Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment for Roundup® Herbicide

  • John P. Giesy
  • Stuart Dobson
  • Keith R. Solomon
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 167)

Abstract

Glyphosate-based weed control products are among the most widely used broad-spectrum herbicides in the world. The herbicidal properties of glyphosate were discovered in 1970, and commercial formulations for nonselective weed control were first introduced in 1974 (Franz et al. 1997). Formulations of glyphosate, including Roundup® Herbicide (RU)1 (Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO), have been extensively investigated for their potential to produce adverse effects in nontarget organisms. Governmental regulatory agencies, international organizations, and others have reviewed and assessed the available scientific data for glyphosate formulations and independently judged their safety. Conclusions from three major organizations are publicly available and indicate RU can be used with minimal risk to the environment (Agriculture Canada 1991; USEPA 1993a; WHO 1994). Several review publications are available on the fate and effects of RU or glyphosate in the environment (Carlisle and Trevors 1988;Smith and Oehme 1992 ; Malik et al. 1989;Rueppel et al. 1977; Sullivan and Sullivan 1997;Forestry Canada, 1989). In addition, several books have been published about the environmental and human health considerations of glyphosate and its formulations (Grossbard and Atkinson 1985; Franz et al. 1997). In addition, RU and other glyphosate formulations have been selected for use in a number of weed control programs for state and local jurisdictions in the United States. Many of these uses require that ecological risk assessments be conducted in the form of Environmental Impact Statements or Environmental Assessments. These documents are comprehensive and specific to local use situations. Documents are available for risk assessments in Texas, Washington, Oregon, Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia, and other states (USDA 1989;USDA 1992;USDA 1996;USDA 1997;USDI 1989; Washington State DOT 1993).

References

  1. ABC Inc. (1978a) Acute toxicity of technical glyphosate to Daphnia magna. Monsanto unpublished study AB-78–201. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  2. ABC Inc. (1978b) Acute toxicity of technical glyphosate to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii). Monsanto unpublished study AB-78–165. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  3. ABC Inc. (1978c) Acute toxicity of technical glyphosate to bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Monsanto unpublished study AB-78–123. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  4. ABC Inc. (1978d) The effect of glyphosate on the degradation of cellulose, starch, protein and leaf litter in soil. Monsanto unpublished study.Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  5. ABC Inc. (1980a) Acute toxicity of MON-0818 to bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Monsanto unpublished study AB-80–283. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  6. ABC Inc. (1980b) Acute toxicity of MON-0818 to Daphnia magna. Monsanto unpublished study AB-80–284. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  7. ABC Inc. (1980c) Acute toxicity of MON-0818 to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii). Monsanto unpublished study AB-80–282.Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  8. ABC Inc. (1981a) Acute toxicity of MON 0139 to Daphnia magna. Monsanto unpublished study AB-81–074. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  9. ABC Inc. (1981b) Acute toxicity of MON 0139 to bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). Monsanto unpublished study AB-81–073. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  10. ABC Inc. (1981c) Acute toxicity of MON 0139 to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Monsanto unpublished study AB-81–072.Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  11. ABC Inc. (1982a) Dynamic 96-hour acute toxicity of Roundup to bluegill sunfish (Lep-omis macrochirus). Monsanto unpublished study AB-82–33. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  12. ABC Inc. (1982b) Dynamic 48-hour acute toxicity of Roundup to Gammarus pseudominaeus. Monsanto unpublished study AB-82–035. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  13. ABC Inc. (1982c) Dynamic 96-hour acute toxicity of Roundup to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii). Monsanto unpublished study AB-82–034. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  14. ABC Inc. (1982d) Chronic toxicity of glyphosate to Daphnia magna under flow-through test conditions. Monsanto unpublished study AB-82–036. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  15. ABC Inc. (1989a) Flow-through toxicity of glyphosate to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) for a 21 day duration period. Monsanto unpublished study AB-89–036. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  16. ABC Inc. (1989b) 21 Day prolonged static renewal toxicity of Roundup to Daphnia magna. Monsanto unpublished study AB-89–059. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  17. ABC Inc. (1989c) 21 Day prolonged static renewal toxicity of glyphosate technical to Daphnia magna. Monsanto unpublished study AB-89–058.. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO..Google Scholar
  18. ABC Inc. (1989d) Flow-through toxicity of Roundup to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) for a 21 day exposure period. Monsanto unpublished study AB-89–037. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  19. ABC Inc. (1991a) Acute toxicity of AMPA to Daphnia magna. Monsanto unpublished study AB-90–401. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  20. ABC Inc. (1991b) Acute toxicity of AMPA to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Monsanto unpublished study AB-90–402. Analytical Biochemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO.Google Scholar
  21. Agriculture Canada (1991) Pre-harvest use of glyphosate herbicide. Discussion document. Pesticides Directorate, Ottawa, Ontario.Google Scholar
  22. Allan JM, Klein AJ (1983) Roundup herbicide dissipation in cool climate forest soil and leaf litter. Unpublished report MSL-2950. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  23. Asteraki EJ, Hanks CB, Clements RO (1992) The impact of the chemical removal of the hedge-base flora on the community structure of carabid beetles (Col., Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae) of the field and hedge bottom. J Appl Entomol 113:398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Atkinson D (1985) Glyphosate damage symptoms and the effects of drift. Appendix I. In: Grossbard E, Atkinson D (eds) The Herbicide Glyphosate. Butterworths, London, p 455.Google Scholar
  25. Banduhn MC, Frazier HW (1974) G 3780A surfactant: biodegradation in natural waters. Unpublished report no. MSL-0488. MonsantoGoogle Scholar
  26. Barrett PRF (1978) The place of glyphosate among aquatic herbicides in Great Britain. Proceedings Roundup Seminar: 24–29. ARC Weed Research Organization, Oxford, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  27. Beyers DW (1995) Acute toxicity of Rodeo® herbicide to Rio Grande silvery minnow as estimated by surrogate species: plains minnow and fathead minnow. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 29:24–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Beyers DW (1993) Acute toxicity of Rodea and Valent X-77 to Rio Grande silvery minnow as estimated by surrogate species: Plains minnow, fathead minnow, Hyalella azteca,and Chironomus tentans. US Bureau of Reclamation, Upper Colorado Regional office, Final Report, Feb 12.Google Scholar
  29. Bidwell JR, Gorrie JR (1995) Acute toxicity of a herbicide to selected frog species. Final report. Prepared for Western Australian Department of Environmental Protection, Westralia Square, 141 St. George’s Terrace, Perth, 6000, Australia.Google Scholar
  30. Biederbeck VO, Campbell CA, Hunter JH (1997) Tillage effects on soil microbial and biochemical characteristics in a fallow-wheat rotation in a dark brown soil. Can J Soil Sci 77:309–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bio/Dynamics (1979) A three month feeding study of glyphosate (Roundup technical) in mice. Monsanto unpublished study BDN-77–419. Bio/Dynamics Inc., Division of Biology and Safety Evaluation, East Millstone, NJ.Google Scholar
  32. Bio/Dynamics (1981a) A lifetime feeding study of glyphosate (Roundup technical) in rats. Monsanto unpublished study BDN-77–416.Bio/Dynamics Inc., Division of Biology and Safety Evaluation, East Millstone, NJ.Google Scholar
  33. Bio/Dynamics (1981b) A three-generation reproduction study in rats with glyphosate. Monsanto unpublished study BDN-77–417. Bio/Dynamics Inc., Division of Biology and Safety Evaluation, East Millstone, NJ.Google Scholar
  34. Bio/Dynamics (1983a) A chronic feeding study of glyphosate (Roundup technical) in mice. Monsanto unpublished study BDN-77–420. Bio/Dynamics Inc., Division of Biology and Safety Evaluation, East Millstone, NJ.Google Scholar
  35. Bionomics (1973a) Acute toxicity of Roundup (technical) to Atlantic oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Monsanto unpublished study BN-73–079. Bionomics, Wareham, MS.Google Scholar
  36. Bionomics (1973b) Acute toxicity of Roundup (technical) to grass shrimp (Palaemonetes vulgaris) and fiddler crab (Uca pugilator). Monsanto unpublished study BN-73–080. Bionomics, Wareham, MS.Google Scholar
  37. Bionomics (1973c) Acute toxicity of Roundup to bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Monsanto unpublished study BN-73–078. Bionomics, Wareham, MS.Google Scholar
  38. Blaszcak DL (1988a) Acute oral toxicity in rats/Roundup herbicide. Monsanto unpublished study BD-87–283. Bio/Dynamics Inc., Department of Toxicology, East Millstone, NJ.Google Scholar
  39. Blaszcak DL (1988b) Acute oral toxicity in rats for glyphosate technical (wetcake). Monsanto unpublished study BD-88–114. Bio/Dynamics Inc., Department of Toxicology, East Millstone, NJ.Google Scholar
  40. Bowmer KH (1982) Residues of glyphosate in irrigation water. Pestic Sci 13:623–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Bozeman J, Koopman B, Bitton G (1989) Toxicity testing using immobilized algae. Aquat Toxicol 14(4):345–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bramble WC, Yahner RH, Byrnes WR (1997) Effect of herbicides on butterfly populations of an electric transmission right-of-way. J Arboricult 23(5):196–206.Google Scholar
  43. Branch DK (1981) Acute oral toxicity of MON 0139 to rats. Monsanto unpublished study ML-80–261. Monsanto Environmental Health Laboratory, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  44. Breeze V, Thomas G, Butler R (1992) Use of a model and toxicity data to predict the risk to some wild plant species from drift of four herbicides. Ann Appl Biol 121: 669–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Brightwell BB, Malik JM (1978) Solubility, volatility, adsorption and partition coefficients, leaching and aquatic metabolism of MON 0573 and MON 0101. Unpublished report MSL-0207. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  46. Brt nstad JO, Friestad OH (1985) Behaviour of glyphosate in the aquatic environment. In: Grossbard E, Atkinson D (eds) The Herbicide Glyphosate. Butterworths, London, p 200.Google Scholar
  47. Brust GE (1990) Direct and indirect effects of four herbicides on the activity of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Pestic Sci 30:309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Buhl KJ, Faerber NL (1989) Acute toxicities of selected herbicides and surfactants to larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 18:530–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Burgett M, Fisher G (1990) A review of the Belizean honey bee industry: Final report prepared at the request of The Belize Honey Producers Federation. Department of Entomology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.Google Scholar
  50. Carlisle SM, Trevors JT (1986) Effect of the herbicide glyphosate on nitrification, deni-trification, and acetylene reduction in soil. Water Air Soil Pollut 29:189–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Carlisle SM, Trevors JT (1988) Glyphosate in the environment. Water Air Soil Pollut 39:409–420.Google Scholar
  52. CCME (1996) A framework for ecological risk assessment: general guidance. The National Contaminated Sites Remediation Program. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg, Manitoba.Google Scholar
  53. Cessna AJ, Cain NP (1992) Residues of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA in straw-berry fruit following spot and wiper applications. Can J Plant Sci 72:1359–1365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Chakravarty P, Chatarpaul L (1990a) Non-target effect of herbicides: I. Effect of glyphosate and hexazinone on soil microbial activity. Microbial population, and in vitro growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Pestic Sci 28:233–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Chakravarty P, Chatarpaul L (1990b) Non-target effect of herbicides: II. The influence of glyphosate on ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of red pine (Pinus resinosa) under greenhouse and field conditions. Pestic Sci 28:243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Chaterpaul L, Chakravarty P, Subramaniam P (1989) Ectomycorrhizal effects on nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth of Alnus glutinosa as affected by glyphosate. Proceedings of an International Workshop on Applications of Biotechnology in Forestry and Horticulture, January 14–16, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  57. Cheat’ UB, Lum KY, Kirkwood RC (1996) Adsorption-desorption of selected pesticides in two Malaysian soils. In: Proceedings, COST-66 Workshop, Stratford-upon-Avon, p 41Google Scholar
  58. Chetram RS, Lucash KJ (1994) Tier 2 vegetative vigor nontarget phytotoxicity study using glyphosate. Monsanto unpublished report MSL-13320. Pan-Agricultural Laboratories, Inc., Madera, CA.Google Scholar
  59. Christian FA, Jackson RN, Tate TM (1993) Effect of sublethal concentrations of glyphosate and dalapon on protein and aminotransferase activity in Pseudosuccinea columella. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 51:703–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Christy SL, Karlander EP, Parochetti JV (1981) Effects of glyphosate on the growth rate of Chlorella. Weed Sci 29(1):5–7.Google Scholar
  61. Cole DJ (1985) Mode of action of glyphosate—a literature analysis. In: Grossbard E, Atkinson D (eds) The Herbicide Glyphosate. Butterworths, London, p 48.Google Scholar
  62. Cole EC, McComb WC, Newton M, Leeming JP, Chambers CL (1998) Response of small mammals to clearcutting, burning, and glyphosate application in the Oregon coast range. J Wildl Manage 62(4):1207–1216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Crisanto T, Sanchez-Martin MJ, Sanchez-Camazano M, Arienzo M (1994) Mobility of pesticides in soils. Influence of soil properties and pesticide structure. Toxicol Environ Chem 45(1–2):97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Cumming HG, Lautenschlager RA, Kelly CP, Thapa S (1996) Effects of conifer release with Visiori (glyphosate) herbicide on moose forage quality (digestible protein). Forest Research Report 139. Ontario Forest Research Institute. (Cited in Sullivan and Sullivan 1997.)Google Scholar
  65. Dalby PR, Baker GH, Smith SE (1995) Glyphosate, 2,4-DB and dimethoate: effects on earthworm survival and growth. Soil Biochem 27(12):1661–1662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Danhaus RG (1984) Dissipation of glyphosate in U.S. field soils following multiple applications of Roundup herbicide. Unpublished report MSL-3352. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  67. Dengler D, Mende P (1994a) Testing of toxic effects of aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) on the single cell green alga (Scenedesmus subspicatus). Unpublished study XX-93–271. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  68. Dengler D, Mende P (1994b) Testing of toxic effects of the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate acid on the single cell green alga Scenedesmus subspicatus. Unpublished study XX-93–270. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  69. Eberbach PL, Douglas LA (1983) Persistence of glyphosate in a sandy loam. Soil Biol Biochem 15(4):485–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Eberbach PL, Douglas LA (1989) Herbicide effects on the growth and nodulation potential of Rhizobium trifolii with Trifolium subterraneum L. Plant Soil 119:15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Edwards CA, Bohlen PJ (1996) Biology and Ecology of Earthworms, Ed. 3. Chapman &Hall, London.Google Scholar
  72. Edwards GA (1981) Additional information to support the registration of Roundup® herbicide. Forest Ecosystem Study, Part I. Special report. Unpublished report MSL-1820. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  73. Edwards WM, Triplett GB, Kramer RM (1980) A watershed study of glyphosate transport in runoff. J Environ Qual 9(4):661–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. EG & G Bionomics (1975) Chronic toxicity of glyphosate to the fathead minnow (Pimephales prometas Rafinesque). Monsanto unpublished study BN-75–129. EG & G Bionomics, Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory. Wareham, MS.Google Scholar
  75. EG & G Bionomics (1978a) Toxicity of seven test materials to the marine alga (Skeletonema costatum). Monsanto unpublished study BN-78–44C. EG & G Bionomics, Marine Research Laboratory, Pensacola, FL.Google Scholar
  76. EG & G Bionomics (1978b) Toxicity of seven test materials to sheepshead minnows, (Cyprinodon variegatus). Monsanto unpublished study BN-78–44B. EG & G Bionomics, Marine Research Laboratory, Pensacola, FL.Google Scholar
  77. EG & G Bionomics (1978c) Toxicity of seven test materials to mysid shrimp, (Mysidopsis Bahia). Monsanto unpublished study BN-78–044. EG & G Bionomics, Marine Research Laboratory, Pensacola, FLGoogle Scholar
  78. EG & G Bionomics (1978d) Toxicity of seven test materials to the white sea urchin, Tripneustes esculentus. Monsanto unpublished study BN-78–44A. EG & G Bionomics, Marine Research Laboratory, Pensacola, FL.Google Scholar
  79. EG & G Bionomics (1980a) Acute toxicity of Roundup to channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Monsanto unpublished study BN-80–076. EG & G Bionomics, Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Wareham, MS.Google Scholar
  80. EG & G Bionomics (1980b) Acute toxicity of Roundup to bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Monsanto unpublished study BN-80–075. EG & G Bionomics, Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Wareham, MS.Google Scholar
  81. EG & G Bionomics (1980c) Acute toxicity of Roundup to the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii). Monsanto unpublished study BN-80–074. EG & G Bionomics, Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Wareham, MS.Google Scholar
  82. EG & G Bionomics (1980d) Acute toxicity of Roundup to the fathead minnow (Pimephales prometas). Monsanto unpublished study BN-80–077. EG & G Bionomics, Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Wareham, MS.Google Scholar
  83. EG & G Bionomics (1980e) Acute toxicity of Roundup to the water flea (Daphnia magna). Monsanto unpublished report BN-80–079. EG & G Bionomics, Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Wareham, MS.Google Scholar
  84. EG & G Bionomics (1980f) Acute toxicity of Roundup to the water flea (Daphnia magna) with and without continuous aeration. Monsanto unpublished study BN-80181. EG & G Bionomics, Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Wareham, MS.Google Scholar
  85. EG & G Bionomics (1980g) Acute toxicity of Roundup to the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii) with continuous aeration and without aeration. Monsanto unpublished study BN-80–180. EG & G Bionomics, Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, Wareham, MS.Google Scholar
  86. Eggestad M, Enge E, Hjeljord O, Sahlgaard V (1988) Glyphosate application in forest—ecological aspects. VIII. The effect on black grouse (Tetrao tetrix) summer habitat. Scand J For Res 3:129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Environment Canada (1997) Environmental Assessments of Priority Substances Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. EPS/2/CC/3E Chemical Evaluation Division, Commercial Chemicals Evaluation Branch, Environment Canada, Government of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.Google Scholar
  88. Estes FL (1979) 90 Day subacute rat toxicity study. Unpublished study IRD-78–174. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  89. Estok D, Freedman B, Boyle D (1989) Effects of the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate, hexazinone, and triclopyr on the growth of three species of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 42:835–839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. European Council (1993) Annex VI to commission directive 67/548/EEC (on classifica-tion and labeling of dangerous substances). Offic J Eur Comm L 110, A68–A70.Google Scholar
  91. European Council (1980) Directive 80/778/EEC relating to the quality of water intended for human consumption. Offic J Eur Comm L 229,30,8, p 11 (as last amended in OJ L 377,31,12,1991, p 48).Google Scholar
  92. Evans DD, Batty MJ (1986) Effects of high dietary concentrations of glyphosate (Roundup) on a species of bird, marsupial and rodent indigenous to Australia. Environ Toxicol Chem 5:399–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. FDRL (1988) Acute oral toxicity study of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats. Monsantounpublished study FD-88–29. Food and Drug Research Laboratories, Waverly, NY.Google Scholar
  94. Felton JC, Oomen PA, Stephenson JH (1986) Toxicity and hazard of pesticides to honeybees: harmonization of test methods. Bee World 67:114–124.Google Scholar
  95. Feng JC, Thompson DG (1990) Fate of glyphosate in a Canadian forest watershed. 2. Persistence in foliage and soils. J Agric Food Chem 38:1118–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Feng JC, Thompson DG, Reynolds PE (1990) Fate of glyphosate in a Canadian forest watershed. 1. Aquatic residues and off-target deposit assessment. J Agric Food Chem 38:1110–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Findlay JBR, Jones D (1996) The integrated control of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Africa based on Roundup herbicide treatments. In: Proceedings of the IX International Symposium of Biological Control of Weeds, pp 435–440.Google Scholar
  98. Fletcher K, Freedman B (1986) Effects of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on forest litter decomposition. Can J For Res 16:6–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Folmar LC (1978) Avoidance chamber responses of mayfly nymphs exposed to eight herbicides. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 19(3):312–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Folmar LC, Sanders HO, Julin AM (1979) Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 8:269–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Forestry Canada (1989) Proceedings of the Carnation Creek Herbicide Workshop. Reynolds PE (ed.). Victoria, British Columbia.Google Scholar
  102. Frank R, Braun HE, Ripley BD, Clegg BS (1990) Contamination of rural ponds with pesticide 1971–85, Ontario, Canada. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 44:401–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Franz JE, Mao MK, Sikorski JA (1997) Glyphosate: a unique global herbicide. ACS Monograph 189, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 163–175.Google Scholar
  104. Freedman B (1991) Controversy over the use of herbicides in forestry, with particular reference to glyphosate usage. Environ Carcinog Rev (J Environ Sci Health) C8(2): 277–186.Google Scholar
  105. Ganzelmeier H, Rautmann D, Spangenberg R, Streloke M, Herrmann M, Wenzelburger H-J, Walter H-F (1995) Studies on the spray drift of plant protection products; results of a test program carried out throughout the Federal Republic of Germany. Blackwell, Berlin.Google Scholar
  106. Gardner SC, Grue CE (1996) Effects of Rodeo and Garlon 3A on nontarget wetland species in central Washington. Environ Toxicol Chem 15(4):441–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Gardner SC, Grue CE, Grassley JM, Lenz LA, Lindenauer JM, Seeley ME (1997) Single species algal (Ankistrodesmus) toxicity tests with Rodeo and Garlon 3A. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 59:492–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Gerritse RG, Beltran J, Hernandez F (1996) Adsorption of atrazine, simazine and glyphosate in soils of the Gnangara Mound, Western Australia. Aust J Soil Res 34(4):599–607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Glass RL (1987) Adsorption of glyphsoate by soils and clay minerals. J Agric Food Chem 35:497–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Goldsborough LG, Beck AE (1989) Rapid dissipation of glyphosate in small forest ponds. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 18:537–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Goldsborough LG, Brown DJ (1993) Dissipation of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in water and sediments of boreal forest ponds. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:1139–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Gomez MA, Sagardoy MA (1985) Influence of glyphosate herbicide on the microflora and mesofauna of a sandy soil in a semiarid region. Rev Latinoam Microbiol 27: 351–357.Google Scholar
  113. Greenpeace (1995) Pesticides in the Ground Water: Results of a Survey of German Public Health Offices in 1994. Greenpeace, Hamburg, Germany.Google Scholar
  114. Grossbard E, Atkinson D (eds) (1985) The Herbicide Glyphosate. Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  115. Guo P, Choudhary MA, Rahman A (1999) Tillage-induced changes in a silt loam soil under continuous cropping. I. Soil physical properties. Agric Eng J 8(3):149–159.Google Scholar
  116. Gustafson DI; Bleeke MS (2000) Recalculation of degradation rates of AMPA in US and Canadian glyphosate terrestrial dissipation studies. Unpublished report MSL-16713.Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  117. Haag KH (1986) Effects of herbicide application on mortality and dispersive behavior of the water hyacinth weevils, Neochetina eichhorniae and Neochetina bruchi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environ Entomol 15(6):1192–1198.Google Scholar
  118. Hance RJ (1976) Adsorption of glyphosate by soils. Pestic Sci 7:363–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Hart MR, Brookes PC (1996) Soil microbial biomass and mineralization of soil organic matter after 19 years of cumulative field applications of pesticides. Soil Biol Biochem 28:1641–1649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Hartman WA, Martin DB (1984) Effect of suspended bentonite clay on the acute toxicity of glyphosate to Daphnia pulex and Lemna minor. Bull EnvironGoogle Scholar
  121. Hartman WA, Martin DB (1985) Effects of four agricultural pesticides on Daphnia pulex, Lemna minor, and Potamogeton pectinatus. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 35(5): 646–651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Hassan SA, Bigler F, Bogenschütz H, Boller E, Brun J, Chiverton P, Edwards P, Man-sour F, Naton E, Oomen PA, Overmeer PJ, Polgar L, Rieckmann W, Samsoe-Petersen L, Stäubli A, Sterk G, Tavares K, Tuset JJ, Viggiani G, Vivas AG (1988) Results of the fourth joint pesticide testing programme carried out by the IOBC/WPRS-Working Group “Pesticides and Beneficial Organsisms.” J Appl Entomol 105:321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hayward JC, Mallett MJ (2000) A Laboratory investigation of the effects of glyphosate and its breakdown product AMPA on reproduction in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Monsanto unpublished study CE-1999–257. CEM Analytical Services Ltd., North Ascot, Berkshire, UK.Google Scholar
  124. Hazleton Lab. (1973a) Eight day dietary LC50—bobwhite quail, technical. CP67375. Monsanto unpublished study HL-73–076. Hazleton Laboratories, Inc., Vienna, VA.Google Scholar
  125. Hazleton Lab. (1973b) Eight day dietary LC50—mallard ducks, technical. CP67375. Monsanto unpublished study HL-73–075. Hazleton Laboratories, Inc., Vienna, VA.Google Scholar
  126. Heinonen-Tanski H, Rosenberg C, Siltanen H, Kilpi S, Simojoki P (1985) The effect of the annual use of pesticides on soil microorganisms, pesticide residues in the soil and barley yields. Pestic Sci 16:341–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Henry CJ, Higgins KF, Buhl KJ (1991) Acute toxicity and hazard assessment of Rodeó, X-77 Spreader, and Chem-Trol® to aquatic invertebrates. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 27:392–399.Google Scholar
  128. Hernando F, Royuela M, Muñoz-Rueda A, Gonzalez-Murua C (1989) Effects of glyphosate on the greening process and photosynthetic metabolism in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. J Plant Physiol 134:26–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Hess FD (1980) A Chlamydomonas algal bioassay for detecting growth inhibitor herbicides. Weed Sci 28(5):515–520.Google Scholar
  130. Hildebrand LD, Sullivan DS, Sullivan TP (1982) Experimental studies of rainbow trout populations exposed to field applications of Roundup herbicide. Arch Environ Con-tam Toxicol 11:93–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hjeljord 0 (1994) Moose (Alces alces) and mountain hare (Lepus timidus) use of conifer plantations following glyphosate application. Nor J Agric Sci 8(3–4):181–88. (Cited in Sullivan and Sullivan 1997.)Google Scholar
  132. Hjeljord O, Sahlgaard V, Enge E, Eggestad M, Gronvold S (1988) Glyphosate application in forest—ecological aspects: the effect on mountain hare (Lepus timidus) use of a forest plantation. Scand J For Res 3:123–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Holdway DA, Dixon DG (1988) Acute toxicity of permethrin or glyphosate pulse exposure to larval white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) and juvenile Hagfish (fordanella floridae) as modified by age and ration level. Environ Toxicol Chem 7: 63–68.Google Scholar
  134. Hoick AR, Meek CL (1987) Dose-mortality responses of crawfish and mosquitoes to selected pesticides. J Amer Mosquito Control Assoc 3(3):407–411.Google Scholar
  135. Holson JF (1990) A developmental toxicity study of MON 0818 in rats. Monsanto unpublished study WI-89–388. WIL Research Laboratories, Inc., Ashland, OH.Google Scholar
  136. Holson JF (1991) A developmental toxicity study of AMPA in rats. Monsanto unpublished study WI-90–266. WIL Research Laboratories, Inc., Ashland, OH.Google Scholar
  137. Horner LM (1990) Dissipation of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in for -estry sites. Unpublished report MSL-9940. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  138. Horner LM, Kunstman JL (1988) Aquatic Dissipation of glyphosate and AMPA in water and soil sediment following application of glyphosate in irrigated crop and forestry uses. Unpublished report MSL-8332. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  139. HRC (1972) The acute contact and oral toxicities of CP 67573 and MON 2139 to worker honey bees. Monsanto unpublished study HU85X094. Huntingdon Research Centre, Huntingdon, UK.Google Scholar
  140. HRC (1977) The acute toxicity of glyphosate to harlequin fish (Rasbora heteromorpha). Monsanto unpublished study HU-77–465. Huntingdon Research Centre, Huntingdon, UK.Google Scholar
  141. Hutber GN, Rogers LJ, Smith AJ (1979) Influence of pesticides on the growth of cyanobacteria. Z Allg Mikrobiol 19(6):397–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. IBR (1991a) Final report. Acute toxicity in earthworms according to OECD 207—test article: technical isopropylamine salt of glyphosate. Monsanto unpublished study IB91–053. International Bioresearch, Hannover, Germany.Google Scholar
  143. IBR (1991b) Final report. Acute toxicity in earthworms according to OECD 207—test article: Roundup. Monsanto unpublished study IB-90–571. International Bioresearch, Hannover, Germany.Google Scholar
  144. IET (1986) Roundup herbicide: acute oral toxicity study in mice. Monsanto unpublished study ET-85–377. Mitsukaido Laboratories, Insititute of Environmental Toxicology, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  145. Institut Fresenius (1998) Verification and evaluation of glyphosate findings published 1994 in the Greenpeace report “Pestizide im Grundwasser.” Institut Fresenius Chemische and Biologiche Laboratorien BmgH, Taunusstein, Germany.Google Scholar
  146. International Joint Commission (1975) Canadian Water Quality Guidelines. Freshwater Aquatic Life. Task Force on Water Quality Guidelines of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Ottawa, Ontario.Google Scholar
  147. Inveresk Research (1989a) Glyphosate technical: acute oral toxicity (limit) test in rats (IRI project no. 243268). Unpublished report no. 5583 submitted by Cheminova A/ S, Denmark Inveresk Research International, Musselburgh, Scotland. (Cited in WHO 1994.)Google Scholar
  148. Kenaga EE (1973) Factors to be considered in the evaluation of the toxicity of pesticides to birds in their environment. In: Coulston F, Korte F (eds) Environmental Quality and Safety: Global Aspects of Chemistry, Toxicology and Technology as Applied to the Environment, Vol. II. Georg Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 166–181.Google Scholar
  149. Kirkwood RC (1987) Uptake and movement of herbicides from plant surfaces and the effects of formulation and environment upon them. In: Cottrell HJ (ed) Pesticides on Plant Surfaces. Wiley, Chichester.Google Scholar
  150. Kishore GM, Jacob GS (1987) Degradation of glyphosate by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 via a sarcosine intermediate. J Biol Chem 262(25):12164–12168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Knapek R, Kopes S, Kita I (1986) Toxicological evaluation of N-phosphonomethylglycine. Z Gesamte Hyg 32(9):537–539. (Cited in WHO 1994.)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Kunstman JL (1983) Glyphosate residues in soybeans and soybean fractions following recirculating sprayer and preharvest topical treatments with Roundup herbicide. Unpublished report MSL-3259. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  153. Lamarca CC (1996) Stubble over the soil: the vital role of plant residue in soil management to improve soil quality. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.Google Scholar
  154. Lautenschlager RA, Bell FW, Wagner RG, Reynolds PE (1998) The Fallingsnow Ecosystem Project: documenting the consequences of conifer release alternatives. J For 96(1):20–27.Google Scholar
  155. Lethbridge G, Bull AT, Burns RG (1981) Effects of pesticides on 1,3–13-glucanase and Roundup Risk Assessment 113 urease activities in soil in the presence and absence of fertilisers, lime and organic materials. Pestic Sci 12(2):147–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Linz GM, Bleier WJ, Overland JD, Homan HJ (1999) Response of invertebrates to glyphosate-induced habitat alterations in wetlands. Wetlands 19(1):220–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Linz GM, Bergman DL, Blixt DC, Bleier WJ (1994) Response of black terns (Chlidonias niger) to glyphosate-induced habitat alterations on wetlands. Colon Waterbirds 17(2): 160–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Linz GM, Blixt DC, Bergman DL, Bleier WJ (1996) Response of ducks to glyphosateinduced habitat alterations in wetlands. Wetlands 16(1):38–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Linz GM, Bergman DL, Blixt DC, McMuri C (1997) Response of American coots and soras to herbicide-induced vegetation changes in wetlands. J Field Omithol 68(3): 450–457.Google Scholar
  160. Liong PC, Hamzah WP, Murugan V (1988) Toxicity of some pesticides towards freshwater fishes. Malays Agric J 54(3):147–156.Google Scholar
  161. LISEC (1989a) Alga, growth inhibition test. Effect of MON 2139 on the growth of Selenastrum capricornutum. Monsanto unpublished study XX-89–093. LISEC, Study Centre for Ecology and Forestry, Bokrijk, Belgium.Google Scholar
  162. Livingston CL, Chott KA, Schafer TR (1986) Australian notification base testing requirements for N-(phosphonomethyl)iminodiacetic acid (glyphosate intermediate). Part II: Adsorption/desorption data. Unpublished report MSL-5393. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  163. Lockhart WL, Billeck BN, Baron CL (1989) Bioassays with a floating aquatic plant (Lemna minor) for effects of sprayed and dissolved glyphosate. Hydrobiologia 188/ 189:353–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Mackay D, Shiu WY, Ma KC (1997) Illustrated Handbook of Physical-Chemical Properties and Environmental Fate for Organic Chemicals, Vol. V. Pesticide Chemicals. Lewis, New York.Google Scholar
  165. MacKinnon DS, Freedman B (1993) Effects of silvicultural use of the herbicide glyphosate on breeding birds of regenerating clearcuts in Nova Scotia, Canada. J Appl Ecol 30:395–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Malcolm Pirnie (1987a) The toxicity of glyphosate technical to Anabaena flosaquae. Monsanto unpublished study XX-88–415. Malcolm Pirnie Inc., White Plains, NY.Google Scholar
  167. Malcolm Pirnie (1987b) The toxicity of glyphosate technical to Skeletonema costatum.Monsanto unpublished study XX-88–414. Malcolm Pirnie Inc., White Plains, NY.Google Scholar
  168. Malcolm Pirnie (1987c) The toxicity of glyphosate technical to Navicula pelliculosa.Monsanto unpublished study XX-88–413.Malcolm Pirnie Inc., White Plains, NY.Google Scholar
  169. Malcolm Pirnie (1987d) The toxicity of glyphosate technical to Selenastrum capricornutum. Monsanto unpublished study XX-88–412. Malcolm Pirnie Inc., White Plains, NY.Google Scholar
  170. Malcolm Pirnie (1987e) The toxicity of glyphosate technical to Lemna gibba. Monsanto unpublished study XX-88–416.Malcolm Pirnie Inc., White Plains, NY.Google Scholar
  171. Malik J, Barry G, Kishore G (1989) The herbicide glyphosate. Biofactors 2(1):17–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Mann RM, Bidwell JR (1999) The toxicity of glyphosate and several glyphosate formulations to four species of southwestern Australian frogs. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 36:193–199.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Marrs RH, Frost AJ (1997) A microcosm approach to the detection of the effects of herbicide spray drift in plant communities. J Environ Manage 50:369–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Marrs RH, Williams CT, Frost AJ, Plant RA (1989) Assessment of the effects of herbicide spray drift on a range of plant species of conservation interest. Environ Pollut 59:71–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Mans RH, Frost AJ, Plant RA, Lunnis P (1993) Determination of buffer zones to protect seedlings of non-target plants from the effects of glyphosate spray drift. Agric Ecosyst Environ 45:283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Martens DA, Bremner JM (1993) Influence of herbicides on transformations of urea nitrogen in soil. J Environ Sci Health B28(4):377–395.Google Scholar
  177. Marvel JT, Brightwell BB, Suba L (1974) G 3780A surfactant: biodegradation, plant uptake, and 14C-distribution. Unpublished report 321. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  178. Maule A, Wright SJL (1984) Herbicide effects on the populations growth of some green algae and cyanobacteria. J Appl Bacteriol 57:369–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Maund SJ, Barber I, Dulka J, Gonzalez-Valero J, Hamer MJ, Heimbach F, Marshall M, McCahon P, Staudenmeier H, Wustner D (1997) Development and evaluation of triggers for sediment toxicity testing of pesticides with benthic macroinvertebrates. Environ Toxicol Chem 16(12):2590–2596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Mayer FL, Ellersieck MR (1986) Manual of acute toxicity: interpretation and data base for 410 chemicals and 66 species of freshwater animals. United States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service Resource Publication 160. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  181. Mead-Briggs M (1990) An evaluation of the toxicity of Roundup to the carabid beetle Bembidion lampros under semi-field conditions. Monsanto unpublished study XX-90–603. Dept. of Biology, The University, Southhampton, Agrochemical Evaluation Unit, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  182. Mekwatanakarn P, Sivasithamparam K (1987a) Effect of certain herbicides on saprophytic survival and biological suppression of the take-all fungus. New Phytol 106: 153–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Mekwatanakam P, Sivasithamparam K (1987b) Effect of certain herbicides on soil microbial populations and their influence on saprophytic growth in soil and pathogenicity of take-all fungus. Biol Fertil Soils 5:175–180.Google Scholar
  184. Mestdagh P (1979) Field soil dissipation studies of Roundup conducted in Sweden and France. Unpublished report MLL-30.033. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  185. Miller JJ, Hill BD, Chang C, Lindwall CW (1995) Residue detections in soil and shallow groundwater after long-term herbicide applications in southern Alberta. Can J Soil Sci 75(3):349–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Mitchell DG, Chapman PM, Long TJ (1987) Acute toxicity of Roundup and Rodeo herbicides to rainbow trout, chinook, and coho salmon. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39(6):1028–1035.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Mohamed AI, Nair GA, Kassem HH, Nuruzzaman M (1995) Impacts of pesticides on the survival and body mass of the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Annelida: Oligochaeta). Acta Zool Fenn 196:344–347.Google Scholar
  188. Moore SB, Diehl RA, Barnhardt JM, Avery GB (1987) Aquatic toxicities of textile surfactants. Text Chem Color 19(5):29–32.Google Scholar
  189. Morash R, Freedman B (1989) The effects of several herbicides on the germination of seeds in the forest floor. Can J For Res 19(3):347–350. (Cited in Sullivan and Sullivan 1997.)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Morgan JD, Vigers GA, Farrell AP, Janz DM, Manville JF (1991) Acute avoidance reactions and behavioral responses of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to Garlon 4, Garlon 3A and Vision herbicides. Environ Toxicol Chem 10:73–79.Google Scholar
  191. Morgan MJ, Kiceniuk JW (1992) Response of rainbow trout to a two month exposure to Vision, a glyphosate herbicide. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 48:772–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Moshier LI, Penner D (1978) Factors influencing microbial degradation of 14C-glyphosate to 14CO2 in soil. Weed Sci 26:686–691.Google Scholar
  193. Müller MM, Rosenberg C, Siltanen H, Wartiovaara T (1981) Fate of glyphosate and its influence on nitrogen-cycling in two Finnish agriculture soils. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 27:724–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Nagy KA (1987) Field metabolic rate and food requirement scaling in mammals and birds. Ecol Monogr 57:111–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. NATEC (1990) Gyyphosate: growth inhibition test with algae according to OECD-guideline 201. Monsanto unpublished study XX-90–523. Study NA89 9654. NATEC Institut fur Naturwissenschaftlich Technische Dienste GmbH, Hamburg, Germany.Google Scholar
  196. Newton M, Howard KM, Kelpsas BR, Danhaus R, Lottman CM, Dubelman S (1984) Fate of glyphosate in an Oregon forest ecosystem. J Agric Food Chem 32(5):1144–1151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Newton M, Horner LM, Cowell JE, White DE, Cole EC (1994) Dissipation of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in north American forests. J Agric Food Chem 42: 1795–1802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Nomura NS, Hilton HW (1977) The absorption and degradation of glyphosate in 5 Hawaiian sugarcane soils. Weed Res 17:113–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. NOTOX (1988) Acute oral toxicity of glyphosate in the rat. Unpublished report RCC NTOX 1111/1428 submitted by Agrichem B.V., The Netherlands. s-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands, NOTOX—Toxicological Research and Consultancy. (Cited in WHO 1994.)Google Scholar
  200. NTP (1992) NTP technical report on toxicity studies of glyphosate administered in dosed feed to F344/N rats and B6C3F, mice. Toxicity Report Series No. 16. NIH Publication 92–3135 July 1992. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Toxicology Program (NTP), Research Triangle Park, NC.Google Scholar
  201. Ogrowski D (1989) Four-week feeding study of MON 0818 in Sprague-Dawley rats. Unpublished report MSL-9238. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  202. Oppenhuizen ME (1993) The terrestrial field dissipation of glyphosate: final report. Unpublished report MSL-12651. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  203. Oppenhuizen ME, Goure WF (1993) The terrestrial field dissipation of glyphosate in Canadian soils. Unpublished report MSL-12605. Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  204. Parkhurst BR, Warren-Hicks W, Etchison T, Butcher JB, Cardell RD, Volison J (1995) Methodology for aquatic ecological risk assessment. RP91-AER. Final report prepared for the Water Environment Research Foundation, Alexandria, VA.Google Scholar
  205. Paveglio FL, Kilbride KM, Grue CE, Simenstad CA, Fresh KL (1996) Use of Rodeo and X-77 Spreader to control smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) in a southwestern Washington estuary: 1. Environmental fate. Environ Toxicol Chem 15(6):961–968.Google Scholar
  206. Payne NJ (1992) Off-target glyphosate from aerial silvicultural applications, and buffer zones required around sensitive areas. Pestic Sci 34:1–8.Google Scholar
  207. Payne NJ, Thompson DG (1992) Off-target glyphosate deposits from aerial silvicultural applications under various meteorological conditions. Pestic Sci 34:53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Payne NJ, Feng JC, Reynolds PE (1990) Off-target deposits and buffer zones required around water for aerial glyphosate applications. Pestic Sci 30:183–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Perkins MJ (1997) Effects of two formulations of glyphosate and triclopyr on four non-target aquatic species: Xenopus laevis, Myriophyllum sibiricum,Lemna gibba, and Tubifex tubifex. M.Sc. thesis. University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  210. Piccolo A, Celano G, Arienzo M, Mirabella A (1994) Adsorption and desorption ofglyphosate in some European soils. J Environ Sci Health B29(6):1105–1115.Google Scholar
  211. Pipke R, Schulz A, Amrhein N (1987) Uptake of glyphosate by an Arthrobacter sp. Appl Environ Microbiol 53(5):974–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Preston CM, Trofymow JA (1989) Effects of glyphosate (Roundup) on biological activity of two forest soils. In: Reynolds PE (ed) Proceedings of the Carnation Creek Workshop, Namaimo, 7–10 December 1987. Forestry Canada/British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, British Columbia, p 122.Google Scholar
  213. Ragab MTH, Abdel-Kader MKH, Stiles DA (1985) Fate of glyphosate in a sandy loam soil and analysis for residues in field-grown crops. Proc N S Inst Sci 35:67–70.Google Scholar
  214. Reyna MS (1990) Two generation reproduction feeding study with glyphosate in SpragueDawley rats. Unpublished report MSL-10387. Monsanto Environmental Health Laboratory, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  215. Reyna MS, Ruecker FA (1985) Twelve month study of glyphosate administered by gelatine capsule to Beagle dogs. Unpublished report MSL-4965.Monsanto Environmental Health Laboratory, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  216. Riley CM, Wisener CJ, Sexsmith, WA (1991) Estimating off-target spray deposition on the ground following the aerial application of glyphosate for confier release in New Brunswick. J Environ Sci Health B26(2):185–208.Google Scholar
  217. Rowe LD (1987a) The acute oral toxicity of a new formulation of glyphosate in female goats. Monsanto unpublished study VT-80–453. Veterinary Toxicology and Entomology Research Laboratory, Veterinary Research Unit, U.S. Department of Agriculture, College Station, TX.Google Scholar
  218. Rowe LD (1987b) The acute oral toxicity of the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate (MON 0139) in female goats. Monsanto unpublished study VT-80–451. Veterinary Toxicology and Entomology Research Laboratory, Veterinary Research Unit, U.S. Department of Agriculture, College Station, TX.Google Scholar
  219. Rowe LD (1987c) The acute toxicity of glyphosate in female goats. Monsanto unpublished study VT-80–450. Veterinary Toxicology and Entomology Research Laboratory, Veterinary Research Unit, U.S. Department of Agriculture, College Station, TX.Google Scholar
  220. Roy DN, Konar SK, Banerjee S, Charles DA, Thompson GD, Prasad R (1989a) Persistence, movement, and degradation of glyphosate in selected Canadian boreal forest soils. J Agric Food Chem 37:437–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Roy DN, Konar SK, Banerjee S, Charles DA, Thompson GD, Prasad R (1989b) Uptake and persistence of the herbicide glyphosate (Vision®) in fruit of wild blueberry and red raspberry. Can J For Res 19:842–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Rueppel ML, Brightwell BB, Schaefer J, Marvel JT (1977) Metabolism and degradation of glyphosate in soil and water. J Agric Food Chem 25(3):517–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Saenz ME, Di Marzio WD, Alberdi JL, del Carmen Tortorelli M (1997) Effects of technical grade and a commercial formulation of glyphosate on algal population growth. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 59(4):638–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Sanchez-Martin MJ, Cristano T, Arienzo M, Sanchez-Camazano M (1994) Evaluation of the mobility of C(14)-labelled pesticides in soils by thin layer chromatography using a linear analyser. J Environ Sci Health B Pestic Food Contam Agric Wastes 29(3): 473–484.Google Scholar
  225. Santillo DJ, Leslie DM, Brown PW (1989a) Response of small mammals to glyphosate application on clearcuts. J Wildl Manage 53:164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Santillo DJ, Brown PW, Leslie DM (1989b) Response of songbirds to glyphosate-induced habitat changes on clearcuts. J Wildl Manage 53(1):64–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Santos A, Flores M (1995) Effects of glyphosate on nitrogen fixation of free-living heterotrophic bacteria. Lett Appl Microbio! 20:349–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Servizi JA, Gordon RW, Marten DW (1987) Acute toxicity of Garlon 4 and Roundup herbicides to salmon, Daphnia, and trout. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39(1):15–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. SETAC (1994) Guidance document on regulatory testing procedures for pesticides with non-target arthropods (Barret KL, Grandy N, Harrison EG, Hassan S, Oomen P, eds). Society of Environmental Toxiccology and Chemistry (SETAC)-Europe, Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
  230. Sherrick SL, Holt HA, Hess FD (1986) Absorption and translocation of MON 0818 adjuvant in field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis). Weed Sci 34:817–823.Google Scholar
  231. Shinabarger DL, Braymer HD (1986) Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp. Strain PG2982. J Bacteriol 168(2):702–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Siltanen H, Rosenberg C, Raatikainen M, Raatikainen T (1981) Triclopyr, glyphosate and phenoxyherbicide residues in cowberries, bilberries and lichen. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 27:731–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Simenstad CA, Cordell JR, Tear L, Weitkamp LA, Paveglio FL, Kilbride KM, Fresh KL, Grue CE (1996) Use of Rodeo® and XX-77® spreader to control smooth cord-grass (Spartina alterniflora) in a southwestern Washington estuary: 2. Effects on benthic microflora and invertebrates. Environ Toxicol Chem 15(6):969–978.Google Scholar
  234. Smith AE, Aubin AJ (1993) Degradation of (14)C-glyphosate ins Saskatchewan soils. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 50(4):499–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Smith EA, Oehme FW (1992) The biological activity of glyphosate to plants and animals: a literature review. Vet Hum Toxicol 34(6):531–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Smith NJ, Martin RC, St. Croix RG (1996) Levels of the herbicide glyphosate in well water. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 57:759–765.Google Scholar
  237. Solberg KL, Higgins KF (1993) Effects of glyphosate herbicide on cattails, invertebrates, and waterfowl in South Dakota wetlands. Wildl Soc Bull 21(3):299–307.Google Scholar
  238. Soulas G (1992) Biological availability of pesticides in soil: 2,4-D and glyphosate as test cases. In: Anderson JPE (ed) Proceedings, International Symposium on Environmental Aspects of Pesticide Microbiology, Sweden University of Agricultural Science, Department of Microbiology, Uppsala, Sweden, p 219.Google Scholar
  239. Sprankle P, Meggitt WF, Penner D (1975) Adsorption, mobility, and microbial degradation of glyphosate in the soil. Weed Sci 23(3):229–234.Google Scholar
  240. Springett JA, Gray RAJ (1992) Effect of repeated low doses of biocides on the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in laboratory culture. Soil Biol Biochem 24(12): 1739–1744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Stark J (1983) Persistence of herbicides in forest soils. In: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Weeds and Weed Control, Vol. 1. Reports (24th Swedish Weed Conference, Jan. 26–27, 1983). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Husbandry and Research Information Centre, Uppsala, Sweden 24(1): 275–286.Google Scholar
  242. Stout L (1990) Chronic study of MON 0818 administered in feed to albino rat. Unpublished report MSL-10468. Monsanto Environmental Health Laboratory, St.Louis, MO..Google Scholar
  243. Stout LD, Johnson CW (1987) 90 day study of glyphosate administered in feed to SpragueDawley rats. Unpublished report MSL-7575. Monsanto Environmental Health Laboratory, St.Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  244. Stout LD, Ruecker FA (1990) Chronic study of glyphosate administered in feed to albinorats. Unpublished report MSL-10495. Monsanto Environmental Health Laboratory, St.Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  245. Stratton GW (1990) Effects of the herbicide glyphosate on nitrification in four soils from Atlantic Canada. Water Air Soil Pollut 51:373–383.Google Scholar
  246. Stratton GW, Stewart KE (1992) Glyphosate effects on microbial biomass in a coniferous forest soil. Environ Toxicol Water Qual 7:223–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Sullivan DS, Sullivan TP (1997) Non-target Impacts of the Herbicide Glyphosate: A Compendium of References and Abstracts, 4th Ed. Applied Mammal Research Institute, Summerland, British Columbia.Google Scholar
  248. Sullivan TP (1990) Demographic responses of small mammal populations to a herbicide application in coastal coniferous forest: population density and resiliency. Can J Zool 68:874–883. (Cited in Sullivan and Sullivan 1997.)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Sullivan TP, Sullivan DS (1981) Responses of a deer mouse population to a forest herbicide application: reproduction, growth, and survival. Can J Zool 59:1148–1154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Sun F (1987) Evaluating acute toxicity of pesticides to aquatic organisms carp, mosquito-fish and daphnids. Plant Prot Bull 29(4):385–396.Google Scholar
  251. Suter GW (1993) Ecological Risk Assessment. Lewis, Chelsea, MI.Google Scholar
  252. Tasker EJ (1980) Test article—Technical glyphosate: teratology study in rabbits. Monsanto unpublished study IR-79–018. International Research and Development Corporation, Mattawan, MI.Google Scholar
  253. Tauchi K (1979) Sub-acute toxicity study of CP67573 (N-phosphonomethylglycine) to the rats in dietary administration for 90 days. Monsanto unpublished study IA-79112. Institute for Animal Reproduction, Ibaragi, Japan. Submitted to FAO/WHO—JMPR by Monsanto Europe S.A.Google Scholar
  254. Teske MR, Bird SL, Esterly DM, Ray SL, Perry SG (1997) A user’s guide for AgDRIFTTm 1.0: a tiered approach for the assessment of spray drift of pesticides. Eighth draft. Technical note 95–10. CDI, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  255. Thomas MW, Judy BM, Lower WR, Krause GF, Sutton WW (1990) Time-dependent toxicity assessment of herbicide contaminated soil using the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. In: Wand W, Gorusch JW, Lower WR (eds) Plants for Toxicity Assessment. ASTM STP 1091. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, p 235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Thompson J (1989) Chronic effects of sub-lethal levels of dalapon, glyphosate, and 2,4D amine on the lymnaeid snails Pseudosuccinea columella and Fossaria cubensis. M.S. thesis, Southern University Library, Baton Rouge, LA. (Cited in Christian et al. 1993.)Google Scholar
  257. Todt K (1991) Effect of the herbicide Roundup on the activity of the microflora of soil. Monsanto unpublished study XX-98–028. NATEC Institut fur Naturwissenschaftlich Technische Dienste GmbH, Hamburg, Germany.Google Scholar
  258. Tompkins EC (1991) 90 day oral (capsule) toxicity study in dogs with AMPA. Monsanto unpublished study WI-90–354. WIL Research Laboratories, Inc., Ashland, OH.Google Scholar
  259. Tooby TE (1985) Fate and biological consequences of glyphosate in the aquatic environment. In: Grossbard E, Atkinson D (eds) The Herbicide Glyphosate. Butterworths, London, p 206.Google Scholar
  260. Tooby TE, Lucey J, Stott B (1980) The tolerance of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella Val., to aquatic herbicides. J Fish Biol 16:591–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Torstensson L (1985) Behaviour of glyphosate in soils and its degradation. In: Grossbard E, Atkinson D (eds) The Herbicide Glyphosate. Butterworths, London, p 137.Google Scholar
  262. Torstensson L, Stark J (1979) Persistence of glyphosate in forest soils. J Weeds Weed Control (Swedish Weed Conf) 20:145–151.Google Scholar
  263. Torstensson Nu, Lundgren LN, Stenström J (1989) Influence of climatic and edaphic factors on persistence of glyphosate and 2,4-D in forest soils. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 18:230–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Tu CM (1994) Effects of herbicides and fumigants on microbial activities in soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 53:12–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Urban DJ, Cook NJ (1986) Hazard Evaluation Division. Standard Evaluation Procedure: Ecological Risk Assessment. PB86–247657. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
  266. USDA (1989) Final Environmental Impact Statement: Vegetation Management in the Coastal Plain/Piedmont. Appendices, Vols. I, II. Management Bulletin R8-MB-23. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Southern Region, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  267. USDA (1992) Environmental assessment: vegetation management in confier plantations. PL-92–2. Placerville Ranger District, Eldorado National Forest. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, Camino, CA.Google Scholar
  268. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) (1996) Herbicides and wildlife habitat (1954–1996). Technical Publication R8-TP 13. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service Southern Region, Atlanta, GA.Google Scholar
  269. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) (1997) Final environmental impact statement: vegetation management on electric utility rights-of-way. Allegheny National Forest, U.S. Department of Agriculture—Forest Service, Warren, PA.Google Scholar
  270. USDI (U.S. Department of the Interior) (1989) Final environmental impact statement: western Oregon program-management of competing vegetation. BLM-OR-ES-89–11793. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Portland, OR.Google Scholar
  271. USEPA (1985a) Hazard Evaluation Division. Standard Evaluation Procedure: Acute Toxicity for Freshwater Invertebrates. PB86–129269, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  272. USEPA (1985b) Hazard Evaluation Division. Standard Evaluation Procedure: Acute Toxicity for Freshwater Fish. PB86–129277, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  273. USEPA (1985c) Hazard Evaluation Division. Standard Evaluation Procedure: Avian Dietary LC50 Test. PB86–129293, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  274. USEPA (1985d) Hazard Evaluation Division. Standard Evaluation Procedure: Avian Single-Dose Oral LD50. PB86–129285, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  275. USEPA (1986) Amended glyphosate registration standard. Internal memo from Mclane DJ, Ecological Effects Branch, Hazard Evaluation Division, to Walters V, Fungicide/ Herbicide Branch, Registration Division. May, 1986. Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  276. USEPA (1992) Pesticides in ground water data base—a compilation of monitoring studies: 1971–1991, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  277. USEPA (1993a) Reregistration eligibility decision (RED): glyphosate. Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  278. USEPA (1993b) Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook, Vols. I, II. Office of Research and Developmen, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  279. USEPA (1998) Guidelines for ecological risk assessment. EPA/630/R-95/002F. Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  280. Vassilev K (1982) Studies on glyfosat effect on test microorganisms under laboratory conditions. Higiena i Zdraveopazvane 25(4):346–351.Google Scholar
  281. Wan MT, Rahe JE, Watts RG (1998) A new technique for determining the sublethal toxicity of pesticides to the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices. Environ Toxicol Chem 17(7):14–21.Google Scholar
  282. Wan MT, Watts RG, Moul DJ (1989) Effects of different dilution water types on the acute toxicity to juvenile Pacific salmonids and rainbow trout of glyphosate and its formulated products. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 43(3):378–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Wang Y, Jaw C, Chen Y (1994) Accumulation of 2,4-D and glyphosate in fish and water hyancinth. Water Air Soil Pollut 74:397–403.Google Scholar
  284. Washington State DOT (Department of Transportation) (1993) Final environmental impact statement: roadside vegetation management. Appendix B (Draft). Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, WA.Google Scholar
  285. Whitehouse DM, Brown VK (1993) Herbicides in farm forestry: effects on non-target insects. In: Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Weeds, November 22–25, 1993, Brighton, UK. pp 121–126.Google Scholar
  286. WHO (World Health Organization) (1994) Glyphosate: environmental health criteria 159. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  287. Wildlife International (1978a) One-generation reproduction study—mallard duck: glyphosate technical. Monsanto unpublished study WL-78–053. Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD.Google Scholar
  288. Wildlife International (1978b) One-generation reproduction study—bobwhite quail: glyphosate technical. Monsanto unpublished study WL-78–052. Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD.Google Scholar
  289. Wildlife International (1978c) Acute oral LD50 of technical glyphosate in the bobwhite. Monsanto unpublished study WL-78–027. Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD.Google Scholar
  290. Wildlife International (1990a) Roundup herbicide: a dietary LC50 study with the mallard. Monsanto unpublished study WL-89–434. Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD.Google Scholar
  291. Wildlife International (1990b) Roundup herbicide: a dietary LC50 study with the bobwhite. Monsanto unpublished study WL-89–433. Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD.Google Scholar
  292. Wildlife International (1991a) An acute oral toxicity study with the northern bobwhite. Monsanto unpublished study WL-90–397. Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD.Google Scholar
  293. Wildlife International (1991b) AMPA: a dietary LC50 study with the northern bobwhite. Monsanto unpublished study WL-90–398. Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD.Google Scholar
  294. Wildlife International (1991c) AMPA: a dietary LC5o study with the mallard. Monsanto unpublished study WL-90–399. Wildlife International Ltd., Easton, MD.Google Scholar
  295. Williams GM, Kroes R, Munro IC (2000) Safety evaluation and risk assessment of the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient, glyphosate, for humans. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 31(2):117–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Woodcock J, Lautenschlager RA, Bell FW, Ryder JP (1997) Indirect effects of conifer release alternatives on songbird populations in northwestern Ontario. For Chron 73(1):107–112. (Cited in Sullivan and Sullivan 1997.)Google Scholar
  297. Yates WE, Akesson NB, Bayer DE (1978) Drift of glyphosate sprays applied with aerial and ground equipment. Weed Sci 26(6):597–604.Google Scholar
  298. Yokoyama VY, Pritchard J (1984) Effect of pesticides on mortality, fecundity, and egg viability of Geocoris pallens (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). J Econ Entomol 77(4):876–879.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • John P. Giesy
    • 1
  • Stuart Dobson
    • 2
  • Keith R. Solomon
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, and Institute for Environmental ToxicologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Terrestrial EcologyHuntingdonUK
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Biology, Centre for ToxicologyUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations