Insects and Pathogens in a Pollution-Stressed Forest

  • J. Pronos
  • L. Merrill
  • D. Dahlsten
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 134)


A healthy forest is comprised of trees and the plant, animal, and microbial communities with which they are normally associated. Native insect herbivores and pathogens of forest trees perform important functions in natural ecosystems, killing decadent trees, recycling nutrients, and creating gaps for regeneration. These insects and diseases are defined as pests when their activities interfere with management objectives for a stand. Such activities may cause tree mortality, injury, or debilitation.


Bark Beetle Tree Mortality Root Disease Ponderosa Pine Mixed Conifer Forest 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Pronos
  • L. Merrill
  • D. Dahlsten

There are no affiliations available

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