Small Mammals as Monitors of Environmental Contaminants

  • Sylvia S. Talmage
  • Barbara T. Walton
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 119)


Many potentially harmful chemicals, both natural and anthropogenic, are released to the environment every year. Although chemical analyses of soil, air, and water can provide information on the concentrations of specific compounds present, these analyses alone are inadequate to assess the availability and potential toxicity of contaminants to humans and wildlife. Animals in these environments, however, integrate contaminant exposure spatially, temporally, and across media. Therefore, mammalian body burdens and responses are uniquely realistic indicators of mammalian exposure to chemicals.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson TJ, Barrett GW, Clark CS, Elia VJ, Majeti VA (1982) Metal concentrations in tissues of meadow voles from sewage sludge-treated fields. J Environ Qual 11:272–277.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews SM, Johnson MS, Cooke JA (1984) Cadmium in small mammals from grassland established on metalliferous mine waste. Environ Pollut 33:153–162.Google Scholar
  3. Andrews SM, Johnson MS, Cooke JA (1989a) Distribution of trace element pollutants in a contaminated grassland ecosystem established on metalliferous fluorspar tailings. 1. Lead. Environ Pollut 58:73–85.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews SM, Johnson MS, Cooke JA (1989b) Distribution of trace element pollutants in a contaminated grassland ecosystem established on metalliferous fluorspar tailings. 2. Zinc. Environ Pollut 59:241–252.Google Scholar
  5. Andrews SM, Cooke JA, Johnson MS (1989c) Distribution of trace element pollutants in a contaminated grassland ecosystem established on metalliferous fluorspar tailings. 3. Fluoride. Environ Pollut 60:165–179.Google Scholar
  6. Anthony RG, Kozlowski R (1982) Heavy metals in tissues of small mammals inhabiting waste-water-irrigated habitats. J Environ Qual 11:20–22.Google Scholar
  7. Arthur WJ, Markham OD (1984) Polonium-210 in the environment around a radioactive waste disposal area and phosphate ore processing plant. Hlth Phys 46:793–799.Google Scholar
  8. Arthur WJ, Markham OD, Groves CR, Keller BL (1987) Radionuclide export by deer mice at a solid radioactive waste disposal area in southeastern Idaho. Hlth Phys 52:45–53.Google Scholar
  9. Asmolov VG, Borojov AA, Demin VF, et al. (1988) The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant: one year after. In: Nuclear Power Performance and Safety, Vol 3. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. pp 103–147.Google Scholar
  10. Bandy LW, Peterle TJ (1971) Transfer of chlorine 36DDT in a meadow. In: Radionuclides in Ecosystems, Third National Symposium on Radioecology, CONF-710501. pp 232–239.Google Scholar
  11. Beardsley A, Vagg MJ, Beckett PHT, Sansom BF (1978) Use of the field vole (M. agrestis) for monitoring potentially harmful elements in the environment. Environ Pollut 16:65–71.Google Scholar
  12. Bevenue A, Ogata JN, Tengan LS, Hylin JW (1975) Mirex residues in wildlife and soils, Hawaiian pineapple-growing areas-1972–74. Pestic Monit J 9:141–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Beyer WM, Pattee OH, Sileo L, Hoffman DJ, Mulhern BM (1985) Metal contamination in wildlife living near two zinc smelters. Environ Pollut 38:63–86.Google Scholar
  14. Blus LJ, Henry CJ, Mulhern BM (1987) Concentrations of metals in mink and other mammals from Washington and Idaho. Environ Pollut 44:307–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown KW, Donnelly KC (1982) Mutagenic potential of water concentrates from the effluent of a waste oil storage pond. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 28:424–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown LN (1964) Ecology of three species of Peromyscus from southern Missouri. J Mam 45:189–202.Google Scholar
  17. Bull KR, Roberts RD, Inskip MJ, Goodman GT (1977) Mercury concentrations in soil, grass, earthworms, and small mammals near an industrial emission source. Environ Pollut 12:135–140.Google Scholar
  18. Burt WH (1976) A field guide to the mammals, 3rd Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  19. Calleman CJ (1984) Hemoglobin as a dose monitor and its application to the risk estimation of ethylene oxide. ISBN 91-7146-2520X. Thesis, Department of Radiobiology, University of Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  20. Cameron GN, Spencer SR (1981) Sigmodon hispidus. Mammalian Species No. 158. Amer Soc Mam. pp 1–9.Google Scholar
  21. Chmiel KM, Harrison RM (1981) Lead content of small mammals at a roadside site in relation to the pathways of exposure. Sci Total Environ 17:145–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Clark DR (1979) Lead concentrations: bats vs. terrestrial small mammals collected near a major highway. Environ Sci Technol 13:338–340.Google Scholar
  23. Cloutier NR, Clulow FV, Lim TP, Dave NK (1985) Metal (Cu, Ni, Fe, Co, Zn, Pb) and Ra-226 levels in meadow voles Microtus pennsylvanicus living on nickel and uranium mine tailings in Ontario, Canada: environmental and tissue levels. Environ Pollut Ser B 10:19–46.Google Scholar
  24. Cockerham LG, Young AL (1981) Ultrastructural comparison of liver tissues from field and laboratory TCDD-exposed beach mice. In: Tucker RE et al. (eds) Human and Environmental Risks of Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds. Plenum Press, New York. pp 373–389.Google Scholar
  25. Dimond JB, Sherburne JA (1969) Persistence of DDT in wild populations of small mammals. Nature 221:486–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Elfving DC, Haschek WM, Stehn RA, Bache CA, Lisk DJ (1978) Heavy metal residues in plants cultivated on and in small mammals indigenous to old orchard soils. Arch Environ Hlth, March/April.Google Scholar
  27. Evans DM (1973) Seasonal variations in the body composition and nutrition of the vole, Microtus agrestis. J An Ecol 42:1–18.Google Scholar
  28. Fanelli R, Bertoni MP, Castelli MG, Chiabrando C, Martelli GP, Noseda A, Garattini S, Binaghi C, Marazza V, Pezza F (1980a) 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic effects and tissue levels in animals from the contaminated area of Sevesco, Italy. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 9:569–577.Google Scholar
  29. Fanelli R, Castelli MG, Martelli GP, Noseda A, Garattini S (1980b) Presence of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in wildlife living near Seveso, italy: A preliminary study. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24:460–462.Google Scholar
  30. Fendick EA, Stevens GL, Brown RJ, Jordan WP (1989) Element content in tissues of four rodent species sampled in the Geysers Geothermal Steamfield. Environ Pollut 58:155–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Forsyth DJ, Peterle TJ (1984) Species and age differences in accumulation of 36C1—DDT by volves and shrews in the field. Environ Pollut 33:327–340.Google Scholar
  32. Gardner WS, Kendall DR, Odom RR, Windom HL, Stephens JA (1978) The distribution of methyl mercury in a contaminated salt marsh ecosystem. Environ Pollut 15:343–251.Google Scholar
  33. Garten CT Jr (1979) Radiocesium uptake by a population of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) inhabiting the banks of a radioactive liquid waste pond. Hlth Phys 36:39–45.Google Scholar
  34. Garten CT Jr (1981) Comparative uptake of actinides by plants and rats from the shoreline of a radioactive pond. J Environ Qual 10:487–491.Google Scholar
  35. Garten CT Jr, Bondietti EA, Trabalka JR, Walker RL, Scott TG (1987) Field studies on the terrestrial behavior of actinide elements in East Tennessee. In: Pinder JE III et al. (eds) Environmental Research on Actinide Elements, CONF-841142. Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy. pp 109–119.Google Scholar
  36. Garten CT Jr, Lomax RD (1987) Strontium-90 contamination in vegetation from radioactive waste seepage areas at ORNL, and theoretical calculations of “Sr accumulation by deer. ORNL/TM-10453. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.Google Scholar
  37. George SB, Choate JR, Genoways HH (1986) Blarina brevicauda. Mammalian Species No. 261. Am Soc Mam. pp 1–9.Google Scholar
  38. Getz LL, Verner L, Prather M (1977) Lead concentrations in small mammals living near highways. Environ Pollut 13:151–157.Google Scholar
  39. Goldsmith CD, Scanlon PF (1977) Lead levels in small mammals and selected invertebrates associated with highways of different traffic densities. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 17:311–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gordon CC (1974) Environmental effects of fluoride: Glacier National Park and vicinity. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  41. Goyer RA, Leonard DL, Moore JF, Rhyne B, Krigman MR (1970) Lead dosage and the role of the intranuclear inclusion body, an experimental study. Arch Environ Hlth 20:705–711.Google Scholar
  42. Greichus YA, Dohman BA (1980) Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of areas surrounding two transformer salvage companies, Colman, South Dakota September 1977. Pestic Monit J 14:26–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Halford DK (1987) Density, movement, and transuranic tissue inventory of small mammals at a liquid radioactive waste disposal area. In: Pinder JE III et al. (eds) Environmental Research on Actinide Elements, CONF-841142. Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Department of Energy. pp 147–156.Google Scholar
  44. Hall ER (1981) The Mammals of North America, Vols I and II. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  45. Hammond PB, Beliles RP (1980) Chapter 17: Metals. In: Doull J et al. (eds) Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 2nd ed. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York. pp 409–468.Google Scholar
  46. Haschek WM, Lisk DJ, Stehn RA (1979) Accumulation of lead in rodents from two old orchard sites in New York. In: Animals as Monitors of Environmental Pollutants. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. pp 192–199.Google Scholar
  47. Hoffman FO, Blaylock BG, Travis CC, et al. (1984) Preliminary screening of contaminants in sediments, ORNL/TM-9370. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.Google Scholar
  48. Hunter BA, Johnson MS (1982) Food chain relationships of copper and cadmium in contaminated grassland ecosystems. Oikos 38:108–177.Google Scholar
  49. Jefferies DJ, French MC (1972) Lead concentrations in small mammals trapped on roadside verges and field sites. Environ Pollut 3:147–156.Google Scholar
  50. Jefferies DJ, French MC (1976) Mercury, cadmium, zinc, copper, and organochlorine insecticide levels in small mammals trapped is a wheat field. Environ Pollut 10:175–182.Google Scholar
  51. Jefferies DJ, Stainsby B, French MC (1973) The ecology of small mammals in arable fields drilled with winter wheat, and the increase in their dieldrin and mercury residues. J Zool 171:513–539.Google Scholar
  52. Jenkins JH, Davis AH, Bigler WJ, Hoff GL (1980) Mercury and cesium-137 in urban gray squirrels. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 25:321–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Jett DA, Nichols JD, Hines JE (1986) Effect of orthene on an unconfined population of the meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus).. Can J Zool 64:243–250.Google Scholar
  54. Jimenez BD, Ezell GH, Egan ZB, Lee NE, Beuchamp JJ, McCarthy JF (1985) Effects of feeding and temperature on the mixed function oxidase (MFO) system in bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Meeting abstract. Sixth Annual Meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry held in St. Louis, Missouri, November 10–13. p 76.Google Scholar
  55. Johnson MS, Roberts RD, Hutton M, Inskip MJ (1978) Distribution of lead, zinc, and cadmium in small mammals from polluted environments. Oikos 30:153–159.Google Scholar
  56. Kay E, Tourangeau PC, Gordon CC (1975) Fluoride levels in indigenous animals and plants collected from uncontaminated ecosystems. Fluoride 8:125–133.Google Scholar
  57. Kaye SV, Dunaway PB (1962) Bioaccumulation of radioactive isotopes by herbivorous small mammals. Hlth Phys 7:205–217.Google Scholar
  58. Kikkawa J (1964) Movement, activity, and distribution of small rodents Clethrionomys glareous and Apodemus syluaticus in woodland. J An Ecol 33:259–299.Google Scholar
  59. Kisseberth WC, Sundberg JP, Nyboer RW, Reynolds JD, Kasten SC, Beasley VR (1984) Industrial lead contamination of an Illinois wildlife refuge and indigeneous small mammals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 185:1309–1313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kitchings JT, Levy DJ (1981) Habitat patterns in a small community. J Mam 62:814–820.Google Scholar
  61. Lackey JR, Huckaby DG, Ormiston BG (1985) Peromyscus leucopus. Mammalian Species No. 247. Am Soc Mam. pp 1–10.Google Scholar
  62. Laubscher JA, Dutt GR, Roan CC (1971) Chlorinated insecticide residues in wildlife and soil as a function of distance from application. Pestic Monit J 5:251–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lincer JL (1972) The effects of organochlorines in the American kestrel (Falco sparverius Linn.). PhD Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. 96 pp.Google Scholar
  64. Lincer JL, Sherburne JA (1974) Organochlorines in kestrel prey: A north—south dichotomy. J Wildl Mgtnt 38:427–434.Google Scholar
  65. Linzey AV (1987) Effects of chronic polychlorinated biphenyls exposure on reproductive success of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 16:455–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ma W-C (1987) Heavy metal accumulation in the mole, Talpa europea,and earthworms as an indicator of metal bioavailability in terrestrial environments. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39:933–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Ma W-C (1989) Effect of soil pollution with metallic lead pellets on lead bioaccumulation and organ/body weight alterations in small mammals. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 18:617–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. McBee K (1985) Chromosomal aberrations in resident small mammals at a petrochemical waste dump site: a natural model for analysis of environmental mutagenesis. PhD Dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.Google Scholar
  69. McBee K, Bickham JW (1988) Petrochemical-related DNA damage in wild rodents detected by flow cytometry. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 40:343–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. McBee K, Bickham JW, Brown KW, Donnelly KC (1987) Chromosomal aberrations in native small mammals (Peromyscus leucopus and Sigmodon hispidus) at a petrochemical waste disposal site: I. Standard karyology. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 16:681–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Markham OD, Puphal KW, Filer TD (1978) Plutonium and americium contamination near a transuranic storage area in southeastern Idaho. J Environ Qual 7:422–428.Google Scholar
  72. Menzer RE, Nelson JO (1980) Chapter 25: Water and soil pollutants. In: Doull J et al. (eds) Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 2nd ed. Macmillan Publishing Co., new York. pp 497–531.Google Scholar
  73. Merritt JF (1981) Clethrionomys gapperi. Mammalian Species No. 146. Am Soc Mam. pp 1–9.Google Scholar
  74. Mierau GW, Favara BE (1975) Lead poisoning in roadside populations of deer mice. Environ Pollut 8:55–54.Google Scholar
  75. Mihok S, Schwartz B, Wiewel AM (1989) Bioconcentration of fallout ‘Cs by fungi and red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi).. Hlth Phys 57:959–966.Google Scholar
  76. Mouw D, Kalitis K, Anver M, Schwartz J, Constan A, Hartung R, Cohen B, Ringler D (1975) Lead: possible toxicity in urban vs rural rats. Arch Environ Hlth 30:276–280.Google Scholar
  77. Murphy SD (1980) Chapter 16: Pesticides. In: Doull J et al. (eds) Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York. pp 357–409.Google Scholar
  78. Nayak BN, Petras ML (1985) Environmental monitoring for genotoxicity: In vivo sister chromatid exchange in the house mouse (Mus musculus).. Can J Cytol 27:351–356.Google Scholar
  79. Nowak RM, Paradiso JL (1983) Walker’s mammals of the world, 4th ed., Vols I and II. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. MD.Google Scholar
  80. Quarles HD III, Hanawalt RB, Odum WE (1974) Lead in small mammals, plants, and soil at varying distances from a highway. J Appl Ecol 11:937–949.Google Scholar
  81. Rappe C, Ahborg UG, Aittola JP, Benestad C, Deneker L, Grove A, Hansson M, Jansson B, Johansson N, Montin S, Tysklind M (1989) Chlorinated dioxins and related compounds 1988: Combustion. Chemosphere 19:271–429.Google Scholar
  82. Rattner BA, Hoffman DJ, Marn CM (1989) Use of mixed-function oxygenases to monitor comtaminant exposure in wildlife. Environ Toxicol Chem 8:1093–1102.Google Scholar
  83. Reich LM (1981) Microtus pennsylvanicus. Mammalian species No. 159. Am Soc Mam. pp 1–8.Google Scholar
  84. Roberts RD, Johnson MS (1978) Dispersal of heavy metals from abandoned mine workings and their transference through terrestrial food chains. Environ Pollut 16:293–310.Google Scholar
  85. Roberts RD, Johnson MS, Hutton M (1978) Lead contamination of small mammals from abandoned metalliferous mines. Environ Pollut 15:61–69.Google Scholar
  86. Romney EM, Lindberg RG, Kinnear JE, Wood RA (1983) 90Sr and 137Cs in soil and biota of fallout areas in southern Nevada and Utah. Hlth Phys 45:643–650.Google Scholar
  87. Rowley MH, Christian JJ, Basu DK, Pawlikowski MA, Paigen B (1983) Use of small mammals (voles) to assess a hazardous waste site at Love Canal, Niagara Falls, New York. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 12:383–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Scanlon PF (1979) Lead contamination of mammals and invertebrates near highways with different traffic volumes. In: Animals as Monitors of Environmental Pollutants. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. pp 200–208.Google Scholar
  89. Scanlon PF, Kendall RJ, Lochmiller RL, Kirkpatrick RL (1983) Lead concentrations in pine voles from two Virginia orchards. Environ Pollut Ser B 6:157–169.Google Scholar
  90. Schlesinger WH, Potter GL (1974) Lead, copper, and cadmium concentrations in small mammals in the Hubbard Brook Experiment Forest. Oikos 25:148–152.Google Scholar
  91. Shacklette HT, Boerngen JG (1984) Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of the conterminous United States. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1270, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  92. Sharma RP, Shupe JL (1977) Lead, cadmium, and arsenic residues in animal tissues in relation to those in their surrounding habitat. Sci Total Environ 7:53–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Shugart L (1985) Quantitating exposure to chemical carcinogens: In vivo alkylation of hemoglobin by benzo[a]pyrene. Toxicology 34:211–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Silkworth JB, McMartin DN, Rej R, Narang RS, Stein VB, Briggs RG, Kaminsky LS (1984) Subchronic exposure of mice to Love Canal soil contaminants. Fund Appl Toxicol 4:231–239.Google Scholar
  95. Silkworth JB, Tumasonis C, Briggs RG, Narang AS, Narang RS, Rej R, Stein V, McMartin DN, Kaminsky LS (1986) The effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats. Fund Appl Toxicol 7:471–485.Google Scholar
  96. Spencer SR, Cameron GN (1982) Reithrodontomys fulvescens. Mammalian Species No. 174. Am Soc Mam. pp 1–7.Google Scholar
  97. Smith GJ, Rongstad OJ (1982) Small mammal heavy metal concentrations from mines and control sites. Environ Pollut 28:121–134.Google Scholar
  98. Smolen MJ (1981) Microtus pinetorum. Mammalian Species No. 147. Am Soc Mam. pp 1–7.Google Scholar
  99. Talmage SS (1989) Comparative evaluation of several small mammal species as monitors of heavy metals, radionuclides, and selected organic compounds in the environment. PhD dissertation. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.Google Scholar
  100. Terman CR, Huggett RJ (1980) Occurrence of kepone in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis) on Jamestown Island, Virginia. Environ Int 3:307–310.Google Scholar
  101. Thalken CE, Young AL (1981) Long-term field studies of a rodent population continuously exposed to TCDD. In: Tucker RE et al. (eds) Human and Environmental Risks of Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds. Plenum Press, New York. pp 357–372.Google Scholar
  102. Tice RR, Ormiston BG, Boucher R, Luke CA, Paquette DE (1987) Environmental biomonitoring with feral rodent species. In: Sandhu SS et al. (eds) Short-term Bioassays in the Analysis of Complex Mixtures. Plenum Press, New York, pp 175–180.Google Scholar
  103. Towner JW (1965) The effect of radioactive fallout at the Nevada test site on the chromosomes of the pocket mouse. Health Phys 44:1569–1571.Google Scholar
  104. Van Valin CC, Andrews AH, Eller LK (1968) Some effects of mirex on two warm water fishes. Trans Am Fish Soc 97:185–198.Google Scholar
  105. van den Brink FH (1968) A Guide to the Mammals of Britain and Europe. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  106. Walton KC (1985) Fluoride in bones of small rodents near an aluminium reduction plant (1985) Water Air Soil Pollut 26:65–70.Google Scholar
  107. Walton KC (1986) Fluoride in moles, shrews, and earthworms near an aluminium reduction plant. Environ Pollut Ser A 42:361–371.Google Scholar
  108. Watson MR, Stone WB, Okoniewski JC, Smith LM (1985) Wildlife as monitors of the movement of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorine compounds from a hazardous waste site. Trans Northeast Fish and Wildlife Conf held in Hartford, CT, May 5–8, pp 91–104.Google Scholar
  109. Watts CHS (1968) The foods eaten by wood mice and bank voles in Wytham Woods, Berks. J An Ecol 37:25–41.Google Scholar
  110. Way CA, Schroder GD (1982) Accumulation of lead and cadmium in wild populations of commensal rat, Rattus norvegicus. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 11:407–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Welch WR, Dick DL (1975) Lead concentrations in tissues of roadside mice. Environ Pollut 8:15–21.Google Scholar
  112. Westlake GE, Blunden CA, Brown PM, Bunyan PJ, Martin AD, Sayers PE, Stanley PI, Tarrant KA (1980) Residues and effects in mice after drilling wheat treated with chlorfenvinphos and an organomercurial fungicide. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 4:1–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Westlake GE, Bunyan PJ, Johnson JA, Martin AD, Stanley PI (1982) Biochemical effects in mice following exposure to wheat treated with chlorfenvinphos and carbophenothion under laboratory and field conditions. Pestic Biochem Physiol 18:49–56.Google Scholar
  114. Whitaker JO Jr (1974) Cryptotis parva. Mammalian Species No. 43. Am Soc Mam pp 1–8.Google Scholar
  115. Williamson P, Evans PR (1972) Lead: levels in roadside invertebrates and small mammals. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 8:280–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Wolfe JL, Norment BR (1973) Accumulation of mirex residues in selected organisms after an aerial treatment, Mississippi-1971–72. Pestic Monit J 7:112–116.Google Scholar
  117. Woolson EA (1983) Man’s pertubation of the arsenic cycle. In: Arsenic: industrial, biomedical, environmental perspectives, and proceedings of the arsenic symposium. Van Nostrand Reinhold, Gaithersburg, MD. pp 393–408.Google Scholar
  118. Wren CD (1986) Mammals as biological monitors of environmental metal levels. Environ Monit Assess 6:127–144.Google Scholar
  119. Wright DA, Davison AW, Johnson MS (1978) Fluoride accumulation by long-tailed field mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L.) and field voles (Microtus agrestis L.) from polluted environments. Environ Pollut 17:303–310.Google Scholar
  120. Zinkl JG, Roberts RB, Henny CJ, Lenhard DJ (1980) Inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity in forest birds and squirrels exposed to aerially applied acephate. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24:676–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sylvia S. Talmage
    • 1
  • Barbara T. Walton
    • 2
  1. 1.Health and Safety Research DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Environmental Sciences DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA

Personalised recommendations