Fate and Effects of Acrolein

  • David P. Ghilarducci
  • Ronald S. Tjeerdema

Abstract

Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is a highly reactive, irritating chemical derived from a variety of sources. It occurs as a product of organic pyrolysis, a metabolite of various compounds, a reaction intermediate, a contaminant in some foods and drinks, and a residue in water when used for the control of aquatic plants, algae, bacteria, and mollusks (Izard and Libermann 1978). Valued for its lacrimatory and vesicant properties, it was used by the French during World War I as the warfare agent “papite.” Highly flammable, and with a pungent, choking, disagreeable odor, acrolein is capable of spontaneous polymerization, and therefore it can be difficult to handle.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams JD Jr, Klaidman LK (1993) Acrolein-induced oxygen radical formation. Free Radical Biol Med 15 (2): 187–193.Google Scholar
  2. Alarcon RA (1970) Evidence for the formation of the cytotoxic aldehyde acrolein from enzymatically oxidized spermine or spermidine. Arch Biochem Biophys 137: 365–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alarcon RA (1976) Formation of acrolein from various amino-acids and polyamines under degradation at 100 °C. Environ Res 12 (3): 317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Altshuller AP, McPherson SP (1963) Spectrophotometric analysis of aldehydes in the Los Angeles atmosphere. J Air Pollut Control Assoc 13: 109–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) (1990) 1990–1991 Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Cincinnati, OH.Google Scholar
  6. American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) (1963) Acrolein. Hygiene guide series. American Industrial Hygiene Association, Detroit, MI.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson KJ, Leighty EG (1972) Evaluation of herbicides for possible mutagenic properties. J Agric Food Chem 20: 649–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Anonymous (1982) Carbide restarting Taft plant following fire. Chem Eng News 60 (51): 8.Google Scholar
  9. Anonymous (1992) Carbide to expand acrolein production. Chem Eng News 70 (23): 16.Google Scholar
  10. Artho A, Koch R (1969) The concentration of acrolein and hydrogen cyanide in cigarette smoke. Mitt Geb Lebensmittelunters Hyg 60: 49–54.Google Scholar
  11. Ashton FM, Crafts AS (1981) Mode of Action of Herbicides, 2nd ed. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Astry CL, Jakab GJ (1983) The effects of acrolein exposure on pulmonary antibacterial defenses. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 67 (4): 49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Atkinson R, Aschmann SM, Winer AM, Pitts JN (1981) Rate constants for the gas phase reactions of O3 with a series of carbonyls at 296 K. Int J Chem Kinet 13: 1133–1150.Google Scholar
  14. Atkinson R, Aschmann SM, Goodman MA (1987) Kinetics of the gas phase reactions of NO3 radicals with a series of alkynes, halcalkenes, and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. Int J Chem Kinet 19: 299–307.Google Scholar
  15. Atzori L, Dore M, Congiu L (1989) Aspects of allyl alcohol toxicity. Drug Metab Drug Interact 7 (4): 295–319.Google Scholar
  16. Baker RR, Dymond HF, Shillabeer PK (1984) Determination of α,β-unsaturated compounds formed by a burning cigarette. Anal Proc 21: 135–137.Google Scholar
  17. Ballantyne B, Dodd DE, Pritts IM, Nachreiner DJ, Fowler EH (1989) Acute vapour inhalation toxicity of acrolein and its influence as a trace contaminant in 2methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran. Hum Toxicol 8 (3): 229–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Barros AR, Sierra LM, Comendador MA (1994) Acrolein genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. III. Effects of metabolism modification. Mutat Res 321 (3): 119–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Barrows ME, Petrocelli SR, Macek KJ, Carroll JJ (1980) Bioconcentration and elimination of selected water pollutants by bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). In: Proceedings of 1978 Symposium on Dynamics, Exposure, and Hazard Assessment of Toxic Chemicals. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 379–392.Google Scholar
  20. Bartley TR, Gangstad EO (1974) Environmental aspects of aquatic plant control. J Irrig Drain Div 100: 231–244.Google Scholar
  21. Beauchamp RO Jr, Andjelkovich DA, Kligerman AD, Morgan KT, Heck HD (1985) A critical review of the literature on acrolein toxicity. Crit Rev Toxicol 14 (4): 309–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Beeley JM, Crow J, Jones JG, Minty B (1986) Mortality and lung histopathology after inhalation lung injury. The effect of corticosteroids. Am Rev Respir Dis 133: 191–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. BenJebria A, Marthan R, Rossetti M, Savineau JP, Ultman JS (1993) Effect of in vitro exposure to acrolein on carbachol responses in rat trachealis muscle. Respir Phy siol 93 (1): 111–123.Google Scholar
  24. Biagini RE, Toraason MA, Lynch DW, Winston GW (1990) Inhibition of rat heart mitochondrial electron transport in vitro: implications for the cardiotoxic action of allylamine or its primary metabolite, acrolein. Toxicology 62 (1): 95–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Bignami M, Cardamone G, Comba VA (1977) Relationship between chemical structure and mutagenic activity in some pesticides. The use of Salmonella typhimurium and Aspergillus nidulans. Mutat Res 46: 243–244.Google Scholar
  26. Boor PJ, Hysmith RM, Sanduja R (1990) A role for a new vascular enzyme in the metabolism of xenobiotic amines. Circ Res 66 (1): 249–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bouley G, Dubreuil A, Godin J, Boudene C (1975) Effects in the rat of a weak dose of acrolein inhaled continuously. Eur J Toxicol Environ Hyg 8 (5): 291–297 (in French).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Bouley G, Dubreuil A (1976) Phenomena of adaptation in rats continuously exposed to low concentrations of acrolein. Ann Occup Hyg 19: 27–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bowmer KH, Lang ARG, Higgins ML, Pillay AR, Tchan YT (1974) Loss of acrolein from water by volatilization and degradation. Weed Res 14 (5): 325–328.Google Scholar
  30. Bowmer KH, Higgins ML (1976) Some aspects of the persistence and fate of acrolein herbicide in water. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 5: 87–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Bowmer KH, Sainty GR (1977) Management of aquatic plants with acrolein. J Aquat Plant Manage 15: 40–46.Google Scholar
  32. Bowmer KH, Smith GH (1984) Herbicides for injection into flowering water: Acrolein and endothal-amine. Weed Res 24 (3): 201–211.Google Scholar
  33. Bridie AL, Wolff CJM, Winter M (1979a) The acute toxicity of some petrochemicals to goldfish. Water Res 13: 623–626.Google Scholar
  34. Bridie AL, Wolff CJM, Winter M (1979b) BOD and COD of some petrochemicals. Water Res 13: 627–630.Google Scholar
  35. Callahan MA (1980) Water–related environmental fate of 129 priority pollutants. EPA–440/4–79–029a,b. Office of Water Planning and Standards, Office of Water and Waste Management, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  36. Chhibber G, Gilani SH (1986) Acrolein and embryogenesis: An experimental study. Environ Res 39 (1): 44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Chraiber LB, Sosnovsky SI, Tatarkin YN, Vinnikova LI (1964) Air pollution with acrolein vapors in expeller and forepress shops of butter and fat mills of Uzbekistan. Gig Tr Prof Zabol 1 (11): 49–50 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  38. Claussen U, Hellmann W (1980) The embryotoxicity of the cyclophosphamide metabolite acrolein in rabbits, tested in vivo by i.v. injection and by the yolk sac method. Arzneim-Forsch 30: 2080–2083.Google Scholar
  39. Cohen SM, Garland EM, St. John M, Okamura T, Smith RA (1992) Acrolein initiates rat urinary bladder carcinogenesis. Cancer Res 52(13): 3577–3581.Google Scholar
  40. Committee on Aldehydes (1981) Formaldehyde and other Aldehydes. Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards, Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC, pp 234–241.Google Scholar
  41. Committee on Indoor Pollutants (1981) Indoor Pollutants. Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards, Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  42. Coomber JW, Pitts JN (1969) Molecular structure and photochemical reactivity. XII. The vapor phase photochemistry of acrolein at 3130 A. J Am Chem Soc 91: 547–550.Google Scholar
  43. Cooper KO, Witmer CM, Witz G (1987) Inhibition of microsomal cytochrome creductase activity by a series of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. Biochem Pharmacol 36: 627–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Costa DL, Kutzman RS, Lehmann JR, Drew RT (1986) Altered lung function and structure in the rat after subchronic exposure to acrolein. Am Rev Respir Dis 133 (2): 286–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Crane CR (1986) Inhalation toxicology. VII. Times to incapacitation and death for rats exposed continuously to atmospheric acrolein vapor. DOT/FAA/AM-86/5. Office of Aviation Medicine, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  46. Crane CR, Sanders DC, Endecott BR (1989) Inhalation toxicology. X. Times to incapacitation for rats exposed continuously to carbon monoxide, acrolein, and to carbon monoxide-acrolein mixtures. DOT/FAA/AM-90/15. Office of Aviation Medicine, U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  47. Curren RD, Yang LL, Conklin PM, Grafström RC, Harris CC (1988) Mutagenesis of xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts by acrolein. Mutat Res 209 (1–2): 17–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Darley EF, Middleton JT, Garber MJ (1960) Plant damage and eye irritation from ozone-hydrocarbon reactions. J Agric Food Chem 8 (6): 483–485.Google Scholar
  49. Dennis KJ, Shibamoto T (1990) Gas chromatographic analysis of reactive carbonyl compounds formed from lipids upon UV-irradiation. Lipids 25 (8): 460–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Dharurkar RD, Dnyansagar VR (1974) The effect of herbicides on root tip mitosis in water hyacinth. Hyacinth Control J 12: 26–29.Google Scholar
  51. Dost FN (1991) Acute toxicology of components of vegetation smoke. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 119: 1–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Draminski W, Eder E (1983) A new pathway of acrolein metabolism in rats. Arch Toxicol 52: 243–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dypbukt JM, Sundqvist K, Grafström RC (1986) Aldehyde-induced cytotoxicity in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells. In: Proceedings of Scandinavian Society for Cell Toxicology Congress on Toxicity Testing in Cellular Systems (Lysebu, Norway) 14 (3): 146–150.Google Scholar
  54. Dypbukt JM, Atzori L, Edman CC, Grafström RC (1993) Thiol status and cytopathological effects of acrolein in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum skin fibroblasts. Carcinogenesis 14 (5): 975–980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Earl LK, Kesingland K, Davis KP, Brocklehurst SR, Jones HB (1992) Allylamine toxicity in embryonic myocardial myocyte reaggregate culturesl the role of extra-cellular metabolism by benzylamine oxidase. In Vitro Toxicol 6 (5): 405–416.Google Scholar
  56. Eder E, Hoffman C, Bastian H, Deininger C, Scheckenbach S (1990) Molecular mechanisms of DNA damage initiated by α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds as criteria for genotoxicity and mutagenicity. Environ Health Perspect 88: 99–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Edney EO, Mitchell S, Bufalini JJ (1982) Atmospheric chemistry of several toxic compounds. EPA–600/S3–82–092. Environmental Sciences Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  58. Edney EO, Kleindienst TE, Corse EW (1986a) Room temperature rate constants for the reaction of OH with selected chlorinated and oxygenated compounds. Int J Chem Kinet 18: 1355–1371.Google Scholar
  59. Edney EO, Shepson PB, Kleindienst TE, Corse EW (1986b) The photooxidation of allyl chloride. Int J Chem Kinet 18: 597–608.Google Scholar
  60. Egle JL Jr, Hudgins PM (1972) Retention of inhaled formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and acrolein in the dog. Arch Environ Health 25: 119–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Egle JL Jr, Hudgins PM (1973) Cardiovascular effects of intravenous acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde in the anesthesized rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 24: 636–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ericsson AC, Walum E (1987) Differential effects of allyl alcohol on hepatocytes and fibroblasts demonstrated in roller chamber co-cultures. In: Proceedings of Scandinavian Society for Cell Toxicology Congress on Toxicity Testing in Cellular Systems (Espoo, Finland) 15 (3): 208–212.Google Scholar
  63. Facchini MC, Chiavari G, Fuzzi S (1986) An improved method for carbonyl com- pound speciation in the atmospheric liquid phase. Chemosphere 15: 667–674.Google Scholar
  64. Facchini MC, Chiavari G, Fuzzi S (1987) Analysis of carbonyl compounds in the atmospheric liquid phase. In: Angeletti G, Restelli G (eds) Physico-chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants: Proceedings of 4th European Symposium. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA.Google Scholar
  65. Fischer T, Weber A, Grandjean E (1978) Air pollution due to tobacco smoke in restaurants. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 41: 267–280 (in German).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Foiles PG, Akerkar SA, Chung FL (1989) Application of an immunoassay for cyclic acrolein deoxyguanosine adducts to assess their formation in DNA of Salmonella typhimurium under conditions of mutation induction by acrolein. Carcinogenesis 10 (1): 87–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Foiles PG, Akerkar SA, Miglietta LM, Chung FL (1990) Formation of cyclic deoxyguanosine adducts in Chinese hamster ovary cells by acrolein and crotonaldehyde. Carcinogenesis 11 (11): 2059–2061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Folmar LC (1977) Acrolein, dalapon, dichlobenil, diquat, and endothal: bibliography of toxicity to aquatic organisms. Tech. Paper 88. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  69. Fracchia MF, Schuette FJ, Mueller PK (1967) A method for sampling and determination of organic carbonyl compounds in automobile exhaust. Environ Sci Techno 11: 915–922.Google Scholar
  70. Fritz-Sheridan RP (1982) Impact of the herbicide Magnacide-H (2-propenal) on algae. Bull Environn Contam Toxico 128: 245–249.Google Scholar
  71. Fry JR, Fentem JH, Salim A, Tang SP, Garle MJ, Whiting DA (1993) Structural requirements for the direct and cytochrome P450-dependent reaction of cyclic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with glutathione: a study with coumarin and related compounds. J Pharm Pharmacol 45 (3): 166–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Goulding E, Kitchin K, Schmid BP, Sanyal MK (1981) Assessment of the teratogenic potential of acrolein and cyclophosphamide in a rat embryo culture system. Toxicology 22 (3): 235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Graedel TE, Farrow LA, Weber TA (1976) Kinetic studies of the photochemistry of the urban troposphere. Atmos Environ 10: 1095–1116.Google Scholar
  74. Graedel TE (1978) Chemical Compounds in the Atmosphere. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  75. Grosjean D, Wright B (1983) Carbonyls in urban fog, ice fog, cloudwater, and rainwater. Atmos Environ 17: 2093–2096.Google Scholar
  76. Grosjean D, Williams EL (1992) Environmental persistence of organic compounds estimated from structure-reactivity and linear free-energy relationships. Unsaturated aliphatics. Atmos Environ 26A (8): 1395–1405.Google Scholar
  77. Guicherit R, Schulting FL (1985) The occurrence of organic chemicals in the atmosphere of the Netherlands. Sci Total Environ 43: 193–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gurka DF, Pyle SM, Titus R (1992) Environmental analysis by direct aqueous injection. Anal Chem 64 (17): 1749–1754.Google Scholar
  79. Haas BM, Minton TK, Felder P, Huber JR (1991) Photodissociation of acrolein and propynal at 193 nm in a molecular beam. Primary and secondary reactions. J Phys Chem 95 (13): 5149–5159.Google Scholar
  80. Hales BF (1982) Comparison of the mutagenicity and teratogenicity of cyclophosphamide and its active metabolites, 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, phosphoramide mustard, and acrolein. Cancer Res 42: 3016–3021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hales BF (1989) Effects of phosphoramide mustard and acrolein, cytotoxic metabolites of cyclophosphamide, on mouse limb development in vitro. Teratology 40 (1): 11–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hales CA, Barkin PW, Jung W, Trautman E, Lamborghini D, Herrig N, Burke J (1988) Synthetic smoke with acrolein but not HC1 produces pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol 64 (3): 1121–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hales CA, Musto SW, Janssens S, Jung W, Quinn DA, Witten M (1992) Smoke aldehyde component influences pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol 72 (2): 555–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hallgren C, Levin JO, Andersson K, Nilsson CA (1981) Solid chemosorbent for sampling sub-ppm levels of acrolein and glutaraldehyde in air. Chemosphere 10 (3): 275.Google Scholar
  85. Heinonen T, Zitting A (1980) Decrease of reduced glutathione in isolated rat hepatocytes caused by acrolein, acrylonitrile, and the thermal degradation products of styrene copolymers. Toxicology 17 (3): 333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hirayama T, Miura S, Murai J, Watanabe T (1990) Determination of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in oxidized lipid by a 2,4-diaminotoluene (DAT) fluorescence method as a new evaluation method for lipid oxidation. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi [J Food Hyg Soc Jpn] 31 (6): 508–512.Google Scholar
  87. Hoffmann D, Brunnemann KD, Gori GB, Wynder EL (1975) On the carcinogenicity of marijuana smoke. Recent Adv Phytochem 9: 63–81.Google Scholar
  88. Hoffmann D, Melikian AA, Brunnemann KD (1991) Studies in tobacco carcinogenesis. IARC Sci Publ 105: 482–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Horvath JJ, Witmer CM, Witz G (1992) Nephrotoxicity of the 1:1 acrolein-glutathione adduct in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 117 (2): 200–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Howard PH (1989) Handbook of Environmental Fate and Exposure Data for Organic Chemicals. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI.Google Scholar
  91. Huber GL, First MW, Grubner O(1991) Marijuana and tobacco smoke gas-phase cytotoxins. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 40 (3): 629–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Hugod C, Hawkins LH, Astrup P (1978) Exposure of passive smokers to tobacco smoke constituents. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 42: 21–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (1985) Allyl compounds, aldehydes, epoxides, and peroxides. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum 36: 133–161.Google Scholar
  94. Ishino T, Yoneda H (1986) Comprehensive study on the environmental air pollution substances from all working processes of a foundry. Kinki Daigaku Kankyo Kagaku Kenkyusho Kenkyu Hokoku ( Research Report of the Environmental Science Research Institute, Kinki University ) 14: 53–60.Google Scholar
  95. Izard C, Libermann C (1978) Acrolein. Mutat Res 47: 115–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Jakab GJ (1993) The toxicologic interactions resulting from inhalation of carbon black and acrolein on pulmonary antibacterial and antiviral defenses. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 121 (2): 167–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Jankovic J, Jones W, Burkhart J, Noonan G (1991) Environmental study of firefighters. Ann Occup Hyg 35 (6): 581–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Johnstone DE, Sodeau JR (1992) Photochemistry of the matrix-isolated α,β-unsaturated aldehydes acrolein, methacrolein, and crotonaldehyde at 4.2 K. J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 88 (3): 409–415.Google Scholar
  99. Jonsson A, Berg S (1983) Determination of low-molecular-weight oxygenated hydrocarbons in ambient air by cryogradient sampling and two-dimensional gas chromatography. J Chromatogr 279: 307–322.Google Scholar
  100. Kane LE, Alarie Y (1977) Sensory irritation to formaldehyde and acrolein during single and repeated exposures in mice. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 38: 509–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kankaanpaa J, Elovaara E, Hemminki K, Vainio H (1979) Embryotoxicity of acro-lein, acrylonitrile, and acrylamide in developing chick embryos. Toxicol Lett 4: 93–96.Google Scholar
  102. Kaye CM (1973) Biosynthesis of mercapturic acids from allyl alcohol, allyl esters, and acrolein. Biochem J 134: 1093–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Kissel CL, Brady JL, Guerra AM, Pau JK, Rockie BA, Caserio FF Jr (1978) Analysis of acrolein in aged aqueous media. Comparison of various analytical methods with bioassays. J Agric Food Chem 26 (6): 1338–1343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Koerker RL, Berlin A, Schneider FH (1976) The cytotoxicity of short-chain alcohols and aldehydes in cultured neuroblastoma cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 37: 281–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Krill RM, Sonzogni WC (1986) Chemical monitoring of Wisconsin’s groundwater. J Am Water Works Assoc 78: 70–75.Google Scholar
  106. Kroschwitz JI (ed) (1991) Encylopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th ed. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  107. Kruysse A (1971) Acute inhalation toxicity of acrolein in hamsters. Rept R 3516. Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research TNO, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  108. Kruysse A, Feron VJ (1977) Effects of exposure to acrolein vapor in hamsters simultaneously treated with benzo[a]pyrene or diethylnitrosamine. J Toxicol Environ Health 3 (3): 379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Kutzman RS, Popenoe EA, Schmaeler M, Drew RT (1985) Changes in rat lung structure and composition as a result of subchronic exposure to acrolein. Toxicology 34 (2): 139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Kutzman RS, Wehner RW, Haber SB (1986) The impact of inhaled acrolein on hypertension-sensitive and resistant rats. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 6 (5–6): 97–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Kuwata K, Uebori M, Yamasaki H, Kuge Y, Kiso Y (1983) Determination of aliphatic aldehydes in air by liquid chromatography. Anal Chem 55: 2013–2016.Google Scholar
  112. Lagrue G, Branellec A, Lebargy F (1993) Toxicology of tobacco. Rev Prat 43 (10): 1203–1207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Lane RH, Smathers JL (1991) Monitoring aldehyde production during frying by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 74 (6): 957–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Lash LH, Woods EB (1991) Cytotoxicity of alkylating agents in isolated rat kidney proximal tubular and distal tubular cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 286 (1): 46–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lea RG, Daya S, Clark DA (1990) Identification of low molecular weight immunosuppressor molecules in human in vitro fertilization supernatants predictive of implantation as a polyamine—possibly spermine. Fertil Steril 53 (5): 875–881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Leach PW, Leng LJ, Bellar TA, Sigsby JE, Altshuller AP (1964) Effects of HC/ NOx ratios on irradiated auto exhaust, part II. J Air Pollut Control Assoc 14: 176–183.Google Scholar
  117. Lederer WH (1985) Regulatory chemicals of health and environmental concern. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp 4–5.Google Scholar
  118. Lee BP, Morton RF, Lee LY (1992) Acute effects of acrolein on breathing: role of vagal bronchopulmonary afferents. J Appl Physiol 72 (3): 1050–1056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Leffingwell CM, Low RB (1979) Cigarette smoke components and alveolar macrophage protein synthesis. Arch Environ Health 34 (2): 97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Leikauf GD, Doupnik CA, Leming LM, Wey HE (1989a) Sulfidopeptide leukotrienes mediate acrolein-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness. J Appl Physiol 66 (4): 1838–1845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Leikauf GD, Leming LM, O’Donnell JR, Doupnik CA (1989b) Bronchial responsiveness and inflammation in guinea pigs exposed to acrolein. J Appl Physiol 66 (1): 171–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Le Lacheur RM, Sonnenberg LB, Singer PC, Christman RF, Charles MJ (1993) Identification of carbonyl compounds in environmental samples. Environ Sci Technol 27 (13): 2745–2753.Google Scholar
  123. Lessard PC, Rosenfeld RN (1992) Tunable diode laser measurements of CO energy distributions from acrolein photodissociation at 193 nm. J Phys Chem 96 (11): 4615–4620.Google Scholar
  124. Levaggi DA, Feldstein M (1970) The determination of formaldehyde, acrolein, and low molecular weight aldehydes in industrial emissions on a single collection sample. J Air Pollut Control Assoc 20: 312–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Lewis RJ (ed) (1993) Hawley’s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p 18.Google Scholar
  126. Lipari F, Swarin SJ (1982) Determination of formaldehyde and other aldehydes in automobile exhaust with an improved 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method. J Chromatogr 247: 297–306.Google Scholar
  127. Lipari F, Dasch JM, Scruggs WF (1984) Aldehyde emissions from wood-burning fireplaces. Environ Sci Technol 18: 326–330.Google Scholar
  128. Loefroth G, Burton RM, Forehand L, Hammond SK, Seila RL, Zweidinger RB, Lewtas J (1989) Characterization of environmental tobacco smoke. Environ Sci Technol 23 (5): 610–614.Google Scholar
  129. Lorz HW, Glenn SW, Williams RH, Kunkel CM, Norris LA, Loper BR (1979) Effects of selected herbicides on smolting of Coho salmon. EPA–600/3–79–071. Corvallis Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR.Google Scholar
  130. Lyman WJ, Reehl WF, Rosenblatt DH (1982) Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods: Environmental Behavior of Organic Compounds. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  131. Mabey WR (1982) Aquatic fate process data for organic priority pollutants. EPA–440/4–81–014. Office of Water Regulations and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp 53 – 54.Google Scholar
  132. Maccubbin AE, Caballes L, Scappaticci F, Struck RF, Gurtoo HL (1990) 32P-postlabeling analysis of binding of the cyclophosphamide metabolite, acrolein, to DNA. Cancer Commun 2(6):207–211.Google Scholar
  133. Macek KJ (1976) Toxicity of four pesticides to water fleas and fathead minnows: acute and chronic toxicity of acrolein, heptachlor, endosulfan, and trifluralin to the water flea (Daphnia magna), and the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). EPA–600/3–76–099. Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN.Google Scholar
  134. Maldotti A, Chiorboli C, Bignozzi CA, Bartocci C, Carassiti V (1980) Photooxidation of 1,3-butadiene-containing systems: rate constant determination for the reaction of acrolein with OH radicals. Int J Chem Kinet 12: 905–913.Google Scholar
  135. Marinello AJ, Bansal SK, Paul B, Koser PL, Love J, Struck RF, Gurtoo HL (1984) Metabolism and binding of cyclophosphamide and its metabolite acrolein to rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450. Cancer Res 44 (10): 4615–4621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Masek V (1972) Aldehydes in the air at working places in coal and pitch coking plants. Staub Reinhalt Luft 32: 335–336 (in German).Google Scholar
  137. McNulty MJ, Heck Hd’A, Casanova-Schmitz M (1984) Depletion of glutathione in rat respiratory mucosa by inhaled acrolein. Fed Proc 43: 575.Google Scholar
  138. Miccadei S, Nakae D, Kyle ME, Gilfor D, Farber JL (1988) Oxidative cell injury in the killing of cultured hepatocytes by allyl alcohol. Arch Biochem Biophys 265 (2): 302–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Mitchell DY, Petersen DR (1989a) Metabolism of the glutathione-acrolein adduct, S-(2-aldehydo-ethyl)glutathione, by rat liver alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 251 (1): 193–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Mitchell DY, Petersen DR (1989b) Oxidation of aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation by rat liver microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys 269 (1): 11–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Morikawa T, Yanai E (1989) Toxic gases and smoke evolution from foam plastic building materials burning in fire environments. J Fire Sci 7 (2): 131–141.Google Scholar
  142. Morse L, Owen D, Becker C (1992) Firefighters’ health and safety. In: Rom WN (ed) Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 2nd ed. Little, Brown, Boston, pp 1197–1204.Google Scholar
  143. Munsch N, De Recondo AM, Frayssinet C (1973) Effects of acrolein on DNA synthesis in vitro. FEBS Lett 30: 286–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (1980) National Occupational Hazard Survey, conducted 1972–74, computerized data file. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Center for Disease Control, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  145. NIOSH (1990) NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  146. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/United States Environmental Protection Agency (1992) Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations (CAMEO), version 4.0, a chemical computer database. Developed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Distributed by National Safety Council, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  147. Neely WB (1982) Review: Organizing data for environmental studies. Environ Toxicol Chem 1: 259–266.Google Scholar
  148. Nieman GF, Clark WR Jr (1994) Effects of wood and cotton smoke on the surface properties of pulmonary surfactant. Respir Physiol 97 (1): 1–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Nishikawa H, Hayakawa T, Sakai T (1986) Determination of micro amounts of acrolein in air by gas chromatography. J Chromatogr 370: 327–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Nishikawa H, Hayakawa T, Sakai T (1987) Gas chromatographic determination of acrolein in rain water using bromination of O-methyloxime. Analyst 112: 45–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Niyati-Shirkhodaee F, Shibamoto T (1992a) Formation of toxic aldehydes in cod liver oil after ultraviolet irradiation. J Am Oil Chem Soc 69 (12): 1254–1256.Google Scholar
  152. Niyati-Shirkhodaee F, Shibamoto T (1992b) In vitro determination of toxic aldehydes formed from the skin lipid, triolein, upon ultraviolet irradiation: Formaldehyde and acrolein. J Toxicol Cutaneous Ocul Toxicol 11 (4): 285.Google Scholar
  153. Oberdorfer PE (1971) The determination of aldehydes in automobile exhaust gas. In: Vehicle emissions, Part III. Soc Auto Eng Prog Tech 14: 32–42.Google Scholar
  154. O’Connell RA, Clark JP (1992) A study of acrolein as an experimental ground squirrel burrow fumigant. Proc Vertebr Pest Conf 15: 326–329.Google Scholar
  155. O’Loughlin EM, Bowmer KH (1975) Dilution and decay of aquatic herbicides in flowing channels. J Hydrol (Amst) 26 (3–4): 217–235.Google Scholar
  156. Osborne AD, Pitts JN, Darley EF (1962) On the stability of acrolein towards photo-oxidation in the near ultraviolet. Int J Air Water Pollut 6: 1–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Osman YA, Ingram LO (1987) Zymomonas mobilis mutants with an increased rate of alcohol production. Appl Environ Microbiol 53(7):1425–1432.Google Scholar
  158. Parent RA, Caravello HE, Harbell JW (1991) Gene mutation assay of acrolein in the CHO/HGPRT test system. J Appl Toxicol 1l (2): 91–95.Google Scholar
  159. Parent RA, Caravello HE, Balmer MF, Shellenberger TE, Long JE (1992a) One-year toxicity of orally administered acrolein to the beagle dog. J Appl Toxicol 12 (5): 311–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Parent RA, Caravello HE, Hoberman AM (1992b) Reproductive study of acrolein on two generations of rats. Fundam Appl Toxicol 19 (2): 228–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Parent RA, Caravello HE, Long JE (1992c) Two-year toxicity and carcinogenicity study of acrolein in rats. J Appl Toxicol 12 (2): 131–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Parent RA, Caravello HE, Christian MS, Hoberman AM (1993) Developmental toxicity of acrolein in New Zealand white rabbits. Fundam Appl Toxicol 20 (2): 248–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Patel JM (1980) The biotransformation of allyl alcohol and acrolein in rat liver and lung preparations. Drug Metab Dispos 8: 305–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Patel JM (1990) Metabolism and pulmonary toxicity of cyclophosphamide. Pharmacol Ther 47 (1): 137–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Patel JM, Block ER (1993) Acrolein-induced injury to cultured pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 122 (1): 46–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Phillips GF, Waller RE (1991) Yields of tar and other smoke components from UK cigarettes. Food Chem Toxicol 29 (7): 469–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Plotnikova MM (1957) Data on hygienic evaluation of acrolein as a pollutant of the atmosphere. Gig Sanit 22 (6): 10–15 (in Russian).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Pompella A, Romani A, Benedetti A, Comporti M (1991) Loss of membrane protein thiols and lipid peroxidation in allyl alcohol hepatotoxicity. Biochem Pharmacol 41 (8): 1255–1259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Potts WJ (1978) A study of the inhalation toxicity of smoke produced upon pyrolysis and combustion of polyethylene foams. I. Laboratory studies. J Combust Toxicol 5: 408–433.Google Scholar
  170. Ramos KS, Thurlow CH (1993) Comparative cytotoxic responses of cultured avian and rodent aortic smooth muscle cells to allylamine. J Toxicol Environ Health 40 (1): 61–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Rando RJ, Menon PK, Poovey HG, Lehrer SB (1992) Assessment of multiple markers of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in controlled, steady-state atmospheres in a dynamic test chamber. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 53 (11): 699–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Rathkamp G, Tso TC, Hoffmann D (1973) Chemical studies on tobacco smoke: smoke analysis of cigarettes made from bright tobaccos differing in variety and stalk positions. Beitr Tabakforsch 7: 179–189.Google Scholar
  173. Redtenbacher J (1843) Ann Ann 47: 113.Google Scholar
  174. Renzetti NA, Bryan RJ (1961) Atmospheric sampling for aldehydes and eye irritation in Los Angeles smog. J Air Pollut Control Assoc 11: 421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Rickert WS, Robinson JC, Young JC (1980) Estimating the hazards of ‘less hazardous’ cigarettes. I. Tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, hydrogen cyanide, and total aldehyde deliveries of Canadian cigarettes. J Toxicol Environ Health 6: 351.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Rikans LE (1987) The oxidation of acrolein by rat liver aldehyde dehydrogenases: relation to allyl alcohol hepatotoxicity. Drug Metab Dispos 15 (3): 356–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Roemer E, Anton HJ, Kindt R (1993) Cell proliferation in the respiratory tract of the rat after acute inhalation of formaldehyde or acrolein. J Appl Toxicol 13 (2): 103–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Sakai Y, Tani Y (1987) Production of acrolein, acetaldehyde, and propionaldehyde by cells of a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii S2. Agric Biol Cehm 51(9): 2617–2620.Google Scholar
  179. Salaman MH, Roe FJC (1956) Further test of tumor initiating activity: N,N-di-(2chloroethyl) p-aminophenylbutyric acid (CB 1348) as an initiator of skin tumor formation in the mouse. Br J Cancer 10: 363–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Salaun J, Marguerite J, Karkour B (1990) A new and convenient preparation of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid from acrolein. J Org Chem 55(14): 4276–4281.Google Scholar
  181. Sanduja R, Ansari GA, Boor PJ (1989) 3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid: a biologic marker of exposure to allylic and related compounds. J Appl Toxicol 9(4): 235–238.Google Scholar
  182. Scott TR, Kirsch RE (1988) Inhibition of rat liver glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes by acrolein. Biochem Int 16 (3): 439–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Selley ML, Bartlett MR, McGuiness JA, Ardlie NG (1990) Effects of acrolein on human platelet aggregation. Chem Biol Interact 76 (1): 101–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Sherwood RL, Leach CL, Hatoum NS, Aranyi C (1986) Effects of acrolein on macrophage functions in rats. Toxicol Lett 32 (1–2): 41–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Sierra LM, Barros AR, Garcia M, Ferreiro JA, Comendador MA (1991) Acrolein genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Somatic and germinal mutagenesis under proficient repair conditions. Mutat Res 260 (3): 247–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Silva JM, O’Brien PJ (1989) Ally’ alcohol- and acrolein-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys 275 (2): 551–558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Sinkuvene D (1970) Hygienic assessment of acrolein as an atmospheric pollutant. Gig Sanit 35 (3): 6–10 (in Russian).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Sittig M (ed) (1980) Pesticide Manufacturing and Toxic Materials Control Encyclopedia. Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, NJ.Google Scholar
  189. Sklar JL, Anderson PG, Boor PJ (1991) Allylamine and acrolein toxicity in perfused rat hearts. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 107 (3): 535–544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Skog E (1950) A toxicological investigation of lower aliphatic aldehydes. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 6: 299–318.Google Scholar
  191. Smith CW (ed) (1962) Acrolein. Shell Development Company. Wiley, New York. Smith RA, Cohen SM, Lawson TA (1990a) Acrolein mutagenicity in the V79 assay. Carcinogenesis 11 (3): 497–498.Google Scholar
  192. Smith RA, Williamson DS, Cerny RL, Cohen SM (1990b) Detection of 1,N6-propanodeoxyadenosine in acrolein-modified polydeoxyadenylic acid and DNA by 32P postlabeling. Cancer Res 50 (10): 3005–3012.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Spielmann H, Jacob-Mueller U (1981) Investigations on cyclophosphamide treatment during the preimplantation period. II. In vitro studies on the effects of cylcophosphamide and its metabolites 4-OH-cyclophosphamide, phosphoramide mustard, and acrolein on blastulation of four-cell and eight-cell mouse embryos and their subsequent development during implantation. Teratology 23: 7–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Srivastava SC, Upreti RK, Kidwai AM (1992) Action of acrolein on rat liver membrane proteins and enzymes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 49 (1): 98–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Stack VT (1957) Toxicity of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds to microorganisms. Ind Eng Chem 49: 913–917.Google Scholar
  196. Stanford Research Institute (SRI) (1977) Profiles on occupational hazards for criteria document priorities. Stanford Research Institute, for National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Arlington, VA, pp 5–15.Google Scholar
  197. Steiner PE, Steele R, Koch FC (1943) The possible carcinogenicity of overcooked meats, heated cholesterol, acrolein, and heated sesame oil. Cancer Res 33: 100–107.Google Scholar
  198. Stover EL, Kincannon DF (1983) Biological treatability of specific organic compounds found in chemical industry wastewaters. J Water Pollut Control Fed 55 (l): 97–109.Google Scholar
  199. Susten AS, Breitenstein MJ (1990) Failure of acrolein to produce sensitization in the guinea pig maximization test. Contact Dermatitis 22 (5): 299–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Tabak HH, Quave SA, Mashni CI, Barth EF (1981a) Biodegradability studies for predicting the environmental fate of organic priority pollutants. In: Test Protocols for Environmental Fate and Movement of Toxicants: Proceedings of a Symposium. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, pp 267–327.Google Scholar
  201. Tabak HH, Quave SA, Mashni CI, Barth EF (1981b) Biodegradability studies with organic priority pollutant compounds. J Water Pollut Control Fed 53: 1503–1518.Google Scholar
  202. Takizawa T, Saito T (1989) Freeze substitution fixation for enzyme histochemistry. Acta Histochem Cytochem 22 (1): 139–151.Google Scholar
  203. Tanimoto M, Uehara H (1975) Detection of acrolein in engine exhaust with microwave cavity spectrometer of Stark voltage sweep type. Environ Sci Technol 9 (2): 153.Google Scholar
  204. Timbrell JA (1991) Principles of Biochemical Toxicology, 2nd ed. Taylor and Francis, London.Google Scholar
  205. Toraason M, Luken ME, Breitenstein M, Krueger JA, Biagini RE (1989) Comparative toxicity of allylamine and acrolein in cultured myocytes and fibroblasts from neonatal rat heart. Toxicology 56 (1): 107–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Treitman RD, Burgess WA, Gold A (1980) Air contaminants encountered by firefighters. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 41: 796–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Tuesday CS (ed) (1971) Chemical Reactions in Urban Atmospheres. American Elsevier, New York, pp 76–77, 80.Google Scholar
  208. Umano K, Shibamoto T (1987) Analysis of acrolein from heated cooking oils and beef fat. J Agric Food Chem 5 (6): 909–912.Google Scholar
  209. Umstead ME, Shortridge RG, Lin MC (1978) Energy partitioning in the photodissociation of C3H40 near 200 nm. J Phys Chem 82 (13): 1455–1460.Google Scholar
  210. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) (1989) Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) hazardous chemical data. U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  211. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1974) Herbicide report. Hazardous Materials Advisory Committee, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  212. USEPA (1980) Ambient water quality criteria for acrolein. EPA 440/5–80–016. Office of Water Regulations and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  213. USEPA (1990) Chemical profiles —Chemical Emergency Preparedness Program. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  214. Vogel EW, Nivard MJ (1993) Performance of 181 chemicals in a Drosophila assay predominantly monitoring interchromosomal mitotic recombination. Mutagenesis 8 (1): 57–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Voisin C, Aerts C, Fournier E, Guiselin M (1983) Alveolar macrophages versus toxic gases. A controlled in vitro approach. Curr Probl Clin Biochem 13: 212–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Weast RC (ed) (1985) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 66th ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, p C80.Google Scholar
  217. Webber MM, Chaproniere-Rickenberg D (1980) Spermine oxidation products are selectively toxic to fibroblasts in cultures of normal human prostatic epithelium. Cell Biol Int Rep 4 (2): 185–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. Weed Science Society of America (WSSA) (1983) Herbicide Handbook of the Weed Science Society of America, 5th ed. Weed Science Society of America, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  219. World Health Organization (WHO) (1991) Acrolein Health and Safety Guide. Health and Safety Guide 67. World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  220. WHO (1992) Acrolein. Environmental Health Criteria 127. World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  221. Yasuhara A, Dennis KJ, Shibamoto T (1989) Development and validation of new analytical method for acrolein in air. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 72 (5): 749–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Yasuhara A, Shibamoto T (1991) Determination of acrolein evolved from heated vegetable oil by N-methylhydrazine conversion. Agric Biol Chem 55 (10): 2639–2640.Google Scholar
  223. Zitting A, Savolainen H, Nickels J (1982) Biochemical and toxicological effects of single and repeated exposures to polyacetal thermodegradation products. Environ Res 29 (2): 287–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Zorin VM (1966) Acrolein-induced air pollution. Zdravookhr Beloruss 1966 (7): 43–44 (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • David P. Ghilarducci
    • 1
  • Ronald S. Tjeerdema
    • 2
  1. 1.Hazardous Materials ProgramSanta Clara County Central Fire Protection DistrictLos GatosUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Institute of Marine SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of CaliforniaSanta CruzUSA

Personalised recommendations