Cardiac Sensitivity to Electrical Stimulation
It is important to understand the relationships between cardiac excitability and stimulus features such as duration, frequency, repetition pattern, wave-shape, electrode configuration, current density, and current pathway. Much of our knowledge of these effects is derived from studies directed toward therapeutic uses of cardiac stimulation, such as cardiac pacing and defibrillation. We can better evaluate cardiac hazards if we understand the principles of cardiac electrophysiology presented in Chapter 5. The reviews in Chapters 3 and 4, concerning principles of excitable membranes, will also be referred to in this chapter.
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