Insects and Pathogens in a Pollution-Stressed Forest

  • J. Pronos
  • L. Merrill
  • D. Dahlsten

Abstract

A healthy forest is comprised of trees and the plant, animal, and microbial communities with which they are normally associated. Native insect herbivores and pathogens of forest trees perform important functions in natural ecosystems, killing decadent trees, recycling nutrients, and creating gaps for regeneration. These insects and diseases are defined as pests when their activities interfere with management objectives for a stand. Such activities may cause tree mortality, injury, or debilitation.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, S.A.; Skelly, J.M.; Morris, C.L. Edaphic factors associated with the incidence and severity of disease caused by Fomes annosus in loblolly pine plantations in Virginia. Phytopathology 65: 585–591; 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, D.C.; Bauce, E.; Barnett, C.J. Sugar maple declines—causes, effects, and recommendations. In: Manion, P.D.; Lachance, D., eds. Forest decline concepts. St. Paul, MN: APS Press; 1992: 123–136.Google Scholar
  3. Alstad, D.N.; Edmunds, G.F.; Weinstein, L.H. Effects of air pollutants on insect populations. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 27: 369–384; 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bega, R.V.; Smith, R.S., Jr. Distribution of Fomes annosus in natural forests of California. Plant Dis. Rep. 50: 832–836; 1966.Google Scholar
  5. Childs, T.W.; Shea, K.R. Annual losses from disease in Pacific northwest forests. Res. bull. PNW-20. Portland, OR: USDA Forest Service; 1967.Google Scholar
  6. Cobb, F.W., Jr. Leptographium wageneri, cause of black-stain root disease: a review of its discovery, occurrence and biology with emphasis on pinyon and ponderosa pine. In: Harrington, T.C.; Cobb, F.W., Jr., eds. Leptographium root diseases on conifers. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society Press; 1988: 41–62.Google Scholar
  7. Dahlsten, D.L.; Rowney, D.L. Influence of air pollution on population dynamics of forest insects and on tree mortality. In: Miller, P.R., tech. coord. Proceedings of symposium on effects of air pollutants on Mediterranean and temperate forest ecosystems. Gen. tech. rep. PSW-43. Berkeley, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Station; 1980: 125–130.Google Scholar
  8. Dahlsten, D.L.; Rowney, D.L.; Kickert, R.N. Effects of oxidant air pollutants on western pine beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) populations in southern California. Environ. Pollut. 96: 415–423; 1997.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Davidson, A.J.; Rishbeth, J. Effect of suppression and felling on infection of oak and Scots pine by Armillaria. Eur. J. For. Pathol. 18: 161–168; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. DeNitto, G.A.; Pierce, J. An evaluation of conifer mortality on the San Bernardino National Forest between May 1981 and May 1982. Forest pest management rep. 83–35. San Francisco, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Station; 1983.Google Scholar
  11. Fenn, M.E.; Dunn, P.H.; Wilborn, R. Black stain root disease in ozone-stressed ponderosa pine. Plant Dis. 74: 426–430; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Freeman, W.L., Jr. Biological evaluation of Heart Bar campground. San Francisco: USDA Forest Service, Forest Insect and Disease Management Report. Pacific Southwest Region; 1979.Google Scholar
  13. Freeman, W.L., Jr. Fomes annosus disease centers in Heart Bar campground. San Francisco: USDA Forest Service, Forest Insect and Disease Management Report. Pacific Southwest Region; 1980.Google Scholar
  14. Froelich, R.C.; Dell, T.R.; Walkinshaw, C.H. Soil factors associated with Fomes annosus in the Gulf states. Forest Sci. 12: 356–361; 1966.Google Scholar
  15. Furniss, R.L.; Carolin, V.M. Western forest insects. Misc. publ. 1339. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1992.Google Scholar
  16. Harris, J.L. Identification of Armillaria species in California Sierra Nevada forests and their strengths of associations with young conifer plantations. MS thesis, Utah State University, Logan; 1995.Google Scholar
  17. Hawksworth, F.G.; Williams-Cipriani, J.C.; Eav, B.B.; Geils, B.W.; Johnson, R.R.; Marsden, M.A.; Beatty, J.S.; Shubert, G.D. Interim dwarf mistletoe impact modeling systern: users guide and reference manual. Rep. MAG-91-3. Ft. Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Forest Pest Management; 1992.Google Scholar
  18. Heagle, A.S. Interactions between air pollutants and plant parasites. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 11: 365–488; 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heliovaara, K.; Vaisanen, R. Insects and pollution. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  20. Houston, D.R. Stress triggered tree diseases—the diebacks and declines. NE-INF-41-81. Radnor, PA: USDA Forest Service; 1981.Google Scholar
  21. Houston, D.R. Forest tree declines past and present: current understanding. Can. J. Plant Pathol. 9: 349–360; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jacobs, K.A.; MacDonald, J.D.; Cobb, F.W., Jr.; Wells, K. Identification of Armillaria species in California. Mycologia 86: 113–116; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. James, R.L. The effects of photochemical air pollution on the epidemiology of Fomes annosus. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley; 1977.Google Scholar
  24. James, R.L.; Cobb, F.W.; Wilcox, W.W.; Rowney, D.L. Effects of photochemical oxidant injury of ponderosa and Jeffrey pines on susceptibility of sapwood and freshly-cut stumps to Fomes annosus. Phytopathology 70: 704–708; 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. James, R.L.; Cobb, F.W., Jr.; Parmeter, J.R. Effects of ozone on sporulation, spore germination, and growth of Fomes annosus. Phytopathology 72: 1205–1208; 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kliejunas, J.T. Borax stump treatment for control of annosus root disease in the eastside pine type forests of northeastern California. In: Otrosina, W.J.; Scharpf, R.F., eds. Proceedings of the symposium on research and management of annosus root disease (Heterobasidion annosum) in western North America. Gen. tech. rep. PSW-116. Berkeley, CA: USDA Forest Service; 1989: 159–166.Google Scholar
  27. Kulhavy, D.L.; Partridge, A.D.; Stark, R.W. Root diseases and blister rust associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in western white pine in Idaho. Environ. Entomol. 13: 813–817; 1984.Google Scholar
  28. Lackner, A.L.; Alexander, S.A. Root disease and insect infestations on air-pollutionsensitive Pinus strobus and studies of pathogenicity of Verticicladiella procera. Plant Dis. 67: 679–681; 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Luck, R.F. Bionomics and parasites of a needle miner, Coleotechnites sp., infesting Jeffrey pine in southern California. Environ. Entomol. 5: 937–942; 1976.Google Scholar
  30. Manion, P.D.; Lachance, D. Forest decline concepts. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society Press; 1992.Google Scholar
  31. Miller, J.M.; Keen, F.P. Biology and control of the western pine beetle. Misc. publ. 800. USDA Forest Service; 1960.Google Scholar
  32. Miller, P.R. Oxidant-induced community change in a mixed conifer forest. In: Air pollution damage to vegetation. Advances in chemistry series 122. Washington, DC: American Chem. Soc. 1973: 101–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Miller, P.R. Mixed conifer forests of the San Bernardino Mountains, California. In: Olsen, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Bohn, M., eds. The response of western forests to air pollution. New York: Springer-Verlag; 1992: 461–497.Google Scholar
  34. Miller, P.R.; Parmeter, J.R., Jr.; Taylor, O.C.; Cardiff, E.A. Ozone injury to foliage ofPinus ponderosa. Phytopathology 53: 1072–1076; 1963.Google Scholar
  35. Miller, PR.; Longbotham, G.J.; Van Doren, R.E.; Thomas, M.A. Effect of chronic oxidant air pollution exposure on California black oak in the San Bernardino Mountains. In: Plumb, T.R., tech. coord. Ecology, management, and utilization of California oaks. Proceedings of the symposium. Gen. tech. rep. PSW-44. Berkeley, CA: USDA Forest Service; 1979: 220–229.Google Scholar
  36. Miller, P.R.; McBride, J.R.; Schilling, S.L.; Gomez, A.P. Trends of ozone damage to conifer forests between 1974 and 1988 in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California. In: Olson, R.K.; Lefohn, A.S., eds. Effects of air pollution on western forests. Transactions series 16. Pittsburgh, PA: Air and Waste Management Association; 1989: 309–323.Google Scholar
  37. Miller, P.R.; White, M. Ecosystems. In: Ozone and other photochemical oxidants. Washington, DC: National Research Council, Committee on Medical and Biological Effects of Environmental Pollutants, National Academy of Sciences; 1977: 586–642.Google Scholar
  38. Miller, P.R.; Stolte, K.W.; Duriscoe, D.M.; Pronos, J., tech coords. Evaluating ozone air pollution effects on pines in the western United States. Gen. tech. rep. PSW-GTR-155. Albany, CA: USDA Forest Service; 1996.Google Scholar
  39. Mudd, J.B. Toxicity of ozone. In: Yunus, M.; Iqbal, M., eds. Plant response to air pollution. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1966: 267–283.Google Scholar
  40. Otrosina, W.J.; Cobb, F.W., Jr. Biology, ecology, and epidemiology of Heterobasidion annosum. In: Otrosina, W.J.; Scharpf, R.F., eds. Proceedings of the symposium on research and management of annosus root disease (Heterobasidion annosum) in western North America. Gen. tech. rep. PSW-116. USDA Forest Service; 1989: 26–33.Google Scholar
  41. Parmeter, J.R., Jr.; MacGregor, N.J.; Smith, R.S., Jr. An evaluation of Fomes annosus in Yosemite National Park. Forest insect and disease management rep. 78–2. San Francisco: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region; 1978.Google Scholar
  42. Reimer, J.; Whittaker, J.B. Air pollution and insect herbivores: observed interactions and possible mechanisms. In: Bernays, E.A., ed. Insect-plant interactions, vol. 1. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1989: 73–105.Google Scholar
  43. Sandermann, H. Ozone and plant health. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 34: 347–366; 1996.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Shain, L. Resistance of sapwood in stems of loblolly pine to infection by Fomes annosus. Phytopathology 57: 1034–1045; 1967.Google Scholar
  45. Smith, R.S., Jr. Borax to control Fomes annosus infection of white fir stumps. Plant Dis. Rep. 54: 872–875; 1970.Google Scholar
  46. Smith, R.S., Jr. Root diseases. In: Scharpf, R.F., tech coord. Diseases of Pacific coast conifers. Agriculture handbook 521. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1993.Google Scholar
  47. Smith, R.S., Jr. Roettgering, B.R. A biological evaluation of three years of pest-caused tree mortality on the San Bernardino National Forest. Forest pest management report 82-4. San Francisco, CA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region; 1982.Google Scholar
  48. Stark, R.W.; Cobb, F.W., Jr. Smog injury, root diseases and bark beetle damage in ponderosa pine. Calif. Agric. 23(9): 13–15; 1969.Google Scholar
  49. Stark, R.W.; Miller, P.R.; Cobb, F.W., Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R., Jr. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees. Hilgardia 39: 121–126; 1968.Google Scholar
  50. Tainter, F.H.; Baker, F.A. Principles of forest pathology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1996.Google Scholar
  51. Takemoto, B.K. Ozone air quality in California’s mixed conifer forests: status of air monitoring and tree injury assessment activities in the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains. Sacramento, CA: California Air Resources Board, Research Division; 1996.Google Scholar
  52. Towers, B.; Stambaugh, J.W. The influence of induced moisture stress upon Fomes annosus root rot of loblolly pine. Phytopathology 58: 269–272; 1968.Google Scholar
  53. USDA. California forest health—past and present. Rep. R5-FPM-PR-001. San Francisco: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region; 1994.Google Scholar
  54. U.S. EPA. Air quality criteria for ozone and related photochemical oxidants. vol. II. EPA/600/p-93/004bF. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 1996.Google Scholar
  55. Veech, J.A.; Boyce, J.S. Soil microorganisms in two Georgia slash pine plantations with annosus root rot. US Plant Dis. Rep. 48: 873–874; 1964.Google Scholar
  56. Wargo, P.M.; Harrington, T.C. Host stress and susceptibility. In: Shaw, CG., III; Kile, G.A., eds. Armillaria root disease. Agriculture handbook 691. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1991.Google Scholar
  57. Whittaker, J.B.; Warrington, S. Effects of atmospheric pollutants on interactions between insects and their food plants. In: Burdon, J.J.; Leather, S.R., eds. Pests, pathogens and plant communities. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1990: 97–110.Google Scholar
  58. Williams, R.E.; Shaw, C.G.; Wargo, P.M.; Sites, W.H. Armillaria root disease. Forest insect & disease leaflet 78. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1986.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Pronos
  • L. Merrill
  • D. Dahlsten

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations