Computer Simulation of Regional Evapotranspiration by Integrating Landscape Biophysical Attributes with Satellite Data

  • Steven W. Running


Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important link between the land-surface energy budget and hydrologic budget. The partitioning of incoming energy into sensible or latent heat substantially influences meteorology from local to global scales. The components of the hydrologie budget that control ET are fairly well understood at local scales (Shuttleworth, 1988). Measurement methods and models exist to describe adequately canopy interception, snowpack dynamics, soil water flux, and ET itself when treated as “point” processes. Even the biological control of ET, primarily manifested through leaf stomatal closure, is now understood reasonably well, and generalized treatment of environmental control functions is available (Jarvis and McNaughton, 1986). However, the challenge is to enlarge our perspective to GCM cell size, macrohydrology as termed by Shuttleworth (1988), which necessitates a new consideration of parameterization of large areas (Eagleson, 1986).


Leaf Area Index Vapor Pressure Deficit Elevation Correction Canopy Interception Canopy Conductance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. André JC et al. (1988) Evaporation over land surfaces: First results from HAPEX-MOBILHY special observing period. Ann Geophys 6:477–492.Google Scholar
  2. Asrar G, Myneni RB, Kanemasu ET (1989) Estimation of plant-canopy attributes from spectral reflectance measurements. In “Theory and Applications of Optical Remote Sensing” (G. Asrar, ed.), pp 252–296. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Band LE (1986) Topographic partition of watersheds with digital elevation models. Water Res Res 22:15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Band LE, Peterson DL, Running SW, Dungan J, Lathrop R, Coughlan J, Lammers R, Pierce L (1990) Forest ecosystem processes at the watershed scale: 1. Basis for distributed simulation. Ecol Model (in press).Google Scholar
  5. Becker F, Bolle H-J, Rowntree PR (1988) The International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project. United Nations Env. Prog. ISLSCP-Report #10.Google Scholar
  6. Bristow KL, Campbell GS (1984) On the relationship between incoming solar radiation and daily maximum and minimum temperature. Agric Forest Meteorol 31:159–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dickinson RE, Errico RE, Giorgi F, Bates GT (1989) A regional climate model for the western United States. Climatic Change 15:383–422.Google Scholar
  8. Eagleson PS (1986) The emergence of global-scale hydrology. Water Res Res 22.6S–14S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gamier BJ, Ohmura A (1968) A method of calculating the direct shortwave radiation income of slopes. J Appl Meteorol 7:796–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Goward SN (1988) Satellite bioclimatology. J Climate 7:710–720.Google Scholar
  11. Jarvis PG, McNaughton KG (1986) Stomatal control of transpiration: Scaling up from leaf to region. Adv Ecol Res 15:1–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lloyd CR, Gash JHC, Shuttlesworth WJ, De OMarques AF (1988) The measurement and modelling of rainfall interception by Amazonian rain forest. Agric Forest Meteorol 43:277–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nemani R, Running SW (1989a) Testing a theoretical climate-soil-leaf area hydrologie equilibrium of forests using satellite data and ecosystem simulation. Agric Forest Meteorol 44:245–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nemani R, Running SW (1989b) Estimating regional surface resistance to evapotranspiration from NDVI and Thermal-IR AVHRR data. J Appl Meteorol 28:276–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Peterson DL, Spanner MA, Running SW, Teuber KB (1987) Relationship of Thematic Mapper Simulator data to leaf area index of temperate coniferous forests. Remote Sens Environ 22:323–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Running SW (1990) Estimating terrestrial primary productivity by combining remote sensing and ecosystem simulation. In “Remote Sensing of Biosphere Functioning” (R. Hobbs, H. Mooney eds.). Springer-Verlag, New York p 65–86.Google Scholar
  17. Running SW, Coughlan JC (1988) A general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications. I. Hydrologie balance, canopy gas exchange and primary production processes. Ecol Model 41:125–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Running SW, Nemani RR (1988) Relating seasonal patterns of the AVHRR vegetation index to simulated photosynthesis and transpiration of forests in different climates. Remote Sens Environ 24:347–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Running SW, Nemani RR, Hungerford RD (1987) Extrapolation of synoptic meteorological data in mountainous terrain, and its use for simulating forest evapotranspiration and photosynthesis. Can J Forest Res 17:472–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Running SW, Nemani RR, Peterson DL, Band LE, Potts DF, Pierce LL, Spanner MA (1989) Mapping regional forest evapotranspiration and photosynthesis by coupling satellite data with ecosystem simulation. Ecology 70:1090–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Segal M, Avissar R, McCumber MC, Pielke RA (1988) Evaluation of vegetation effects on the generation and modification of mesoscale circulations. J Atmos Sci 45:2268–2292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sellers PJ (1985) Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis and transpiration. Int J Remote Sens 6:1335–1372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sellers PJ (1987) Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis and transpiration. II. The role of biophysics in the linearity of their interdependence. Remote Sens Environ 21:143–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sellers PJ, Hall FG, Asrar G, Strebel DE, Murphy RE (1988) The first ISLSCP field experiment (FIFE). Bull Am Meteorol Soc 69:22–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shuttleworth WJ (1988) Macrohydrology—The new challenge for process hydrology. J Hydrol 100:31–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven W. Running

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations