Advertisement

Early History of Human Activities in the Sudbury Area and Ecological Damage to the Landscape

  • Keith Winterhalder
Part of the Springer Series on Environmental Management book series (SSEM)

Abstract

In contrast to the ancient events that formed the Sudbury Basin and its mineral deposits, its human history spans less than 10,000 years. As the Wisconsin glacier receded, a forest cover developed, and the area was settled by native groups. The events that led to Sudbury becoming one of the largest mining and smelting regions in the world (Fig. 2.1) are from a far briefer period of about 100 years. The environmental damage that occurred during this recent industrial period is the focus of this chapter. Other international examples of mining-related ecosystem damage are described in Box 2.1.

Keywords

White Birch Vegetation Damage Polytrichum Commune Industrial Barren Forest Service General Technical Report 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amiro, B.D., and G.M. Courtin. 1981. Patterns of vegetation in the vicinity of an industrially disturbed ecosystem, Sudbury, Ontario. Can. J. Bot. 59 (9): 1623–1639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archibold, O.W. 1978. Vegetation recovery following pollution control at Trail, British Columbia. Can. J. Bot. 56 (14): 1625–1637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blainey, G. 1967. The Peaks of Lyell, 3rd Ed. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  4. Boldt, J.R., Jr. 1967. The Winning of Nickel. Long-mans Canada Ltd., Toronto.Google Scholar
  5. Carter, D.B., H. Loewenstein, and F.H. Pitkin. 1977. Amelioration and revegetation of smelter-contaminated soils in the Coeur d’Alene mining district of northern Idaho. Proceedings of the Second Annual Meeting, Canadian Land Reclamation Association, Edmonton, Paper 13. CLRA, Guelph, Ontario.Google Scholar
  6. Cowling, E.B. 1982. An historical perspective on acid precipitation, pp. 15–31. In R.E. Johnson (ed.). Proceedings of an International Symposium on Acidic Rain and Fishery Impacts on Northeastern North America. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  7. DeLestard, J.P.G. 1967. A History of the Sudbury Forest District. District History Series 21. Department of Lands and Forests, Ontario.Google Scholar
  8. Dreisinger, B.R., and P.C. McGovern. 1971. Sulphur Dioxide Levels and Vegetation Injury in the Sudbury Area during the 1970 Season. Department of Energy and Resources Management, Air Management Branch, Sudbury.Google Scholar
  9. Freedman, B., and T.C. Hutchinson. 1980a. Pollutant inputs from the atmosphere and accumulations in soils and vegetation near a nickel-copper smelter at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Can. J. Bot. 58 (1): 108–132.Google Scholar
  10. Freedman, B., and T.C. Hutchinson 1980b. Longterm effects of smelter pollution at Sudbury, Ontario, on forest community composition. Can. J. Bot. 58: 2123–2140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gordon, A.G., and E. Gorham. 1963. Ecological aspects of air pollution from an iron-sintering plant at Wawa, Ontario. Can. J. Bot. 41: 1063–1078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gorham, E., and A.G. Gordon. 1960a. Some effects of smelter pollution northeast of Falconbridge, Ontario, Canada. Can. J. Bot. 38: 307–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gorham, E., and A.G. Gordon. 1960b. The influence of smelter fumes upon the chemical composition of lake waters near Sudbury, Ontario, and upon the surrounding vegetation. Can. J. Bot. 38: 477–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hazlett, P.W., G.K. Rutherford, and G.W. Van Loon. 1983. Metal contaminants in surface soils and vegetation as a result of nickel/copper smelting at Coniston, Ontario. Reclamation Revegetation Res. 2 (2): 123–137.Google Scholar
  15. Howey, F.R. 1938. Pioneering on the C.P.R. Mutual Press Ltd., Ottawa.Google Scholar
  16. Hutchinson, T.C., and L.M. Whitby. 1974. Heavy metal pollution in the Sudbury mining and smelting region of Canada, I. Soil and vegetation contamination by nickel, copper and other metals. Environ. Conservation 1: 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hutchinson, T.C., and L.M. Whitby. 1976. The effects of acid rainfall and heavy metal particulates on a boreal forest ecosystem near the Sudbury smelting region of Canada, pp. 745–765. In L. S. Dochingen and T. A. Seliga (eds.). Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and the Forest Ecosystem, Columbus, Ohio, May 1975. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-23. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Upper Darby, PAGoogle Scholar
  18. Jordan, M.J. 1975. Effects of zinc smelter emissions and fire on a chestnut-oak woodland. Ecology 56: 78–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kryuchkov, V.V. 1993. Degradation of ecosystems around the “Severonikel” smelter complex, pp. 3546. In M.V. Kozlov, E. Haukioja, and V.T. Yarmishko (eds.). Aerial Pollution in Kola Peninsula: Proceedings of the International Workshop, April 14–16, 1992, St. Petersburg, Russia. Kola Scientific Center, Apatity, Russia.Google Scholar
  20. Laroche, C., G. Sirois, and W.D. Mcllveen. 1979. Early roasting and smelting operations in the Sudbury area-an historical outline. Unpublished report. Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Sudbury, Ontario.Google Scholar
  21. LeBourdais, D.M. 1953. Sudbury Basin. Ryerson Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  22. Linzon, S.N. 1958. Influence of Smelter Fumes on the Growth of White Pine in the Sudbury Region. Department of Lands and Forests, Department of Mines, Ontario.Google Scholar
  23. Linzon, S.N. 1971. Economic effects of SO2 on forest growth. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 21: 81–86.Google Scholar
  24. Murray, R.H., and W.R. Haddow. 1945. First report of the subcommittee on the investigation of sulphur smoke conditions and alleged forest damage in the Sudbury region, February 1945. Unpublished report.Google Scholar
  25. Peck, G.R. 1978. The not-so-distant past. Sudbury Star, September 30, 1978.Google Scholar
  26. Peck, G.R. 1980. The not-so-distant past. Sudbury Star, April 5, 1980.Google Scholar
  27. Pitblado, J.R., and B.D. Amiro. 1982. Landsat mapping of the industrially disturbed vegetation communities of Sudbury, Canada. Can. J. Remote Sensing 8 (1): 17–28.Google Scholar
  28. Rowe, J.S. 1959. Forest Regions of Canada. Bulletin 123. Canada Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, Forestry Branch, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  29. Smith, W.H. 1981. Air Pollution and Forests. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Struik, H. 1973. Photo interpretive study to assess and evaluate the vegetational and physical state of the Sudbury area subject to industrial emissions.Unpublished report. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Sudbury, Ontario.Google Scholar
  31. Struik, H. 1974. Photo interpretive study to assess and evaluate vegetational changes in the Sudbury area. Internal report. Department of Lands and Forests, Ontario.Google Scholar
  32. Turcotte, C.K. 1981. A comparative study of soils and vegetation in the vicinity of two roast yards in Sudbury, Ontario. Hons. B.Sc. Thesis, Laurentian University.Google Scholar
  33. Wallace, C.M., and A. Thompson (eds.). 1993. Sudbury: Rail Town to Regional Capital. Dundum Press, Toronto.Google Scholar
  34. Watson, W.X., and D.H.S. Richardson. 1972. Appreciating the potential of a devastated land. Forestry Chron. 48: 312–315.Google Scholar
  35. Whitby, L.M., and T.C. Hutchinson. 1974. Heavy metal pollution in the Sudbury mining and smelting region of Canada. II. Soil toxicity tests. Environ. Conservation 1 (3): 191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Winterhalder, K. 1975. Reclamation of industrial barrens in the Sudbury area, pp. 64–72. In Transactions: Annual Meeting, Ontario Chapter, Canadian Society of Environmental Biologists, Sudbury, February 1975.Google Scholar
  37. Winterhalder, K. 1983. Limestone application as a trigger factor in the revegetation of acid, metal-contaminated soils of the Sudbury area, pp. 201–212. In Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Land Reclamation Association, University of Waterloo, August 1983. Unpublished proceedings. CLRA, Guelph, Ontario.Google Scholar
  38. Winterhalder, K. 1984. Environmental degradation and rehabilitation in the Sudbury area. Laurentian Univ. Rev. 16 (2): 15–47.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith Winterhalder

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations