemical and metabolic processes scramble the information content of molecules, isotopic compositions are often preserved. This realization has prompted increasing use of stable isotope analyses as a tool for understanding complex ecological processes.

Keywords

Salt Marsh Carbon Isotope Dissolve Inorganic Carbon Particulate Organic Carbon Carbon Isotope Ratio 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abelson PH and Hoering TC (1961) Carbon isotope fractionation in formation of amino acids by photosynthetic organisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 47:623–632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson TF and Arthur MA (1983) Stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon and their application to sedimentologic and paleoenvironmental problems, pp. 1–1:1–151. In Arthur A (editor), Stable Isotopes in Sedimentary Geology. SEPM, Dallas.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews TJ and Abel KM (1979) Photosynthetic carbon metabolism in seagrasses. Plant Physiol. 63:650–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barghoorn ES, Knoll AH, Dembicki Jr H, and Meinschein WG (1977) Variation in stable carbon isotopes in organic matter from the Gunflint Iron Formation. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41:425–430.Google Scholar
  5. Benedict CR and Scott JR (1976) Photosynthetic carbon metabolism of a marine grass. Plant Physiol. 57:876–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Benedict CR, Wong WWL, and Wong JHH (1980) Fractionation of the stable isotopes of inorganic carbon by seagrasses. Plant Physiol. 65:512–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Black CC Jr. and Bender MM (1976) d13C values in marine organisms from the GreatGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrier Reef. Aust. J. Plant. Physiol. 3:25–32.Google Scholar
  9. Bondar VA, Gogotova GI, and Zyakun AM (1976) Fractionation of carbon isotopes by photoautotrophic microorganisms having different pathways of carbon dioxide assimilation. Dokl. Biol. Sci. 228:223–225.Google Scholar
  10. Botello AV, Mandelli EF, Macko S, and Parker PL (1980) Organic carbon isotope ratios of recent sediments from coastal lagoons of the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 44:557–559.Google Scholar
  11. Boutton TW, Wong WW, Hachey DL, Lee LS, Cabrera MP, and Klein PD (1983) Comparison of quartz and Pyrex tubes for combustion of organic materials for stable carbon isotope analysis. Anal. Chem. 55:1832–1833.Google Scholar
  12. Brinson MM and Matson EA (1983) Carbon isotope distribution in the Pamlico River Estuary, North Carolina, and tributaries. Estuaries 6:306.Google Scholar
  13. Burnett WC and Schaeffer OA (1980) Effect of ocean dumping on 13C/12C ratios in marine sediments from the New York Bight. Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 11:605–611.Google Scholar
  14. Calder JA (1969) Carbon isotope effects in biochemical and geochemical systems. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.Google Scholar
  15. Calder JA and Parker PL (1968) Stable carbon isotope ratios as indices of petrochemical pollution of aquatic systems. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2:535–539.Google Scholar
  16. Calder JA and Parker PL (1973) Geochemical implications of induced changes in 13C fractionation by blue-green algae. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37:133–140.Google Scholar
  17. Carlson PR Jr, and Forrest J (1982) Uptake of dissolved sulfide by Spartina altemiflora:evidence from natural sulfur isotope abundance ratios. Science 216:633–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cavanaugh CM, Gardiner SL, Jones ML, Jannasch HW, and Waterbury JB (1981) Prokaryotic cells in the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila Jones:possible chemoautotrophic symbionts. Science 213:340–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chisholm BS, Nelson DE, and Schwarcz HP (1982) Stable carbon isotope ratios as a measure of marine versus terrestrial protein in ancient diets. Science 216:1131–1132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Craig H (1953) The geochemistry of the stable carbon isotopes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 3:53–92.Google Scholar
  21. Craig H (1957) Isotopic standards for carbon and oxygen and correction factors for mass-spectrometric analysis of carbon dioxide. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 12:133–149.Google Scholar
  22. Deevey ES Jr, Nakai N, and Stuiver M (1963) Fractionation of sulfur and carbon isotopes in a meromictic lake. Science 139:407–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Deevey ES and Stuiver M (1964) Distribution of natural isotopes of carbon in Linsley Pond and other New England lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 9:1–11.Google Scholar
  24. Degens ET (1969) Biogeochemistry of stable carbon isotopes, pp. 304–329. In Eglington E and Murphy MTJ (editors), Organic Geochemistry. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Degens ET, Behrendt M, Gotthardt B, and Reppmann E (1968a) Metabolic fractionation of carbon isotopes in marine plankton—II. Data on samples collected off the coasts of Peru and Ecuador. Deep-Sea Res. 15:11–20.Google Scholar
  26. Degens ET, Guillard RL, Sackett WM, and Hellebust JA (1968b) Metabolic fractionation of carbon isotopes in marine plankton—I. Temperature and respiration experiments. Deep-Sea Res. 15:1–9.Google Scholar
  27. Deines P (1980) The isotopic composition of reduced organic carbon, pp. 329–406. In Fritz P and Fontes JC (editors), Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  28. DeNiro MJ and Epstein S (1978) Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals. Geochim. Cosmochim Acta 42:495–506.Google Scholar
  29. DeNiro MJ and Epstein S (1981a) Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45:341–351.Google Scholar
  30. DeNiro MJ and Epstein S (1981b) Isotopic composition of cellulose from aquatic organisms. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45:1885–1894.Google Scholar
  31. DeNiro MJ and Epstein S (1981c) Hydrogen isotope ratios of mouse tissues are influenced by a variety of factors other than diet. Science 214:1374–1375.Google Scholar
  32. Deuser WG (1970) Isotopic evidence for diminishing supply of available carbon during diatom bloom in the Black Sea. Nature 225:1069–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Doohan ME and Newcomb EH (1976) Leaf ultrastructure and δ13C values of three sea grasses from the Great Barrier Reef. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 3:9–23.Google Scholar
  34. Dunton KH and Schell DM (1982) The use of 13C/12C ratios to determine the role of macrophyte carbon in an arctic kelp community. EOS 63:54.Google Scholar
  35. Eadie BJ (1972) Distribution and fractionation of stable carbon isotopes in the Antartic ecosystem. Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station.Google Scholar
  36. Eadie BJ and Jeffrey LM (1973) d13C analyses of oceanic particulate organic matter. Mar. Chem. 1:199–209.Google Scholar
  37. Eadie BJ, Jeffrey LM, and Sackett WM (1978) Some observations on the stable carbon isotope composition of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the marine environment. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 42:1265–1269.Google Scholar
  38. Edmond JM, Ketten DR, Bacen MP, and Silker WB (1981) The chemistry, biology, and vertical flux of particulate matter from the upper 400 m of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. 24:511–548.Google Scholar
  39. Emery KO, Wigley RL, Bartlett AS, Rubin M, and Barghoorn ES (1967) Freshwater peat on the continental shelf. Science 158:1301–1307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Estep MLF (1982) Stable isotopic composition of algae and bacteria that inhabit hydrothermal environments in Yellowstone National Park. Annual Report of the Director, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1981–82:402– 410.Google Scholar
  41. Estep MLF (1983) Nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of thermal springs. Annual Report of the Director, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1982– 83:398–404.Google Scholar
  42. Estep MLF and Dabrowski H (1980) Tracing food webs with stable hydrogen isotopes. Science 209:1537–1538.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Estep MLF, Tabita FR, Parker PL, and Van Baalen C (1978a) Carbon isotope fractionation by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from various organisms. Plant Physiol. 61:680–687.Google Scholar
  44. Estep MLF, Tabita FR, and Van Baalen C (1978b) Purification of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and carbon isotope fractionation by whole cells and carboxylase from Cylindrotheca sp. (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 14:183–188.Google Scholar
  45. Farquhar GD, Ball MC, Von Caemmerer S, and Roksandic Z (1982) Effect of salinity and humidity on δ13C value of halophytes—evidence for diffusional isotope fractionation determined by the ratio of intercellular atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 under different environmental conditions. Oecologia 52:121–124.Google Scholar
  46. Fontugne M and Duplessy JC (1978) Carbon isotope ratio of marine plankton related to surface water masses. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 41:365–371.Google Scholar
  47. Fontugne MR and Duplessy JC (1981) Organic carbon isotopic fractionation by marine plankton in the temperature range–1 to 31°C. Oceanol. Acta 4:85–90.Google Scholar
  48. Fry B (1977) Stable carbon isotope ratios—a tool for tracing food chains. M.A. thesis, University of Texas, Austin.Google Scholar
  49. Fry B (1981a) Natural stable carbon isotope tag traces Texas shrimp migrations. Fish. Bull. U.S. 79:337–345.Google Scholar
  50. Fry B (1981b) Tracing shrimp migrations and diets using natural variations in stable isotopes. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Texas, Austin.Google Scholar
  51. Fry B (1984a) 13C/12C ratios and the trophic importance of algae in Florida Syringodium seagrass meadows. Mar. Biol. 79:11–19.Google Scholar
  52. Fry B (1984b) Fish and shrimp migrations in the northern Gulf of Mexico analyzed using stable C, N, and S isotope ratios. Fish. Bull. U.S. 81:789–801.Google Scholar
  53. Fry B, Anderson RK, Entzeroth L, Byrd JL, and Parker PL (1984) 13C enrichment and oceanic food web structure in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Contrib. Mar. Sci. 27:49–63.Google Scholar
  54. Fry B and Arnold C (1982) Rapid 13C/12C turnover during growth of brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus). Oecologia 54:200–204.Google Scholar
  55. Fry B, Gest H, and Hayes JM (1983a) Sulphur isotopic compositions of deep-sea hydrothermal vent animals. Nature 306:51–52.Google Scholar
  56. Fry B, Joern A, and Parker PL (1978) Grasshopper food web analysis:use of carbon isotope ratios to examine feeding relationships among terrestrial herbivores. Ecology 59:498–506.Google Scholar
  57. Fry B, Lutes R, Northam M, Parker PL, and Ogden J (1982a) A 13C/12C comparison of food webs in Caribbean seagrass meadows and coral reefs. Aquat. Bot. 14:389–398.Google Scholar
  58. Fry B and Parker PL (1979) Animal diet in Texas seagrass meadows:δ13C evidence for the importance of benthic plants. Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 8:499–509.Google Scholar
  59. Fry B, Scalan RS, and Parker PL (1977) Stable carbon isotope evidence for two sources of organic matter in coastal sediments:seagrasses and plankton. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41:1875–1877.Google Scholar
  60. Fry B, Scalan RS, and Parker PL (1983b) 13C/12C ratios in marine food webs of the Torres Strait, Queensland. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 34:707–716.Google Scholar
  61. Fry B, Scalan RS, Winters JK, and Parker PL (1982b) Sulphur uptake by saltgrasses, mangroves, and seagrasses in anaerobic sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46:1121–1124.Google Scholar
  62. Gearing JN, Gearing PL, Rudnick DT, Requejo AG, and Hutchins MJ (1984) Isotope variability of organic carbon in a phytoplankton-based, temperate estuary. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 48:1089–1098.Google Scholar
  63. Gearing P, Plucker FE, and Parker PL (1977) Organic carbon stable isotope ratios of continental margin sediments. Mar. Chem. 5:251–266.Google Scholar
  64. Gormly JP and Sackett WM (1977) Carbon isotope evidence for the maturation of marine lipids, pp. 321–339. In Campos R and Goni J (editors), Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1975. Empresa Nacional, Madrid.Google Scholar
  65. Hackney CT and Haines EB (1980) Stable carbon isotope composition of fauna and organic matter collected in a Mississippi estuary. Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 10:703– 708.Google Scholar
  66. Haines EB (1976a) Relation between the stable carbon isotope composition of fiddler crabs, plants, and soils in a salt marsh. Limnol. Oceanogr. 21:880–883.Google Scholar
  67. Haines EB (1976b) Stable carbon isotope ratios in the biota, soils, and tidal water of a Georgia salt marsh. Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 4:609–616.Google Scholar
  68. Haines EB (1977) The origins of detritus in Georgia salt marsh estuaries. Oikos 29:254– 260.Google Scholar
  69. Haines EB (1979) Interactions between Georgia salt marshes and coastal waters:a changing paradigm, pp. 35–46. In Livingston RI (editor), Ecological Processes in Coastal and Marine Systems. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Haines EB and Montague CL (1979) Food sources of estuarine invertebrates analyzed using 13C/12C ratios. Ecology 60:48–56.Google Scholar
  71. Hayes JM (1982) Fractionation et al.:an introduction to isotopic measurements and terminology. Spectra 8:3–8.Google Scholar
  72. Hayes JM, Kaplan IR, and Wedeking KW (1983) Precambrian organic geochemistry, preservation of the record, pp. 93–134. In Schopf JW (editor), Earth’s Earliest Biosphere. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar
  73. Hedges JI and Parker PL (1976) Land-derived organic matter in surface sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40:1019–1029.Google Scholar
  74. Hughes EH and Sherr EB (1983) Subtidal food webs in a Georgia estuary:δ13C analysis. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 67:227–242.Google Scholar
  75. Hunt JM (1970) The significance of carbon isotope variations in marine sediments, pp. 27–35. In Hobson GD and Speers GC (editors), Advances in Organic Geochemistry, 1966. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  76. Incze LS, Mayer LM, Sherr EB, and Macko SA (1982) Carbon inputs to bivalve mollusks:a comparison of two estuaries. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39:1348–1352.Google Scholar
  77. Ingram LO, Calder JA, Van Baalen C, Plucker FE, and Parker PL (1973) Role of reduced exogenous organic compounds in the physiology of the blue-green bacteria (algae):photoheterotrophic growth of a “heterotrophic” blue-green bacterium. J. Bacteriol. 114:695–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Ivlev, AA, Kaloshin AG, Radyukin YN, Sholin AF, and Pozdnyakova TM (1982) Fractionation of carbon isotopes by aerobic heterotrophic microorganisms. Microbiology 51:158–161.Google Scholar
  79. Jacobson BS, Smith BN, Epstein S, and Laties GG (1970) The prevalence of carbon 13 in respiratory carbon dioxide as an indicator of the type of respiratory substrate. J. Gen. Physiol. 55:1–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Jannasch HW and Wirsen CW (1979) Chemosynthetic primary production at East Pacific sea floor spreading centers. Bioscience 29:592–598.Google Scholar
  81. Johnson RW and Calder JA (1973) Early diagenesis of fatty acids and hydrocarbons in a salt marsh environment. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 37:1943–1955.Google Scholar
  82. Kaplan IR (1975) Stable isotopes as a guide to biogeochemical processes. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B. 189:183–211.Google Scholar
  83. Kaplan IR, Emery KO, and Rittenberg SC (1963) The distribution and isotopic abundance of sulphur in recent marine sediments off southern California. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 27:297–331.Google Scholar
  84. Killingley JS (1980) Migrations of California gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles. Science 207:759–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Killingley JS and Lutcavage M (1983) Loggerhead turtle movements reconstructed from 18O and 13C profiles from commensal barnacle shells. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 16:345–349.Google Scholar
  86. Kitting CL, Fry B, and Morgan MD (1984) Detection of inconspicuous epiphytic algae supporting food webs in seagrass meadows. Oecologia 62:145–149.Google Scholar
  87. Kneib RT, Stiven AE, and Haines EB (1980) Stable carbon isotope ratios in Fundulus heteroclitus (L.) muscle tissue and gut contents from a North Carolina Spartina marsh. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 46:89–98.Google Scholar
  88. Lacroix M and Mosora F (1975) Variations du rapport isotopique 13C/12C dans le metabolisme animal, pp. 343–358. In Isotope Ratios as Pollutant Source and Behaviour Indicators, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.Google Scholar
  89. Land LS, Lang JC, and Smith BN (1975) Preliminary observations on the carbon isotopic composition of some coral reef tissues and symbiotic zooxanthellae. Limnol. Ocean ogr. 20:283–287.Google Scholar
  90. LaZerte BD and Szalados JE (1982) Stable carbon isotope ratio of submerged freshwater macrophytes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 27:413–418.Google Scholar
  91. Letolle R and Martin JM (1970) Carbon isotope composition of suspended organic matter in two European estuaries. Mod. Geol. 1:275–278.Google Scholar
  92. Macko SA (1983) Source of organic nitrogen in mid-Atlantic coastal bays and continental shelf sediments of the United States:isotopic evidence. Annual Report of the Director, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1982–83:390–394.Google Scholar
  93. Macko SA and Estep MLF (1983) Microbial alteration of stable nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter. Annual Report of the Director, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1982–83:394–398.Google Scholar
  94. Macko SA, Estep MLF, Hare PE, and Hoering TC (1983a) Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of individual amino acids isolated from cultured microorganisms. Annual Report of the Director, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1982–83:404–410.Google Scholar
  95. Macko SA, Estep MLF, and Lee WY (1983b) Stable hydrogen isotope analysis of food webs on laboratory and field populations of marine amphipods. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 72:243–249.Google Scholar
  96. Macko SA, Lee WY, and Parker PL (1982) Nitrogen and carbon isotope fractionation by two species of marine amphipods:laboratory and field studies. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 63:145–149.Google Scholar
  97. Mariotti A, Letolle R, and Sherr E (1983) Distribution of stable nitrogen isotopes in a salt marsh estuary. Estuaries 6:304–305.Google Scholar
  98. McConnaughey T, and McRoy CP (1979a) Food web structure and the fractionation of carbon isotopes in the Bering Sea. Mar. Biol. 53:257–262.Google Scholar
  99. McConnaughey T and McRoy CP (1979b) 13C label identifies eelgrass (Zostera marina) carbon in an Alaskan estuarine food web. Mar. Biol. 53:263–269.Google Scholar
  100. McMillan CP, Parker PL, and Fry B (1980) 13C/12C ratios in seagrasses. Aquat. Bot. 9:237–249.Google Scholar
  101. Mills EL, Pittman K, and Tan FC (1983) Food web structure on the Scotian shelf, eastern Canada. A study using 13C as a food-chain tracer. ICES. Rapports et Procés Verbaux des Réunions. 183:111–118.Google Scholar
  102. Miyake Y and Wada E (1967) The abundance ratio of 15N/14N in marine environments. Records Oceanogr. Works Japan. 9:37–53.Google Scholar
  103. Monson KD and Hayes JM (1982) Carbon isotopic fractionation in the biosynthesis of bacterial fatty acids. Ozonolysis of unsaturated fatty acids as a means of determining the intramolecular distribution of carbon isotopes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46:139–149.Google Scholar
  104. Mook WG, Bommerson JC, and Staverman WH (1974) Carbon isotope fractionation between dissolved bicarbonate and gaseous carbon dioxide. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 22:169–176.Google Scholar
  105. Mosora F, Lacroix M, and Puchesne J (1971a) Recherches sur les variations du rapport isotopique 13C/12C, en fonction de la respiration et de la nature des tissus, chez les animaux supérieurs. C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. D 273:1423–1425.Google Scholar
  106. Mosora F, Lacroix M, and Duchesne J (1971b) Variations isotopiques 13C/,2C du CO2 respiratoire chez le Rat,l sous Taction d’hormones. C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. D 273:1752– 1753.Google Scholar
  107. Mosora F, Lacroix M, Pontus M, and Duchesne J (1972) Recherches préliminaires au sujet de l’action de la déoxycorticosterone, du glucagon et de l’insuline, sur le rapport isotopique 13C/12C du CO2 respiratoire chez le Rat. C.R. Acad. Sci. Ser. D. 274:2723– 2724.Google Scholar
  108. Nissenbaum A and Kaplan IR (1972) Chemical and isotopic evidence for the in situ origin of marine humic substances. Limnol. Oceanogr. 17:570–582.Google Scholar
  109. Nixon SW (1980) Between coastal marshes and coastal waters—a review of twenty years of speculation and research on the role of salt marshes in estuarine productivity and water chemistry, pp. 437–525. In Hamilton P and MacDonald K (editors), Estuarine and Wetlands Processes. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  110. Oana S and Deevey ES (1960) Carbon-13 in lake waters and its possible bearing on paleolimnology. Am. J. Sci. 258-A:253–272.Google Scholar
  111. O’Leary MH (1981) Carbon isotope fractionation in plants. Phytochemistry 20:553–567.Google Scholar
  112. O’Leary MH and Osmond CB (1980) Diffusional contribution to carbon isotope fractionation during dark CO2 fixation in CAM plants. Plant Physiol. 66:931–934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Olson RJ (1983) Trophic relationships between tunas and their prey. Briefs (American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists). 12 (3):3–4.Google Scholar
  114. Osmond CB, Valaane N, Haslam SM, Uotila P, and Roksandic Z (1981) Comparisons of δ13C values in leaves of aquatic macrophytes from different habitats in Britain and Finland:some implications for photosynthetic processes in aquatic plants. Oecologia 50:117–124.Google Scholar
  115. Pardue JW, Scalan RS, Van Baalen C, and Parker PL (1976) Maximum carbon isotope fractionation in photosynthesis by blue-green algae and a green alga. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40:309–312.Google Scholar
  116. Parker PL (1964) The biogeochemistry of the stable isotopes of carbon in a marine bay. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 28:1155–1164.Google Scholar
  117. Parker PL, Behrens EW, Calder JA, and Schultz D (1972) Stable carbon isotope ratio variations in the organic carbon from the Gulf of Mexico. Contrib. Mar. Sci. 16:139– 147.Google Scholar
  118. Parker PL and Calder JA (1970) Stable carbon isotope ratio variations in biological systems, pp. 107–122. In Hood DW (editor), Organic Matter in Natural Waters. Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska, Publ. #1. College, Alaska.Google Scholar
  119. Petelle M, Haines B, and Haines E (1979) Insect food preferences analyzed using 13C/ 12C ratios. Oecologia 38:159–166.Google Scholar
  120. Peters KE, Sweeney RE, and Kaplan IR (1978) Correlation of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in sedimentary organic matter. Limnol. Oceanogr. 23:598–604.Google Scholar
  121. Peterson BJ and Howarth RW (1983) Sulfur and carbon isotopes as tracers of organic matter flow in salt marshes. Estuaries 6:305.Google Scholar
  122. Peterson BJ, Howarth RW, Lipschultz F, and Ashendorf D (1980) Salt marsh detritus:an alternative interpretation of stable carbon isotope ratios and the fate of Spartina alterniflora. Oikos 34:173–177.Google Scholar
  123. Pocklington R (1976) Terrigenous organic matter in surface sediments from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. J. Fish.Res. Board Can. 33:93–97.Google Scholar
  124. Rashid MA and Reinson GE (1979) Organic matter in surficial sediments of the Miramichi estuary, New Brunswick, Canada. Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 8:23–36.Google Scholar
  125. Rau GH (1978) Carbon-13 depletion in a subalpine lake:carbon flow implications. Science 201:901–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Rau GH (1980) Carbon-13/Carbon-12 variation in subalpine lake aquatic insects:food source implications. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37:742–746.Google Scholar
  127. Rau GH (1981a) Low 15N/14N in hydrothermal vent animals:ecological implications. Nature 289:484–485.Google Scholar
  128. Rau GH (1981b) Hydrothermal vent clam and tube worm 13C/12C:further evidence of nonphotosynthetic food source. Science 213:338–339.Google Scholar
  129. Rau GH and Anderson NH (1981) Use of 13C/12C to trace dissolved and particulate organic matter utilization by populations of an aquatic invertebrate. Oecologia 48:19–21.Google Scholar
  130. Rau GH and Hedges JI (1979) Carbon-13 depletion in a hydrothermal vent mussel:suggestion of a chemosynthetic food source. Science 203:648–649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Rau GH, Mearns AJ, Young DR, Olson RJ, Schafer HA, and Kaplan IR (1983) Animal 13C/12C correlates with trophic level in pelagic food webs. Ecology 64:1314–1318.Google Scholar
  132. Rau GH, Sweeney RE, and Kaplan IR (1982) Plankton 13C:12C ratio changes with latitude:differences between northern and southern oceans. Deep-Sea Res. 29:1035–1039.Google Scholar
  133. Rau GH, Sweeney RE, Kaplan IR, Mearns AJ, and Young DR (1981) Differences in animal 13C, 15N, and D abundance between a polluted and an unpolluted coastal site:likely indicators of sewage uptake by a marine food web. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci 13:701–707.Google Scholar
  134. Reibach PH and Benedict CR (1977) Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes by phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxylase from C4 plants. Plant Physiol. 59:564–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rodelli MR (1981) Carbon sources of Malaysian mangrove swamp and offshore organisms determined utilizing δ13C values. Master’s thesis, University of Rhode Island, Providence.Google Scholar
  136. Rodier L and Khalil MF (1982) Fatty acids in recent sediments in the St. Lawrence Estuary. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Sci. 15:473–483.Google Scholar
  137. Rounick JJ, Winterbourn MJ, and Lyon GL (1982) Differential utilization of allochthonous and autochthonous inputs by aquatic invertebrates in some New Zealand streams:a stable carbon isotope study. Oikos 39:191–198.Google Scholar
  138. Sackett WM, Eckelmann WR, Bender ML, and Be AWH (1965) Temperature dependence of carbon isotope composition in marine plankton and sediments. Science 148:235– 237.Google Scholar
  139. Sackett WM, Eckelmann WR, Bender ML, and Be AWH (1966) Ueber die Isotopen zusammensetzung von organischem Kohlenstoff aus Meeresplankton und seine Beziehung zu marinen Sedimenten. Erdöl Kohle Erdgas Petrochemie 19:562–564.Google Scholar
  140. Sackett WM and Moore WS (1966) Isotopic variations of dissolved inorganic carbon. Chem. Geol. 1:323–328.Google Scholar
  141. Sackett WM and Thompson RR (1963) Isotopic carbon composition of recent continental derived clastic sediments of eastern Gulf coast, Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. 47:525–531.Google Scholar
  142. Salomons W and Mook WG (1981) Field observations of the isotope composition of particulate organic carbon in the southern North Sea and adjacent estuaries. Mar. Geol. 41. M11–M20.Google Scholar
  143. Schell DM (1983) Carbon-13 and carbon-14 abundances in Alaskan aquatic organisms:delayed production from peat in Arctic food webs. Science 219:1068–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Schoell M (1982) Application of isotope analysis to petroleum and natural gas research. Spectra 8 (2–3):32–41.Google Scholar
  145. Schoeninger MJ, DeNiro MJ, and Tauber H (1983) Stable nitrogen isotope ratios of bone collagen reflect marine and terrestrial components of prehistoric human diet. Science 220:1381–1383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Schowen KB and Schowen RL (1981) The use of isotope effects to elucidate enzyme mechanisms. Bioscience 31:826–831.Google Scholar
  147. Schroeder GL (1983a) Stable isotope ratios as naturally occurring tracers in the aqua culture food web. Aquaculture 30:203–210.Google Scholar
  148. Schroeder GL (1983b) Sources of fish and prawn growth in poly culture ponds as indicated by δ13C analysis. Aquaculture 35:29–42.Google Scholar
  149. Schultz DJ and Calder JA (1976) Organic carbon 13C/12C variations in estuarine sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 40:381–385.Google Scholar
  150. Schultz DJ and Quinn JG (1977) Suspended material in Narragansett Bay:fatty acid and hydrocarbon composition. Org. Geochem. 1:27–36.Google Scholar
  151. Schwarz HP (1969) The stable isotopes of carbon, pp. 6-B-1-6-B-15. In Wedepohl KH (editor), Handbook of Geochemistry, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  152. Schwinghamer P, Tan FC, and Gordon DC Jr (1983) Stable carbon isotope studies in Pecks Cove mudflat ecosystem in the Cumberland Basin, Bay of Fundy. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40 (Supplement l):262–272.Google Scholar
  153. Sherr EB (1982) Carbon isotope composition of organic seston and sediments in a Georgia salt marsh estuary. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46:1227–1232.Google Scholar
  154. Sigleo AC, Hoering TC, and Helz GR (1982) Composition of estuarine colloidal material:organic components. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46:1619–1626.Google Scholar
  155. Sirevag R, Buchanan BB, Berry JA, and Troughton JH (1977) Mechanisms of CO2 fixation in bacterial photosynthesis studied by the carbon isotope fractionation technique. Arch. Microbiol. 112:35–38.Google Scholar
  156. Smith BN (1972) Natural abundance of the stable isotopes of carbon in biological systems. Bioscience 22:226–230.Google Scholar
  157. Smith BN and Epstein S (1970) Biogeochemistry of the stable isotopes of hydrogen and carbon in salt marsh biota. Plant Physiol. 46:738–742.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Smith BN and Epstein S (1971) Two categories of 13C/12C ratios for higher plants. Plant Physiol. 47:380–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Smith FA and Walker NA (1980) Photosynthesis by aquatic plants:effects of unstirred layers in relation to assimilation of CO2 and HCO3- and to carbon isotopic discrimination. New Phytol. 86:245–259.Google Scholar
  160. Sofer Z (1980) Preparation of carbon dioxide for stable carbon isotope analysis of petroleum fractions. Anal. Chem. 52:1389–1391.Google Scholar
  161. Spies RB and DesMarais DJ (1983) Natural isotope study of trophic enrichment of marine benthic communities by petroleum seepage. Mar. Biol. 73:67–71.Google Scholar
  162. Spiker EC and Schemel LE (1979) Distribution and stable isotope composition of carbon in San Francisco Bay. pp. 195–212. In Conomos TJ (editor), San Francisco Bay:the Urbanized Estuary. Pacific Div. AAAS, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  163. Stephenson RL and Lyon GL (1982) Carbon-13 depletion in an estuarine bivalve:detection of marine and terrestrial food sources. Oecologia 55:110–113.Google Scholar
  164. Stephenson RL, Tan FC, and Mann KH (1984) Stable carbon isotope variability in marine macrophytes and its implications for food web studies. Mar. Biol. 81:223–230.Google Scholar
  165. Stiller M (1976) Origin of sedimentation components in Lake Kinneret traced by their isotopic composition, pp. 57–64. In Golterman HL (editor), Interactions Between Sediments and Fresh Water. Dr. W. Junk, B.V. Publishers.Google Scholar
  166. Stiller M and Nissenbaum A (1980) Variations of stable hydrogen isotopes in plankton from a freshwater lake. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44:1099–1101.Google Scholar
  167. Stuermer DH, Peters KE, and Kaplan IR (1978) Source indicators of humic substancesGoogle Scholar
  168. and proto-kerogen. Stable isotope ratios, elemental compositions, and electron spin resonance spectra. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 42:989–997.Google Scholar
  169. Stump RK and Frazer JW (1973) Simultaneous determination of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen in organic compounds. Report 1973, UCID-16198, University of California, Livermore.Google Scholar
  170. Sweeney RE and Kaplan IR (1980) Tracing flocculent industrial and domestic sewage transport on Sand Pedro shelf, southern California, by nitrogen and sulfur isotope ratios. Mar. Environ, Res. 3:215–224.Google Scholar
  171. Sweeney RE, Khalil EK and Kaplan IR (1980) Characterization of domestic and industrial sewage in southern California coastal sediments using nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, and uranium tracers. Mar. Environ. Res. 3:225–243.Google Scholar
  172. Tan FC and Strain PM (1979a) Organic carbon isotope ratios in recent sediments in the St. Lawrence estuary and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 8:213–225.Google Scholar
  173. Tan FC and Strain PM (1979b) Carbon isotope ratios of particulate organic matter in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 36:678–682.Google Scholar
  174. Tan FC and Strain PM (1983) Sources, sinks, and distribution of organic carbon in the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada. Geochim. Cosmochim.Acta 47:125–132.Google Scholar
  175. Taylor HP Jr (1974) The application of oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies to problems of hydrothermal alterations and ore deposition. Econ. Geol. 69:843–882.Google Scholar
  176. Teeri JA and Schoeller DA (1979) d13C values of an herbivore and the ratio of C3 to C4 plant carbon in its diet. Oecologia 39:197–200.Google Scholar
  177. Thayer GW, Govoni JJ, and Connally DW (1983) Stable carbon isotope ratios of the planktonic food web in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Mar. Sci. 33:247–256.Google Scholar
  178. Thayer GW, Parker PL, LaCroix MW, and Fry B (1978) The stable carbon isotope ratio of some components of an eelgrass, Zostera marina, bed. Oecologia 35:1–12.Google Scholar
  179. Tieszen LL, Boutton TW, Tesdahl KG, and Slade NA (1983) Fractionation and turnover of stable carbon isotopes in animal tissues:implications for δ13C analysis of diet. Oecologia 57:32–37.Google Scholar
  180. Van der Merwe NJ (1982) Carbon isotopes, photosynthesis, and archaeology. Am. Scientist 70:596–606.Google Scholar
  181. Whelan T, Sackett MW, and Benedict CR (1973) Enzymatic fractionation of carbon isotopes by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from C4 plants. Plant Physiol. 51:1051– 1054.Google Scholar
  182. Whelan T III (1971) Stable carbon isotope fractionation in photosynthetic carbon metabolism. Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station.Google Scholar
  183. Wickman FE (1952) Variations in the relative abundance of the carbon isotopes in plants. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 2:243–254.Google Scholar
  184. Williams PM and Gordon LI (1970) Carbon-13:carbon-12 ratios in dissolved and particulate organic matter in the sea. Deep-Sea Res. 17:19–27.Google Scholar
  185. Williams PM, Smith KL, Druffel EM, and Linick TW (1981) Dietary carbon sources of mussels and tubeworms from Galapagos hydrothermal vents determined from tissue 14C activity. Nature 292:448–449.Google Scholar
  186. Wong WW, Benedict CR, and Kohel RJ (1979) Enzymic fractionation of the stable carbon isotopes of carbon dioxide by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Plant Physiol. 63:852–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Wong WW, Sackett WM, and Benedict CR (1975) Isotope fractionation in photosynthetic bacteria during carbon dioxide assimilation. Plant Physiol. 55:475–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Wong WW and Sackett WM (1978) Fractionation of stable carbon isotopes by marine phytoplankton. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 42:1809–1815.Google Scholar
  189. Zyakun AM, Bondar VA, and Namsaraev BB (1981) Fractionation of methane carbon isotopes by methane-oxidizing bacteria, pp. 19–27. In Forschungsheft C360, Reaktor der Bergakademie Freiberg. VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoff Industrie, Leipzig.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Fry
  • E. B. Sherr

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations