The Marine Mammal Ear: Specializations for Aquatic Audition and Echolocation

  • Darlene R. Ketten

Abstract

“Marine mammal” is a broad categorization for over 150 species that have one feature in common: the ability to function effectively in an aquatic environment. They have no single common aquatic ancestor and are distributed among four orders (see Appendix 1). Each group arose during the Eocene in either the temperate northern Pacific Ocean or in the Tethys Sea, a paleolithic body of water from which the Mediterranean and middle eastern limnetic basins were formed. Otariids (sea lions), odobenids (walrus), and marine fissipeds (sea otters) developed primarily in the Pacific, while the earliest cetacean (whale), sirenian (manatee and dugong), and phocid (true seal) fossils come from regions bordering Tethys Sea remnants (Kellogg 1936; Domning 1982; Barnes, Domning, and Ray 1985). The level of adaptation to the marine environment varies in marine mammals; many are amphibious and only the Cetacea and Sirenia are fully aquatic, unable to move, reproduce, or feed on land.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amundin M, Cranford T (1990) Forehead anatomy of Phocoena phocoena and Cephalorhynchus commersonii: 3-dimensional computer reconstructions with emphasis on the nasal diverticula. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds), Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  2. Au WWL (1990) Target detection in noise by echolocat-ing dolphins. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 203–216.Google Scholar
  3. Au WWL, Floyd RW, Penner RH, Murchison AE (1974) Measurement of echolocation signals of the Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphin Tursiops truncatus Montagu in open waters. J Acoust Soc Am 56:1280–1290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Awbrey FT (1990) Concluding comments on cetacean hearing and echolocation. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 427–433.Google Scholar
  5. Barnes LG and Mitchell E (1978) Cetacea. In: Maglio VJ, Cooke HBS (eds) Evolution of African Mammals. Cambridge: Harvard Univ Press, pp. 582–602.Google Scholar
  6. Barnes LG, Domning DP, Ray CE (1985) Status of studies on fossil marine mammals. Mar Mamm Sei 1:15–53.Google Scholar
  7. von Békésy G (1960) Experiments in Hearing. EG Wever (trans). New York: McGraw-Hill. Google Scholar
  8. Belkovich VM, Solntseva GN (1970) Anatomy and function of the ear in dolphins. US Gov Res Develop Rep 70(ll):275–282 (read as eng summ). Google Scholar
  9. Benham WB (1901) On the larynx of certain whales (Cogia (sic), Balaenoptera and Ziphius). Proc Zool Soc London 1:278–300.Google Scholar
  10. van Bergeijk WA (1967) The evolution of vertebrate hearing. In: Neff WD (ed) Contributions to Sensory Physiology, Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press, pp. 1–41.Google Scholar
  11. Boenninghaus G (1903) Das Ohr des Zahnwales zyugleich ein Beitrag zur Theorie der Schalleitung. Zool Gahrb (Anatomie) 17:189–360 (not read in original). Google Scholar
  12. Boyden A, Gemeroy D (1950) The relative position of the Cetacea among the orders of Mammalia as indicated by precipitation tests. Zoologica 35:145–151.Google Scholar
  13. Brill RL, Sevenich ML, Sullivan TJ, Sustman JD, Witt RE (1988) Behavioral evidence for hearing through the lower jaw by an echolocating dolphin, Tursiops truncatus. Mar Mamm Sei 4(3):223–230.Google Scholar
  14. Brown AM, Pye JD (1975) Auditory sensitivity at high frequencies in mammals. Adv Comp Physiol Biochem 6:1–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bruns V (1976) Peripheral Auditory Tuning for Fine Frequency Analysis by the CF-FM Bat, Rhinolophus fermmequinum: 1. Mechanical Specializations of the Cochlea. J Comp Physiol 106:77–86.Google Scholar
  16. Bruns V, Schmieszek ET (1980) Cochlear innervation in the greater horseshoe bat: Demonstration of an acoustic fovea. Hearing Res 3:27–43.Google Scholar
  17. Bullock TH, Gurevich VS (1979) Soviet literature on the nervous system and psychobiology of cetaceans. Int Rev Neurol 21:47–127.Google Scholar
  18. Bullock T, Ridgway S (1972) Evoked potentials in the central auditory system of alert porpoises to their own and artificial sounds. J Neurobiol 3:79–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bullock TH, Grinnell AD, Ikezono E, Kameda K, Katsuki Y, Nomoto M, Sato O, Suga N, Yanagisawa K (1968) Electrophysiological studies of central auditory mechanisms in cetaceans. Z vergl Physiol 59: 117–156.Google Scholar
  20. Clark CW (1990) Acoustic behavior of mysticete whales. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 571–584.Google Scholar
  21. Cummings WC, Thompson PO (1971) Underwater sounds from the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus. J Acoust Soc Am 50:1193–1198.Google Scholar
  22. Dahlheim M, Ljungblad DK (1990) Preliminary hearing study on gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in the field. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 335–346.Google Scholar
  23. Davis RA, Jr (1972) Principles of Oceanography. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  24. Dawson WW (1980) The Cetacean Eye. In: Herman LM (ed) Cetacean Behavior: Mechanisms and Functions. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  25. Diercks KJ, Trochta RT, Greenlaw RL, Evans WE (1971) Recording and analysis of dolphin echolocation signals. J Acoust Soc Am 49:1729–1732.Google Scholar
  26. Domning DP (1982) Evolution of manatees: a speculative history. J Paleontol 56:599–619.Google Scholar
  27. Dudok van Heel WH (1962) Sound and Cetacea. Neth J Sea Res 1:407–507.Google Scholar
  28. Edds PL (1982) Vocalizations of the blue whale, Balaenoptera musculus, in the St Lawrence Rivers. J Mamm 63(2):345–347.Google Scholar
  29. Edds PL (1988) Characteristics of finback, Balaenoptera physalus, vocalizations in the St Lawrence Estuary. Bioacoustics 1:131–149.Google Scholar
  30. Evans WE, Prescott JH (1962) Observations of the sound production capabilities of the bottlenose porpoise: A study of whistles and clicks. Zoologica 47:121–128.Google Scholar
  31. Feng W, Liang C, Wang J, Wang X (1990) Morphometric and Stereoscopic Studies on the Spiral and Vestibular Ganglia of Lipotes vexillifer (in press).Google Scholar
  32. Firbas W (1972) Über anatomische Anpassungen des Hörorgans an die Aufnahme hoher Frequenzen. Monatsschr Ohr Laryn-Rhinol 106:105–156.Google Scholar
  33. Fitzgerald E (1975) Dynamic mechanical measurements during the life to death transition in animal tissues. Biorheology 12:397–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fleischer G (1976) Hearing in extinct cetaceans as determined by cochlear structure. J Paleontol 50:133–152.Google Scholar
  35. Fleischer G (1978) Evolutionary principles of the mammalian middle ear. Adv Anat Embryol Cell Biol 55:1–70.Google Scholar
  36. Fordyce RE (1977) The development of the Circum Antarctic Current and the evolution of the Mysticeti (Mammalia:Cetacea). Palaeogeog Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 21:265–271.Google Scholar
  37. Fordyce RE (1980) Whale evolution and Oligocene southern ocean environments. Palaeogeog Palaeoclim Palaeoecol 31:319–336.Google Scholar
  38. Fraser F, Purves P (1954) Hearing in cetaceans. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist 2:103–116.Google Scholar
  39. Fraser F, Purves P (1960) Hearing in cetaceans: Evolution of the accessory air sacs in the structure and function of the outer and middle ear in recent cetaceans. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist 7:1–140.Google Scholar
  40. Gaskin DE (1976) The Evolution, Zoogeography, and Ecology of Cetacea. Ocean Mar Biol Annu Rev 14: 247–346.Google Scholar
  41. Gingerich PD, Russell DE (1981) Pakicetus inachus, A new Archaeocete (Mammalia Cetacea) from the early-middle Eocene Kuldana formation of Kohat (Pakistan). Cont Mus Paleont Univ of Mich 25:235–246.Google Scholar
  42. Gingerich PD, Wells NA, Russell DE, Shah SM (1983) Origin of Whales in Epicontinental remnant seas: New Evidence from the Early Eocene of Pakistan. Science 220:403–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gingerich PD, Smith BH, Simons EL (1990) Hind limbs of Eocene Basilosaurus: Evidence of feet in whales. Science 249:154–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Goodson AD, Klinowska M (1990) A proposed echo-location receptor for the bottlenose dolphin, (Tursiops truncatus): Modelling the receive directivity from tooth and lower jaw geometry. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: New York: Plenum Press, pp. 255–268. Google Scholar
  45. Gray O (1951) An introduction to the study of the comparative anatomy of the labyrinth. J Laryng Otol 65:681–703.Google Scholar
  46. Greenwood DG (1961) Critical bandwidth and the frequency coordinates of the basilar membrane. J Acoust Soc Am 33:1344–1356.Google Scholar
  47. Greenwood DG (1962) Approximate calculation of the dimensions of traveling-wave envelopes in four species. J Acoust Soc Am 34:1364–1384.Google Scholar
  48. Grinnell AD (1963) The neurophysiology of audition in bats: Intensity and frequency parameters. J Physiol 167:38–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hall J, Johnson CS (1971) Auditory thresholds of a killer whale, Orcinus orca Linnaeus. J Acoust Soc Am 51:515–517.Google Scholar
  50. Heffner R, Heffner H (1980) Hearing in the Elephant (Elephas maximus). Science 208:518–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Henry RW, Haldiman JT, Albert TF, Henk WG, Abdelbaki YZ, Duffield DW (1983) Gross anatomy of the respiratory system of the bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus. Anat Ree 207:435–449.Google Scholar
  52. Hinchcliffe R, Pye A (1968) The cochlea in Chiroptera: A quantitative approach. Int Audiol 7:259–266.Google Scholar
  53. Hinchcliffe R, Pye A (1969) Variations in the middle ear of the Mammalia. J Zool 157:277–288.Google Scholar
  54. Hosokawa H (1950) On the cetacean larynx with special remarks on the laryngeal sac of the sei whale and the aryteno-epiglottideal tube of the sperm whale. Sei Rep Whales Res Inst 3:23–62.Google Scholar
  55. Ishihara Y, Saito T, Ito Y, Fujino M (1958) Structure of sperm and sei whale insulins and their breakdown by whale pepsin. Nature 181:1468–1469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Iurato S (1962) Functional implications of the nature and submicroscopic structure of tectorial and basilar membranes. J Acoust Soc Am 34:1368–1395.Google Scholar
  57. Jansen J, Jansen JKS (1969) The nervous system of Cetacea. In: Anderson HT (ed) The Biology of Marine Mammals, New York: Academic Press, pp. 175–252.Google Scholar
  58. Johnson CS (1967) Sound detection thresholds in marine mammals. In: Tavolga WN (ed) Marine Bioacoustics. New York: Pergamon Press, 2:247–260. Google Scholar
  59. Johnson CS (1968) Masked tonal thresholds in the bot-tlenosed porpoise. J Acoust Soc Am 44:965–967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Kamminga CF, Engelsma FJ, Terry RP (1989) Acoustic observations and comparison on wild captive and open water Sotalia and Inia. Eighth Bienn Conf Biol Mar Mamm 33. Google Scholar
  61. Kastelein RA, Zweypfenning RCVJ, Spekreijse H (1990) Anatomical and histological characteristics of the eyes of a month-old and an adult harbor porpoise (Phocoena). In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 463–480.Google Scholar
  62. Kasuya T (1973) Systematic consideration of recent toothed whales based on the morphology of tympano-periotic bone. Sei Rep Whales Res Inst 25:1–103.Google Scholar
  63. Kellogg AR (1936) A Review of the Archeoceti. Carnegie Inst Wash Publ 482:1–366.Google Scholar
  64. Kellogg WN (1959) Auditory perception of submerged objects by porpoises. J Acoust Soc Am 31:1–6.Google Scholar
  65. Ketten DR (1984) Correlations of morphology with frequency for Odontocete cochlea: Systematics and Topology. PhD thesis, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  66. Ketten DR, Wartzok D (1990) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the dolphin cochlea. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 81–106.Google Scholar
  67. Kuzentzov VB (1990) Chemical sense of dolphins: quasi-olfaction. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 481–504.Google Scholar
  68. Leatherwood S, Caldwell DK, Winn H (1976) Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Western North Atlantic: A Guide to Their Identification. NOAA Tech Rpt NMFS Circ 396, US Dept of Comm NOAA NMFS Seattle, Wash. Google Scholar
  69. Leatherwood S, Reeves RR, Perrin WF, Evans WE (1982) Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises of the Eastern North Pacific and Adjacent Arctic Waters: A Guide to Their Identification. NOAA Tech Rpt NMFS Circ 444 US Dept of Comm NOAA NMFS Seattle, Wash. Google Scholar
  70. Lees S, Ahern JM, Leonard M (1983) Parameters influencing the sonic velocity in compact calcified tissues of various species. J Acoust Soc Am 74:28–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lipps JH, Mitchell ED (1976) Trophic model for the adaptive radiations and extinctions of pelagic marine mammals. Paleobiology 2:147–155.Google Scholar
  72. Lockyer C (1974) Investigation of the ear plug of the southern sei whale, Balaenoptera borealis, as a valid means of determining age. J Cons Int Explor Mer 36(1):71–81.Google Scholar
  73. Long GR (1980) Some psychophysical measurements of frequency in the greater horseshoe bat. In: van den Brink G, Bilsen F (eds) Psychophysical, Psychological and Behavioural Studies in Hearing. Delft: Delft University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Lowenstein JM (1987) Marine mammal evolution: The Molecular evidence. Sixth Bienn Conf Biol Mar Mamm 7:192.Google Scholar
  75. Mackay RS (1987) Whale heads and ray diagrams. Mar Mamm Sei 3(3):283–285.Google Scholar
  76. Mackay RS, Liaw HM (1981) Dolphin vocalization mechanisms. Science 212:676–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. McCormick JG (1972) The physiology of hearing in cetaceans. In: Ridgway SH (ed) Mammals of the Sea: Biology and Medicine. Springfield: Charles C Thomas, pp. 731–747.Google Scholar
  78. McCormick JG, Weaver EG, Palin G, Ridgway SH (1970) Sound conduction in the dolphin ear. J Acoust Soc Am 48:1418–1428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McCormick JG, Weaver EG, Harrill JA, Miller HE (1975) Anatomical and physiological adaptations of marine mammals for the prevention of diving induced middle ear barotrauma and round window fistula. J Acoust Soc Am 58 Suppl 1 p S88. Google Scholar
  80. McCormick JG, Wever EG, Ridgway SH, Palin J (1980) Sound reception in the porpoise as it relates to echolocation. In: Busnel R-G, Fish JF (eds) Animal Sonar Systems. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 449–467.Google Scholar
  81. McKenzie DP (1970) Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift. Endeavour 29:39–44.Google Scholar
  82. Mead JG (1975) Anatomy of the external nasal passages and facial complex in the Delphinidae (Mammalia:Cetacea). Smiths Contrib Zool 207:1–71.Google Scholar
  83. Miller GS (1923) The telescoping of the cetacean skull. Smithsonian Mise Coll 76:1–67.Google Scholar
  84. Mitchell ED (1989) A New cetacean from the late Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. Can J Fish Aquat Sei 46:2219–2235.Google Scholar
  85. Møhl B, Andersen S (1973) Echolocation: High-frequency component in the click of the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena L). J Acoust Soc Am 57: 1368–1372.Google Scholar
  86. Moore PWB, Pawloski DA (1990) Investigations on the control of echolocation pulses in the dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 305–316.Google Scholar
  87. Moore PWB, Au WWL (1983) Critical ratio and bandwidth of the Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) J Acoust Soc Am Suppl 1:74. Google Scholar
  88. Morgane PJ, Jacobs MS (1972) The comparative anatomy of the cetacean nervous system. In: Harrison RJ (ed) Functional Anatomy of Marine Mammals. New York: Academic Press, pp. 109–239.Google Scholar
  89. Norris J, Leatherwood K (1981) Hearing in the Bow-head Whale, Balaena mysticetus, as estimated by cochlear morphology. Hubbs Sea World Rsch Inst Tech Rpt no 81–132:151–1549.Google Scholar
  90. Norris KS (1964) Some problems of echolocation in cetaceans. In: Tavolga WN (ed) Marine Bio-Acoustics. New York: Pergamon Press, pp. 317–336.Google Scholar
  91. Norris KS (1968) The evolution of acoustic mechanisms in odontocete cetaceans, In: Drake ET (ed) Evolution and Environment, pp. 297–324.Google Scholar
  92. Norris KS (1969) The echolocation of marine mammals. In: Andersen HJ (ed) The Biology of Marine Mammals. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  93. Norris KS (1980) Peripheral sound processing in odontocetes. In: Busnel R-G, Fish JF (eds) Animal Sonar Systems. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 495–509.Google Scholar
  94. Norris KS, Harvey GW (1974) Sound transmission in the porpoise head. J Acoust Soc Am 56:659–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Norris KS, Prescott JH, Asa-Dorian PV, Perkins P (1961) An experimental demonstration of echolocation behavior in the porpoise, Tursiops truncatus Montagu. Biol Bull 120:163–176.Google Scholar
  96. Norris KS, Harvey GW, Burzell LA, Krishna Kartha DK (1972) Sound production in the freshwater porpoise, Sotalia cf fluviatilis Gervais and Deville and Inia geoffrensis Blainville, in the Rio Negro. Brazil Invest Cetacea 4:251–262.Google Scholar
  97. Oelschläger HA (1986a) Comparative morphology and evolution of the otic region in toothed whales, Cetacea, Mammalia. Am J Anat 177(3):353–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Oelschläger HA (1986b) Tympanohyal bone in toothed whales and the formation of the tympano-periotic complex (Mammalia: Cetacea). J Morphol 188:157–165.Google Scholar
  99. Oelschläger HA (1990) Evolutionary morphology and acoustics in the dolphin skull. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 137–162.Google Scholar
  100. Payne KB, Langbauer WJ, Jr, Thomas EM (1986) Infra-sonic cells of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Behav Ecol Soc Biol 18:297–301.Google Scholar
  101. Payne KB, Tyack P, Payne RS (1983) Progressive changes in the songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). In: Payne RS (ed) Communication and Behavior of Whales. AAAS Selected Symposium Series. Boulder: Westview Press, pp. 9–57. Google Scholar
  102. Pickles JO (1982) An Introduction to the Physiology of Hearing. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  103. Pilleri G (1983) The sonar system of the dolphins. Endeavour New Series 7(2):59–64.Google Scholar
  104. Pilleri G (1984) Concerning the ear of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros. Invest Cetacea 15:175–184.Google Scholar
  105. Pilleri G, Gihr M, Kraus C (1986) Evolution of the echolocation system in cetaceans, a contribution to paleoacoustics. Invest Cetacea 18:13–130.Google Scholar
  106. Pilleri G, Gihr M, Kraus C (1987) The organ of hearing in cetaceans 1: recent species. Invest Cetacea 20: 43–177.Google Scholar
  107. Pollak GD (1980) Organizational and encoding features of single neurons in the inferior colliculus of bats. In: Busnel R-G, Fish JF (eds) Animal Sonar Systems. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  108. Popov V, Supin A (1990a) Electrophysiological studies on hearing in some cetaceans and a manatee. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 405–416.Google Scholar
  109. Popov V, Supin A (1990b) Localization of the acoustic window at the dolphin’s head. In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evidence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 417–426.Google Scholar
  110. Popper AN (1980) Sound emission and detection by delphinids. In: Herman LM (ed) Cetacean Behavior: Mechanisms and Functions. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  111. Purves PE (1967) Anatomical and experimental obser-vations on the cetacean sonar system. In: Busnel RG (ed) Whales, Dolphins, Animal Sonar Systems: Biology and Bionics. Laboratoire de Physiologie Acoustique pp. 197–270.Google Scholar
  112. Purves PE, Pilleri GE (1983) Echolocation in Whales and Dolphins. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  113. Pye A (1972) Variations in the structure of the ear in dif-ferent mammalian species. Sound 6:14–18.Google Scholar
  114. Reysenbach de Haan FW (1956) Hearing in whales. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 134:1–114.Google Scholar
  115. Ridgway SH (1972) Mammals of the Sea: Biology and Medicine. Springfield: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  116. Ridgway SH (1980) Electrophysiological experiments on hearing in odontocetes. In: Busnel R-G, Fish JF (eds) Animal Sonar Systems. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  117. Ridgway SH, McCormick JG (1967) Anesthetization of porpoises for major surgery. Science 158:510–512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Ridgway SH, McCormick JG, Wever EG (1974) Surgical approach to the dolphin’s ear. J Exp Zool 188: 265–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Ridgway SH, Bullock TH, Carder DA, Seeley RL, Woods D, Galambos R (1981) Auditory brainstem response in dolphins. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 78(3): 1943–1947.Google Scholar
  120. Sales G, Pye D (1974) Ultrasonic Communication by Animals. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  121. Schevill WE, Watkins WA (1966) Sound structure and directionality in Orcinus (killer whale). Zoologica 51:71–76.Google Scholar
  122. Schnitzler HU (1983) Fluttering target detection in horseshoe bats. J Acoust Soc Am 74:Suppl 1 S31–S32.Google Scholar
  123. Schuknecht HF (1974) Pathology of the Ear. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Schuknecht HF, Gulya AJ (1986) Anatomy of the Temporal Bone with Surgical Implications. Philadelphia: Lea and Feibiger.Google Scholar
  125. Silber GK (1986) The relationships of social vocalizations to surface behavior and aggression in the Hawaiian humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Can J Zool 64:2075–2080.Google Scholar
  126. Simmons JA (1973) The Resolution of target range by echolocating bats. J Acoust Soc Am 54:157–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Solntseva GN (1971) Comparative anatomical and histological characteristics of the structure of the external and inner ear of some dolphins. Tr Atl Nauchno Issled Inst Rybn Khoz Okeanogr (read as eng summ). Google Scholar
  128. Solntseva GN (1975) Morphofunctional aspects of the hearing organ in terrestrial semi-aquatic and aquatic mammals. Zool Zh 54(10): 1529–1539 (read as eng summ). Google Scholar
  129. Solntseva GN (1987) Direction of the evolutionary transformations of the peripheral portion of the acoustic analyzer in mammals from different habitats. Zh Obshch Biol 48(3):403–410 (read as eng summ). PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Suga N (1983) Neural representation of bisonar (sic) information in the auditory cortex of the mustached bat. J Acoust Soc Am 74(S1):31. Google Scholar
  131. Sukhoruchenko MN (1973) Frequency discrimination of dolphin (Phocoena phocoena). Fiziol Ah SSSR im IM Sechenova. 59:1205 (read as eng summ). Google Scholar
  132. Sukhovskaya LI, Yablokov AV (1979) Morphofunctional characteristics of the larynx in balaenopteridae. Invest Cetacea 10:205–214.Google Scholar
  133. Thomas J, Chun N, Au W (1988) Underwater audiogram of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens). J Acoust Soc Am 84:936–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Thomas JA, Pawloski JL, Au WWL (1990) Masked hearing abilities in a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens). In: Thomas JA, Kastelein RA (eds) Sensory Abilities of Cetaceans: Laboratory and Field Evi-dence. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 395–404.Google Scholar
  135. Thompson RKR, Herman LM (1975) Underwater frequency discrimination in the bottlenose dolphin (1–140 kHz) and in human (1–8 kHz). J Acoust Soc Am 57:943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Thompson TJ, Winn HE, Perkins PJ (1979) Mysticete Sounds, In: Winn HE, Olla BL (eds) Behavior of Marine Animals, Current Perspectives in Research Volume 3: Cetaceans. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 403–431.Google Scholar
  137. Van W, Utrecht L (1981) Comparison of accumulation patterns in layered dentinal tissue of some Odontoceti and corresponding patterns in baleen plates and ear plugs of balaenopteridae. Beaufortia 31(6): 111–122.Google Scholar
  138. Varnassi U, Malins DG (1971) Unique lipids of the porpoise (Tursiops gilli): Differences in triacyl glycerols and wax esters of acoustic (mandibular canal and melon) and blubber tissues. Biochem Biophys Acta 231:415.Google Scholar
  139. Voronov VA, Stosman IM (1977) Frequency-threshold characteristics of subcortical elements of the auditory analyzer of the Phocoena phocoena porpoise. Zh Evol Biokh I Fiziol 6:719.Google Scholar
  140. Watkins WA (1981) The activities and underwater sounds of fin whales. Sei Rep Whales Res Inst 33: 83–117.Google Scholar
  141. Watkins WA, Wartzok D (1985) Sensory biophysics of marine mammals. Mar Mamm Sei 3:219–260.Google Scholar
  142. Watkins WA, Tyack P, Moore KE, Bird JE (1987) The 20 Hz signals of finback whales (Balaenoptera physalus). J Acoust Soc Am 82:1901–1912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. West CD (1985) The relationship of the spiral turns of the cochlea and the length of the basilar membrane to the range of audible frequencies in ground dwelling mammals. J Acoust Soc Am 77(3): 1091–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Weston DE, Black RI (1965) Some unusual low-frequency biological noises underwater. Deep Sea Res 12:295–298.Google Scholar
  145. Wever EG, McCormick JG, Palin J, Ridgway SH (1971a) The cochlea of the dolphin, Tursiops truncatus: General Morphology. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 68(10):2381–2385.Google Scholar
  146. Wever EG, McCormick JG, Palin J, Ridgway SH (197lb) The cochlea of the dolphin Tursiops truncatus: The basilar membrane. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 68(11):2708–2711. Google Scholar
  147. Wever EG, McCormick JG, Palin J, Ridgway SH (1971c) The cochlea of the dolphin Tursios truncatus: Hair cells and ganglion cells. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 68(12):2908–2912.Google Scholar
  148. Wever EG, McCormick JG, Palin J, Ridgway SH (1972) Cochlear structure in the dolphin Lageno-rhynchus obliquidens. Proc Natl Acad Sei USA 69: 657–661.Google Scholar
  149. Wood FG, Evans WE (1980) Adaptiveness and ecology of echolocation in toothed whales. In: Busnel R-G, Fish JF (eds) Animal Sonar Systems. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  150. Yamada M (1953) Contribution to the anatomy of the organ of hearing of whales. Sei Rep Whales Res Inst 8:1–79.Google Scholar
  151. Yeowart NS (1976) Thresholds of Hearing and Loudness for very low frequencies. In: Tempest W (ed) Infra-sound and Low Frequency Vibration. London: Academic Press, pp. 37–64.Google Scholar
  152. Zwislocki J (1981) Sound analyses in the ear: A history of discoveries. Am Sei 69:184–192.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Darlene R. Ketten

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations