Environmental Fate of Trifluralin

  • Raj Grover
  • Jeffrey D. Wolt
  • Allan J. Cessna
  • H. Bruno Schiefer
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 153)


Trifluralin, a preemergence, soil-incorporated herbicide, has been in agricultural use since the early 1960s. Probst et al. (1975) and Helling (1976) summarized several aspects of its behavior and fate in the environment, reviewing in depth the extensive scientific literature published during the first two decades following its use. This review summarizes its activity, current uses in the world, and consumption in the United States, and updates the literature on the environmental fate of trifluralin since the earlier two reviews, with emphasis on its mobility, persistence, and environmental concentrations.


Sandy Loam Soil Organic Matter Content Vapor Loss Photodegradation Product Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alder EF, Wright WL, Soper QF (1960) Control of seedling grasses in turf with dipheny-lacetonitrile and a substituted dinitroaniline. Proceedings, 17th annual meeting of North Central Weed Control Conference (NCWCC) Milwaukee, WI, p 23.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (1986) 1985 Groundwater monitoring program. Monsanto, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous (1994) Herbicide Handbook, 7th ed. Weed Science Society of America, Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous (1991) Municipal drinking water quality objectives. Water Pollution Control Board, SK Environment and Public Safety, Regina, SK.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (1992) Pesticides in ground water data base: a compilation of monitoring studies: 1971–1991. National summary. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous (1995) Crop Protection Guide 1995. SK Agriculture and Food, Regina, SK.Google Scholar
  7. Anonymous (1996a) Monsanto bullish on Roundup despite looming patent loss. Crop Marketing Reporter, June 10, p 5.Google Scholar
  8. Anonymous (1996b) Chemical Economics Handbook. SRI International, Menlo Park CA.Google Scholar
  9. Anonymous (1996c) Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED): Trifluralin. EPA 738-R- 95–040. Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  10. Birkholz DA, Schwanbeck L (1985) La Salle River study analytical report. Environment Canada, Edmonton, AB.Google Scholar
  11. Bossan D, Wortham H, Masclet P (1995) Atmospheric transport of pesticides adsorbed on aerosols. I. Photodegradation in simulated atmosphere. Chemosphere 30:21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brewer F, Lavy TL, Talbert RE (1982) Effects of flooding on dinitroaniline persistence in soybean (Glycine max)-rice (Oryza sativa) rotation. Weed Sci 30:531–549.Google Scholar
  13. Briggs GG (1981) Theoretical and experimental relationships between soil adsorption, octanol-water partition coefficients, water solubilities, bioconcentration factors, and the parachor. J Agric Food Chem 29:1050–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown DS, Flagg EW (1981) Empirical prediction of organic pollutant sorption in natural sediments. J Environ Qual 10:382–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Burnside OC (1974) Trifluralin dissipation in soil following repeated annual applications. Weed Sci 22:374–377.Google Scholar
  16. Cabras P, Melis M (1991) High performance liquid chromatographic determination of dinitroaniline herbicides in soil and water. J Chromatogr 585:164–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Camper ND, Stralka K, Skipper HD (1980) Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of profluralin and trifluralin. J Environ Sci Health B15(5):457–473.Google Scholar
  18. Carpenter M, Fennessey MM (1988a) Determination of the photolysis rate of trifluralin on the surface of soil. ABC Labs #36610. Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  19. Carpenter M, Fennessey MM (1988b) Determination of the photolysis rate of 14C-triflura- lin in aqueous solution. ABS Labs #36609–4. Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  20. Carter GE, Camper D (1975) Soil enrichment studies with trifluralin. Weed Sci 23: 71–74.Google Scholar
  21. Cessna AJ, Grover R, Kerr LA, Aldred ML (1985) A multiresidue method for the analysis and verification of several herbicides in water. J Agric Food Chem 33:504–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cessna AJ, Grover R, Smith AE, Hunter JH (1988) Uptake and dissipation of triallate and trifluralin vapors by wheat under field conditions. Can J Plant Sci 68:1153–1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chernyak SM, Clifford PR, McConnell LL (1996) Evidence of currently-used pesticides in air, ice, fog, seawater and surface microlayer in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Marine Pollution Bull 32:410–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Corbin BR Jr, McClelland M, Frans RE, Talbert RE, Horton D (1994) Dissipation of fluometuron and trifluralin residues after long-term use. Weed Sci 42:438–445.Google Scholar
  25. Crosby DG, Leitis E (1973) The photodecomposition of trifluralin in water. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 10:237–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Day EW Jr (1987) The calculation of Henry’s law constant for trifluralin. EWD-8735. DowElanco, Indianapolis, IN.Google Scholar
  27. Day EW Jr (1995) Trifluralin use on alfalfa—registration requirements, proposed tolerances, and additional residue data. Study 35354 North American Analytical Chemistry Lab, DowElanco, Indianapolis, IN.Google Scholar
  28. Day EW Jr, Saunders DG, Loh A (1983) Octanol/water partition coefficient of trifluralin. I-EWD-83–24. Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, IN.Google Scholar
  29. Decker OD (1990a) Field dissipation of trifluralin following application of Treflan to alfalfa stubble. AAC 8805. Plant Science Chemical Development, DowElanco, Greenfield, IN.Google Scholar
  30. Decker OD (1990b) Field dissipation of trifluralin following application of Treflan to bare soil and seeded with cotton or soybeans. AAC 8804. Plant Science Chemical Development, DowElanco, Greenfield, IN.Google Scholar
  31. Decker OD (1992) Trifluralin dissipation study. AAC 8706. North American Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, DowElanco, Greenfield, IN.Google Scholar
  32. Decker OD, Morgan RW, Shackelford DD (1992) Magnitude of trifluralin residues in/on field corn forage following post-emergence treatment with Treflan EC herbicide. AAC 9011. DowElanco, Indianapolis, IN.Google Scholar
  33. Donald DB, Syrgiannis J (1995) Occurrence of pesticides in prairie lakes in Saskatchewan in relation to drought and salinity. J Environ Qual 24:266–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Durand G, Bouvot V, Barcelo D (1992) Determination of trace levels of herbicides in estuarine waters by gas and liquid chromatographic techniques. J Chromatogr 607: 319–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Duseja DR, Holmes EE (1978) Field persistence and movement of trifluralin in two soil types. Soil Sci 125:41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eisenreich SJ, Strachan WMJ (1992) Estimating atmospheric deposition of toxic substances to the Great Lakes. In: Proceedings of the Great Lakes Protection Fund and Environment Canada Workshop, Burlington ON.Google Scholar
  37. Fox ME, Van Tol C, Prepas EE, Nagy E, Murphy TP (1991) Fate of trifluralin in anaerobic sediment from Alberta farm dugout. Water Pollut Res J Can 26:17–26.Google Scholar
  38. Francis PC, Grothe DG, Jordan WH, Cocke PJ, Beasley DB, Yoder DC (1985) Trifluralin ecological effects field monitoring study. VOO 184. Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, IN.Google Scholar
  39. Frank R, Braun HE, Ripley BD, Clegg BS (1990) Contamination of rural ponds with pesticides, 1971–85, Ontario, Canada. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 44:401–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Frank R, Ripley BD, Braun HE, Clegg BS, Johnston R, O’Neil TJ (1987) Survey of farm wells for pesticide residues, southern Ontario, Canada, 1981–1982, 1984. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 16:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gaynor JD (1985) Dinitroaniline herbicide persistence in soil in southwestern Ontario. Can J Soil Sci 65:587–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gerwing PD, McKercher RB (1992) The relative persistence of trifluralin (545 EC and 5 G) and ethalfluralin in prairie soils. Can J Soil Sci 72:255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Glotfelty DE (1981) Atmospheric dispersion of pesticides from treated fields. PhD dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, MD.Google Scholar
  44. Glotfelty DE, Taylor AW, Turner BC, Zoller WH (1984) Volatilization of surface-applied pesticides from fallow soil. J Agric Food Chem 32:638–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Golab T, Amundson ME (1974) Degradation of trifluralin, oryzalin, and isopropalin in soil (abstr 119). In: 3rd International IUPAC Congress on Pesticides and Chemicals, Helsinki, Finland.Google Scholar
  46. Golab T, Amundson ME (1975) Degradation of trifluralin, oryzalin, and isopropalin in soil. Environ Qual Saf, Suppl 3:258–260.Google Scholar
  47. Golab T, Althaus WA, Wooten HL (1979) Fate of 14C trifluralin in soil. J Agric Food Chem 27:163–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Goolsby DA, Battaglin WA (1993) Occurrence, distribution and transport of agricultural chemicals in surface waters of the midwestern United States. Open-File Rep 93–418. U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  49. Graham RC, Ulery AL, Neal RH, Teso RR (1992) Herbicide residue distributions in relation to the soil morphology in two California vertisols. Soil Sci 153:115–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Graper LK, Rainey P (1989a) Aerobic metabolism of l4C trifluralin in sandy loam, loam, and clay loam soils. ABC 0366. Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, IN.Google Scholar
  51. Graper LK, Rainey DP (1989b) Anaerobic metabolism of 14C trifluralin in sandy loam, loam, and clay loam soils. ABC 0367. Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, IN.Google Scholar
  52. Grass B, Wenclawiak BW, Rüdel H (1994) Influence of air velocity, air temperature, and air humidity on the volatilization of trifluralin from soil. Chemosphere 28:491–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Grover R, Banting JD, Morse PM (1979) Adsorption and bioactivity of di-allate, triallate and trifluralin. Weed Res 19:363–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grover R, Kerr LA, Bowren KE, Khan SU (1988a) Airborne residues of triallate and trifluralin in Saskatchewan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 40:683–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Grover R, Smith AE, Shewchuk SR, Cessna AJ, Hunter JH (1988b) Fate of trifluralin and triallate applied as a mixture to a wheat field. J Environ Qual 17:543–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Grover R, Waite WT, Kerr LA, Cessna AJ (1995) Seasonal monitoring of residues of triallate and trifluralin in air, ground deposits and dugout water on farmland in southern Saskatchewan (unpublished report).Google Scholar
  57. Grover R, Waite WT, Cessna AJ, Nicholaichuk W, Irvine D, Kerr LA, Best K (1997) Magnitude and persistence of herbicide residues in farm dugouts and ponds in the Canadian prairies. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:638–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Gustafson DI (1989) Groundwater ubiquity score: a simple method for assessing pesticide leachability. Environ Toxicol Chem 8:339–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Harper LA, White AW Jr, Bruce RR, Thomas AW, Leonard RA (1976) Soil and microclimate effects on trifluralin volatilization. J Environ Qual 5:236–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harvey RG (1973) Field comparison of twelve dinitroaniline herbicides. Weed Sci 21: 512–516.Google Scholar
  61. Hayden BJ, Smith AE (1980) Comparison of the persistence of ethalfluralin and trifluralin in Saskatchewan field soils. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 25:508–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Helling CS (1976) Dinitroaniline herbicides in soils. J Environ Qual 5:1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hoff RM, Muir DCG, Grift NP (1992) Annual cycle of polychlorinated biphenyls and organohalogen pesticides in air in southern Ontario. 1. Air concentration data. Environ Sci Technol 26:266–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hollingsworth EB (1980) Volatility of trifluralin from field soil. Weed Sci 28:224–228.Google Scholar
  65. Isensee AR, Kearney PC, Jones GE (1979) Modelling aquatic ecosystems from metabolic studies. In: Khan MNQ, Lech JJ, Menn JJ, (eds) Pesticide and Xenobiotic Metabolism in Aquatic Organisms. Am Chem Soc Symp Ser 99. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, p 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jacques GL, Harvey RG (1979a) Adsorption and diffusion of dinitroaniline herbicides in soils. Weed Sci 27:450–455.Google Scholar
  67. Jacques GL, Harvey RG (1979b) Persistence of dinitroaniline herbicides in soil. Weed Sci 27:660–665.Google Scholar
  68. Jacques GL, Harvey RG (1979c) Vapor absorption and translocation of dinitroaniline herbicides in oats (Avena sativa) and peas (Pisum sativum). Weed Sci 27:371–374.Google Scholar
  69. Jensen KIN, Kimball ER (1980) Persistence of dinitramine and trifluralin in Nova Scotia, Canada. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24:238–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jensen KIN, Ivany JA, Kimball ER (1983) Efficacy of three dinitroaniline herbicides in processing peas and their residues in soils. Can J Plant Sci 63:687–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Johnson WE, Plimmer JR, McConnell LL, Rice CP, Kroll RB, Pait AS, Bialek K (1995) Pesticides in Chesapeake Bay: historical perspective and role of the surface microlayers. In: Proceedings: Clean Water—Clean Environment—21st Century, Vol. 1. Pesticides. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  72. Jury WA, Focht DD, Farmer WJ (1987) Evaluation of pesticide groundwater pollution potential from standard indices of soil-chemical adsorption and biodégradation. J Environ Qual 16:422–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Jury WA, Spencer WF, Farmer WJ (1983) Use of models for assessing relative volatility, mobility, and persistence of pesticides and other trace organics in soil systems. In: Saxena J (ed) Hazard Assessment of Chemicals, Vol. II. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–43.Google Scholar
  74. Kanazawa J (1981) Measurement of the bioconcentration factors of pesticides by freshwater fish and their correlation with physicochemical properties or acute toxicities. Pestic Sci 12:417–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kearney PC, Plimmer JR, Wheeler WB, Kontson A (1976) Persistence and metabolism of dinitroaniline herbicides in soils. Pestic Biochem Physiol 6:229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kenaga EE (1980) Predicted bioconcentration factors and soil sorption coefficients of pesticides and other chemicals. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 4:26–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kloppel H (1991) Determination of the aquatic degradation of trifluralin. GHE-P-3024. Fraunhofer Institute of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Schmallenberg.Google Scholar
  78. Kloppel H (1993) Supplementary study for the determination of the aquatic degradation of trifluralin. GHE-P-3023. Fraunhofer Institute of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Schmallenberg.Google Scholar
  79. Knowles S (1992) Trifluralin (technical): determination of hydrolysis as a function of pH. GHE-P-2897. Life Sciences Research Ltd., Eye, Suffolk England.Google Scholar
  80. Kolpin DW, Goolsby DA, Aga DS, Iverson JL, Thurman EM (1993) Pesticides in nearsurface aquifers: Results of the midcontinental United States ground water reconnaissance—1991–92. Rep. 93–418. U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  81. LaFleur KS, McCaskill WR, Gale GT Jr (1978) Trifluralin persistence in Congaree soil. Soil Sci 126:285–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Laskowski DA, Goring CAI, McCall PJ, Swann RL (1982) Terrestrial environment. In: Conway RA (ed) Environmental Risk Analysis for Chemicals. Van Nostrand Rheinhold, New York, pp 198–240.Google Scholar
  83. Lee HB, Chau ASY (1983) Gas chromatographic determination of trifluralin, diallate, triallate, atrazine, barban, diclofop-ethyl and benzoylprop-ethyl in natural waters at parts per trillion levels. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 66:651–658.Google Scholar
  84. Leitis E, Crosby DG (1974) Photodecomposition of trifluralin. J Agric Food Chem 22: 842–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Leonard RA, Langdale GW, Fleming WG (1979) Herbicide runoff from Upland Piedmont watersheds—data and implications for modelling pesticide transport. J Environ Qual 8:223–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lymann WJ, Reehl WF, Rosenblatt DH (1990) Handbook of Chemical Estimation Methods. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  87. Majewski M, Desjardins R, Rochette P, Pattey E, Seiber J, Glotfelty D (1993) Field comparison of an eddy accumulation and aerodynamic-gradient system for measuring pesticide volatilization fluxes. J Environ Sci Technol 27:121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Margulies L, Stern T, Rubin B, Ruzo LO (1992) Photostabilization of trifluralin adsorbed on a clay matrix. J Agric Food Chem 40:152–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Mayer JR, Elkins NR (1990) Potential for agricultural pesticide runoff to a Puget Sound estuary: Padilla Bay, Washington. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 45:215–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. McCall PJ, Swann RL, Laskowski DA, Unger SM, Vrona SA, Dishburger HJ (1980) Estimation of chemical mobility in soil from liquid chromatographic retention times. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24:190–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. McConnell LL, Nelson E, Rice CP, Harman JA, Baker JE, Johnson WE, Chernyak SM (1995) Pesticides in Chesapeake Bay: atmosphere and surface waters. In: Proceedings, Clean Water—Clean Environment—21st Century, Vol. 1. Pesticides. American Society of Agriculture Engineers, St. Joseph, MI.Google Scholar
  92. McDonald RA, McLeod BR (1992) Saskatchewan Environment and Public Safety: Drinking water safety project. Rep. MR-2. McDonald & Associates, Regina, SK, Canada.Google Scholar
  93. Miller JH, Keeley PE, Carter CH, Thullen RJ (1975) Soil persistence of trifluralin, be- nefin, and nitralin. Weed Sci 23:211–214.Google Scholar
  94. Miller JH, Keeley PE, Thullen RJ, Carter CH (1978) Persistence and movement of ten herbicides in soil. Weed Sci 26:20–27.Google Scholar
  95. Mongar K, Miller GC (1988) Vapor phase photolysis of trifluralin in an outdoor chamber. Chemosphere 17:2183–2188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mosier JW, Saunders DG (1978) A hydrolysis study on the herbicide trifluralin. T23–1273. Agricutural and Analytical Chemistry, Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, IN.Google Scholar
  97. Moyer JR (1979) Soil organic matter, moisture, and temperature: effect on wild oats control with trifluralin. Can J Plant Sci 59:763–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Muir DCG, Grift NP (1987) Herbicide levels in rivers draining two prairie agricultural watersheds. J Environ Sci Health B22:259–284.Google Scholar
  99. Muir DCG, Grift NP (1994) Fate of herbicides and organochlorine insecticides in lake waters. Proceedings, IUPAC, Washington, DC, July 4–9.Google Scholar
  100. Nash RG (1983) Comparative volatilization and dissipation rates of several pesticides from soil. J Agric Food Chem 31:210–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Nations BK, Hallberg GR (1992) Pesticides in Iowa precipitation. J Environ Qual 21: 486–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nofzinger GL Hornsby AG (1985) Chemical movement in soil. IBP, PC User’s Guide. Circ. 654. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Gainesville FL.Google Scholar
  103. Oliver JE (1979) Volatilization of some herbicide-related nitrosamines from soils. J Environ Qual 8:596–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Parochetti JV, Dec GW Jr, Burt GW (1976) Volatility of eleven dinitroaniline herbicides. Weed Sci 24:529–532.Google Scholar
  105. Parochetti JV, Dec GW Jr (1978) Photodecomposition of eleven dinitroanilines. Weed Sci 26:153–156.Google Scholar
  106. Pchajek DA, Morrison IN, Webster GRB (1983) Comparison of the efficacy and soil concentrations of fall- and spring-applied trifiuralin in flax. Can J Plant Sci 63:1031–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Peter CJ, Weber JB (1985) Adsorption and efficacy of trifiuralin and butralin as influenced by soil properties. Weed Sci 33:861–867.Google Scholar
  108. Plimmer JR (1978) Photolysis of TCDD and trifluralin on silica and soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 20:87–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Plimmer JR, Klingebiel UI (1974) Photochemistry of N-sec-butyl-4-tert-butyl-2,6-dini- troaniline. J Agric Food Chem 22:689–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pritchard MK, Stobbe EH (1980) Persistence and phytotoxicity of dinitroaniline herbicides in Manitoba soils. Can J Plant Sci 60:5–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Probst GW, Golab T, Wright WL (1975) Dinitroanilines. In: Kearney PC, Kaufman DD (eds) Herbicides: Chemistry, Degradation, and Mode of Action, Vol. 1, 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 453–500.Google Scholar
  112. Pussemier L, Szabo G, Bulman RA (1990) Prediction of the soil adsorption coefficient K∞ for aromatic pollutants. Chemosphere 21:1199–1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Rao PSC, Davidson JM (1980) Estimation of pesticide retention and transformation parameters required in nonpoint source pollution models. In: Overcash MR (ed) Environmental Impact of Nonpoint Source Pollution. Ann Arbor Sciences Ann Arbor, MI, pp 23–67.Google Scholar
  114. Rao PSC, Hornsby AG, Jessup RE (1985) Indices for ranking the potential for pesticide contamination of groundwater. Soil Crop Sci Soc FL Proc 44:1–8.Google Scholar
  115. Reddy KN, Locke MA (1994) Prediction of soil sorption (K∞) of herbicides using semi- empirical molecular properties. Weed Sei 42:453–461.Google Scholar
  116. Reeves GL (1997) Calculation of the photochemical quantum yield for trifluralin. Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, DowElanco, Letcombe, UK.Google Scholar
  117. Reyes CC, Zimdahl RL (1989) Mathematical description of trifluralin degradation in soil. Weed Sci 37:604–608.Google Scholar
  118. Rohde WA, Asmussen AE, Hauser EW, Wauchope RD, Allison HD (1980) Trifluralin movement in runoff from a small agricultural watershed. J Environ Qual 9:37–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Romanowski RR, Libik AW (1978) Soil persistence of isopropalin, nitralin, and trifluralin. Weed Sei 26:258–261.Google Scholar
  120. Rüdel H (1992) Testing the evaporation behaviour of the active substance trifluralin: evaporation from soil. GHE-P-2938. Fraunhofer-Institut fur Umweltchemie und Oko- toxikologie, Schmallenberg, Germany.Google Scholar
  121. Ruland S (1975) Untersuchungen über die Verteilung und Persistenz von nitralin und trifluralin in rapskulturen und boden. Z Pflanzenkr Pflanzenschutz 82:212–225.Google Scholar
  122. Sanborn JR (1974) The fate of selected pesticides in the aquatic environment. EPA-600/ 33–74-025. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR.Google Scholar
  123. Saunders DG, Powers FL (1988) Mobility of trifluralin in soil. DGS 8807. Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, IN.Google Scholar
  124. Savage KE (1978) Persistence of several dinitroaniline herbicides as affected by soil moisture. Weed Sei 26:465–471.Google Scholar
  125. Sheets TJ, Bradley JR Jr, Jackson MD (1972) Contamination of surface and ground water with pesticides applied to cotton. Project A-040-NC, Water Resources Res. Inst., Univ. of North Carolina, Raleigh NC.Google Scholar
  126. Smith AE (1972) Persistence of trifluralin in small field plots as analyzed by a rapid gas chromatographic method. J Agric Food Chem 20:829–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Smith AE (1974) A multi-residue extraction procedure for the gas chromatographic determination of the herbicides dichlobenil, dinitramine, triallate and trifluralin in soils. J Chromatogr 97:103–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Smith AE (1975) Field persistence studies with herbicides in prairie soils. In: Environmental Quality and Safety-Pesticides, Vol. III, IUPAC 3rd International Congress, Helsinki. Georg Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 266–270.Google Scholar
  129. Smith AE (1979) Soil persistence experiments with (14C)2,4-D in herbicidal mixtures, and field persistence studies with tri-allate and trifluralin both singly and combined. Weed Res 19:165–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Smith AE, Hayden BJ (1982a) Field persistence studies with triallate and trifluralin both singly and in combination with chloramben. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 29:240- 242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Smith AE, Hayden BJ (1982b) Carry-over of dinitramine, triallate, and trifluralin to the following spring in soils treated at different times during the fall. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 29:483–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Smith AE, Aubin AJ, Douglas DA (1988) Loss of trifluralin from clay and loam soils containing aged and freshly applied residues. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 41:569–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Smith CN, Leonard RA, Langdale GW, Bailey GW (1978) Transport of agricultural chemicals from small upland Piedmont watersheds. EPA 600/3–78-056. U.S. EPA, Athens, G A, and U.S. Department of Agriculture, Watkinsville, G A. (Final report on Interagency Agreement No. D-6–0381.)Google Scholar
  134. Soderquist CJ, Crosby DG, Moilanen KW, Seiber JN, Woodrow JE (1975) Occurrence of trifluralin and its photo-products in air. J Agric Food Chem 23:304–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Solbakken E, Hole H, Lode O, Pedersen TA (1982) Trifluralin persistence under two different soil and climatic conditions. Weed Res 22:319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Spain JC, Van Veld PA (1983) Adaptation of natural microbial communities to degradation of xenobiotic compounds: effects of concentration, exposure time, inoculum and chemical structure. Appl Environ Microbiol 45:428–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Spalding RF, Snow DD (1989) Stream levels of agrichemicals during a spring discharge event. Chemosphere 19:1129–1140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Spencer WF, Cliath MM (1974) Factors affecting vapor loss of trifluralin from soil. J Agric Food Chem 22:987–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Spencer WF, Cliath MM (1990) Movement of pesticides from soil to the atmosphere. In: Kurtz DA (ed) Long Range Transport of Pesticides. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, pp 1–6.Google Scholar
  140. Spencer WF, Cliath MM (1991) Pesticide losses in surface runoff from irrigated fields. In: Pawlowski L, Lacy WJ, Dlugosz JJ, (eds) Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment. Plenum Press, New York, pp 277–289.Google Scholar
  141. Spencer WF, Farmer WJ, Cliath MM (1973) Pesticide volatilization. Residue Rev 49: 1–47.Google Scholar
  142. Spencer WF, Cliath MM, Blair J, LeMest RA (1985) Transport of pesticides from irrigated fields in surface runoff and tile drain waters. USDA ARS Conserv Res Rep No 31.Google Scholar
  143. Squillace PJ, Engberg RA (1988) Surface water quality of the Cedar River basin, Iowa—Minnesota, with emphasis on the occurrence and transport of herbicides, May 1984 through November 1985. Water Resour Invest Rep 88–4060. U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  144. Stoller EW, Wax LM (1977) Persistence and activity of dinitroaniline herbicides in soil. J Environ Qual 6:124–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Suntio LR, Shiu WY, Mackay D, Seiber JN, Glotfelty D (1988) Critical review of Henry’s law constants for pesticides. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 103:1–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Swineford DM, Belisle AA (1989) Analysis of trifluralin, methyl paraoxon, methyl para- thion, fenvalerate and 2,4-D dimethylamine in pond water using solid-phase extraction. Environ Toxicol Chem 8:465–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Taylor AW, Glotfelty DE (1988) Evaporation from soils and crops. In: Grover R (ed) Environmental Chemistry of Herbicides. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 89–129.Google Scholar
  148. Tornes LH, Brigham ME (1994) Nutrients, suspended sediment, and pesticides in waters of the Red River of the North Basin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, 1970–90. Water Resour Invest Rep 93–4231. U.S. Geological Survey, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  149. Wauchope RD (1978) The pesticide content of surface water draining from agricultural fields—a review. J Environ Qual 7:459–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Wauchope RD, Leonard RA (1980) Maximum pesticide concentrations in agricultural runoff: a semiempirical formula. J Environ Qual 9:665–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Wauchope RD, Buttler TM, Hornsby AG, Augustine-Beckers PWM, Burt JP (1992) The SCS/ARS/CES pesticide properties data base for environmental decision making. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 123:1–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Weber JB (1990) Behavior of dinitroaniline herbicides in soils. Weed Technol 4:394–406.Google Scholar
  153. Welch HE, Muir DCG, Billeck BN, Lockhart WL, Brunskill GJ, Kling HJ, Olson MP, Lemoine RM (1991) Brown snow. A long-range transport event in the Canadian arctic. J Environ Sei Technol 25:280–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. West SD, Weston JH, Day EW Jr (1988) Gas chromatographic determination of residue levels of the herbicides trifluralin, benefin, ethalfluralin, and isopropalin in soil with confirmation by mass selective detection. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 71:1082–1085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Wheeler WB, Stratton GD, Twilley RR, Ou LT, Carlson DA, Davidson JM (1979) Trifluralin degradation and binding in soil. J Agrie Food Chem 27:702–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. White AW Jr, Harper LA, Leonard RA, Turnbull JW (1977) Trifluralin volatilization losses from a soybean field. J Environ Qual 6:105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Willis GH, Wander RC, South wick LM (1974) Degradation of trifluralin in soil suspensions as related to redox potential. J Environ Qual 3:262–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Willis GH, Rogers RL, Southwick LM (1975) Losses of diuron, linuron, and trifluralin in surface drainage water. J Environ Qual 4:399–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Willis GH, McDowell LL, Parr JF, Murphree CE (1976) Pesticide concentrations and yields in runoff and sediment from a Mississippi Delta watershed. In: Proceedings, 3rd Interagency Sediment Conference, Denver, CO, pp 53–64.Google Scholar
  160. Willis GH, McDowell LL, Murphree CE, Southwick LM, Smith S Jr (1983) Pesticide concentrations and yields in runoff from silty soils in the lower Mississippi valley. J Agric Food Chem 31:1171–1177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Woodrow JE, Crosby DG, Mast T, Moilanen KW, Seiber JN (1978) Rates of transformation of trifluralin and parathion vapors in air. J Agric Food Chem 26:1312–1316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Woodrow JE, Crosby DG, Seiber JN (1983) Vapor-phase photochemistry of pesticides. Residue Rev 85:111–125.Google Scholar
  163. Wu TL, Correll DL, Remenapp HEH (1983) Herbicide runoff from experimental watersheds. J Environ Qual 12:330–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Yockim RS, Isensee AR, Walker EA (1980) Behavior of trifluralin in aquatic model ecosystems. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 24:134–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Yordy DW, Decker OD, Dixon SS (1987) Determination of trifluralin in soil by solid phase extraction. AM-AA-CA-R116-AA-775. Lilly Research Laboratories, Greenfield, IN.Google Scholar
  166. Zepp RG, Cline DM (1977) Rates of direct photolysis in aquatic environment. Environ Sci Technol 11:359–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Zimdahl RL, Gwynn SM (1977) Soil degradation of three dinitroanilines. Weed Sci 25: 247–251.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raj Grover
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jeffrey D. Wolt
    • 4
  • Allan J. Cessna
    • 5
  • H. Bruno Schiefer
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Research StationAgriculture CanadaReginaCanada
  2. 2.Toxicology Research CenterUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  3. 3.Grover Consulting IncReginaCanada
  4. 4.Global Exposure and Risk AssessmentDowElancoIndianapolisUSA
  5. 5.Research Scientist, Research StationAgriculture and Agri-Food CanadaSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations