Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Volume 151 of the series Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology pp 67-115

Rubber Tire Leachates in the Aquatic Environment

  • Joyce J. EvansAffiliated withMaryland Department of Natural Resources, Cooperative Oxford Laboratory

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Scrap tires, automobile tires that have been discarded, are persistent in the environment as a result of reclamation, recycling, and energy recovery efforts. Two to three billion scrap tires are stockpiled in various locations across the United States, and an estimated 240 million tires are added to these storage piles or to landfills each year (Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. 1991). Scrap tire accumulation can potentially create adverse environmental effects and threats to public health and safety. Problems associated with scrap tires include solid waste management in landfills (Beckman et al. 1974; Hall 1990; Miner and Warfield Consultants 1987), tires as breeding grounds for mosquitoes and rodents (Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. 1991), tire fires (Best and Brookes 1981), air emissions from tires as a fuel source (Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. 1991), waste tire legislation (Scrap Tire News 1991), and leach-ability (Envirologic 1990; Environmental Consulting Laboratory 1987; John et al. 1984; Radian Corporation 1989; Twin City Testing Corp. 1990; Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources 1989).