The use of plane shock waves to determine the equations of state of condensed materials to very high pressure began in 1955 with the classic papers of Walsh and Christian (1955) and Bancroft et al. (1956). Walsh and Christian described the use of in-contact explosives to determine dynamic pressure– volume relations for metals and compare these to the then available static compression data. Bancroft et al. described the first polymorphic phase change discovered in a solid, via shock waves—iron. Two years later Soviet workers (Al’tshuler et al., 1958) reported the first data for iron to pressures of several million bars (megabars) actually exceeding the pressure conditions within the center of the Earth. Since that time the equations of state of virtually hundreds of condensed materials have been studied, including elements, compounds, alloys, rocks and minerals, polymers, fluids, and porous media. These studies have employed both conventional and nuclear explosive sources, as well as impactors launched with a range of guns to speeds of approximately 10 km/s. Recently, Avrorin et al. (1986) have reported shock-compression data in lead to a record pressure of 550 Mbar.


Shock Wave Particle Velocity Shock Front Rarefaction Wave Shock Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahrens T.J. (1979), Equations of State of Iron Sulfide and Constraints on the Sulfur Content of the Earth, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 985–998ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahrens T.J., Anderson D.L., and Ringwood A.E. (1969), Equation of State and Crystal Structures of High-Pressure Phases of Shocked Silicates and Oxides, Rev. Geophys. 7, 667–707ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahrens T.J., Lyzenga G.A., and Mitchell A.C. (1982), Temperatures Induced by Shock Waves in Minerals, in High Pressure Research in Geophysics (edited by Akimoto S. andM.H. Manghnani), Center for Academic Publications, Japan, pp. 579–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahrens T.J., and O’Keefe J.D. (1972), Shock Melting and Vaporization of Lunar Rocks and Minerals, The Moon 4, 214–249ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahrens T.J., and O’Keefe J.D. (1977), Equation of State and Impact-Induced Shock-Wave Attenuation on the Moon, in Impact and Explosion Cratering (edited by Roddy D.J. et al.), Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 639–656Google Scholar
  6. Al’tshuler L.V. (1965), Use of Shock Waves in High-Pressure Physics, Soviet Phys. Uspekhi 85, 52–91ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Al’tshuler L.V., Kormer S.B., Brazhnik M.I., Vladimirov L.A., Speranskaya M.P., and Funtikov A.I. (1960), The Isentropic Compressibility of Aluminum, Copper, Lead, and Iron at High Pressures, Soviet Phys. JETP 11, 766–775Google Scholar
  8. Al’tshuler L.V., Krupnikov K.K., Ledenev B.N., Zhuchikhin V.I., and Broznik M.I. (1958), Dynamic Compressibility and Equation of State of Iron under High Pressure, Soviet Phys. JETP 34 (7), 606–19Google Scholar
  9. Avrorin E.N., Vodolaga B.K., Voloshin N.P., Kuropatenko V.F., Kovalenko G.V., Simonenko V.A., and Chernovolyuk B.T. (1986), Experimental Confirmation of Shell Effects on the Shock Adiabats of Aluminum and Lead, JETP Lett. 43, 308–311ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Bakanova A.A., Zubarev V.N., Sutulov Y.N., and Trunin R.F. (1976), Thermodynamic Properties of Water at High Pressures and Temperatures, Soviet Phys. JETP 41 544–548ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Bancroft D., Peterson E.L., and Minshall S. (1956), Polymorphism of Iron at High Pressure, J. Appl. Phys. 27, 291–298ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barker L.M., and Hollenbach R.E. (1972), Laser Interferometer for Measuring High Velocities of Any Reflecting Surface, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4669–4675ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bass J.D., Svendsen B., and Ahrens T.J., (1987), The Temperatures of Shock-Compressed Iron, in High Pressure Research in Mineral Physics (edited by Manghnani M. and Y. Syono), Terra Scientific, Tokyo, pp. 393–402Google Scholar
  14. Birch F. (1978), Finite Strain Isotherm and Velocities for Single-Crystal and Poly-crystalline NaCl at High Pressures and 300 K, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 1257–1268ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bloomquist D.D., Duvall G.E., and Dick J.J. (1979), Electrical Response of a Bimetallic Junction to Shock Compression, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 4838–4846ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boslough M. (1988), Postshock Temperatures in Silica, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 6477–6484ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boslough M.B., and Ahrens T.J. (1984), Particle Velocity Experiments in Anorthosite and Gabbro, in Shock Waves in Condensed Matter— 1983, (edited by Asay J.R. et al.), Elsevier Science, New York, pp. 525–528Google Scholar
  18. Boslough M.B., and Ahrens T.J. (1989), A Sensitive Time-Resolved Radiation Pyrometer for Shock-Temperature Measurements above 1500 K, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 3711–3716ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown J.M., and McQueen R.G. (1982), The Equation of State for Iron and the Earth’s Core, in High Pressure Research in Geophysics (edited by Akimoto S. and M.H. Manghnani), Academic Press, New York, pp. 611–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davison L., and Graham R.A. (1979), Shock Compression of Solids. Phys. Rep. 55, 255–379ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duvall G.E., and Fowles G.R. (1963), Shock Waves, in High Pressure Physics and Chemistry (edited by Bradley R.S.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 209–292Google Scholar
  22. Fowles G.R. (1960), Attenuation of the Shock Wave Produced in a Solid by a Flying Plate, J. Appl. Phys. 31, 655–661MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gehrels T. (1978), Protostars and Planets, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 1–756Google Scholar
  24. Grady D.E. (1977), Processes Occurring on Shock Wave Compression of Rocks and Minerals, in High Pressure Research: Applications in Geophysics (edited by Manghnani M.H. and S. Akimoto), Academic Press, New York, pp. 389–438Google Scholar
  25. Grover R., and Urtiew P.A. (1974), Thermal Relaxation at Interfaces Following Shock Compression, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 146–152ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Holmes N.C., Moriarty J.A., Gathers G.R., and Nellis W.J. (1989), The Equation of State of Platinum to 660 GPa (6.6 Mbar), J. Appl. Phys. 66, 2962–2967ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Jeanloz R. (1989), Shock Wave Equation of State and Finite Strain Theory, J. Geophys. Res 94, 5873–5886ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jeanloz R., and Ahrens T.J. (1979), Release Adiabat Measurements on Minerals: The Effect of Viscosity, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7545–7548ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Jeanloz R., and Ahrens T.J. (1980), Equations of State of FeO and CaO, Geophys. J. Roy. Astronom. Soc. 62, 505–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jeanloz R., and Grover R. (1988), Birch–Murnaghan and Us–Up Equations of State, in Proceedings of the American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter, Monterey, CA, 1987 (edited by Schmidt S.C. and N.C. Holmes), Plenum, New York, pp. 69–72Google Scholar
  31. Jones O.E. (1972), Metal Response under Dynamic Loading, in Behavior and Utilization of Explosives in Engineering Design (edited by Henderson R.L.), University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 125–148Google Scholar
  32. Kormer S.B., Sinitsyn M.V., Kirillov G.A., and Urlin V.D. (1965), Experimental Determination of Temperature in Shock-Compressed NaCl and KC1 and of Their Melting Curves at Pressures up to 700 kbar, Soviet Phys. Uspekhi (Engl. transl.), 21, 689–700ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Lyzenga G.A., and Ahrens T.J. (1979), Multiwavelength Optical Pyrometer for Shock Compression Experiments, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1421–1424ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marsh S.P. (1980), LASL Shock Hugoniot Data, University of California Press, Berkeley, pp. 1–327Google Scholar
  35. McQueen R.G., Hopson J.W., and Fritz J.N. (1982), Optical Technique for Determining Rarefaction Wave Velocities at Very High Pressures, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53, 245–250ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McQueen R.G., Marsh S.P., Taylor J.W., Fritz J.N., and Crater W.J. (1970), The Equation of State of Solids from Shock Wave Studies, in High-Velocity Impact Phenomena (edited by Kinslow R.), Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 249–419Google Scholar
  37. Miller G.H., and Ahrens T.J. (1991), Shock-Wave Viscosity Measurement, Rev. Modern Phys. 63, 919–948ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mitchell A.C., and Nellis W.J. (1981), Shock Compression of Aluminum, Copper, and Tantalum, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 3363–3374ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mitchell A.C., and Nellis W.J. (1982), Equation of State and Electrical Conductivity of Water and Ammonia Shocked to the 100 GPa (1 Mbar) Pressure Range, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 6273–6281ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Morris C.E., Fritz J.N., and McQueen R.G. (1984), The Equation of State of Poly-tetrafluoroethylene to 80 GPa. J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5203–5218ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Murr L.E. (1981), Shock Waves and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena in Metals, Plenum, New York, pp. 1–1101Google Scholar
  42. Murri W.J., Curran D.R., Petersen C.F., and Crewdson R.C. (1974), Response of Solids to Shock Waves, in Advances in High Pressure Research, Academic Press, New York, pp. 1–163Google Scholar
  43. Raikes S.A., and Ahrens T.J. (1979a), Measurements of Post-Shock Temperatures in Aluminum and Stainless Stee High Pressure Science and Technology (edited by Timmerhaus K.D. and M.S. Barber), Plenum, New York, pp. 889–894Google Scholar
  44. Raikes S.A., and Ahrens T.J. (1979b), Post-Shock Temperatures of Minerals, Geophys. J. Roy. Astronom. Soc. 58, 717–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rice M.H., and Walsh J.M. (1957), Equation of State of Water to 250 Kilobars, J. Chem. Phys. 26, 824–830ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Roddy D.J., Pepin R.O., and Merrill R.B. (1977), Impact and Explosion Cratering, Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 1–1301Google Scholar
  47. Rosenberg Z., and Partom Y. (1984), Direct Measurement of Temperature in Shock Loaded Polymethlmetacrylate with Very Thin Copper Thermisters, in Shock Waves in Condensed Matter—1983 (edited by Asay J.R. et al.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 251Google Scholar
  48. Ruoff A.L. (1967), Linear Shock-Velocity-Particle-Velocity Relationship, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4976–4980ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sharpton V.L., and Ward P.D. (Eds.) (1990), Global Catastrophes in Earth History; An Interdisciplinary Conference on Impacts, Volcanism, and Mass Mortality, pp. 1–631, Special Paper 247, The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, 1990Google Scholar
  50. Silver L.T., and Schultz P. (Eds.) Geological Implications of Impacts of Large Asteroids and Comets on the Earth, pp. 1–528, Special Paper 190, The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, 1982Google Scholar
  51. Simakov G.V., and Trunin R.F. (1990), Compression of Super-Porous Silica in Shock Waves, Izv. Earth Phys. (Russian), 11, 72–77Google Scholar
  52. Stöffler D. (1972), Deformation and Transformation of Rock-Forming Minerals by Natural and Experimental Shock Processes, I, Fortschr. Miner. 49, 50–113Google Scholar
  53. Stöffler D. (1974), Deformation and Transformation of Rock-Forming Minerals by Natural and Experimental Shock Processes. II. Physical Properties of Shocked Minerals. Fortschr. Miner. 51, 256–289Google Scholar
  54. Svendsen B., and Ahrens T.J. (1987), Shock-Induced Temperatures of MgO, Geophys. J. Roy. Astronom. Soc. 91, 667–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tan H., and Ahrens T.J. (1990), Shock Temperature Measurements for Metals, High Pressure Res. 2, 159–182ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Touloukian Y.S., and DeWitt D.P. (1972), Thermal Radiative Properties of Non-metallic Solids, in Thermophysical Properties of Matter, Plenum, New York, pp. 3a–48aGoogle Scholar
  57. Trunin R.F., Simakov G.V., and Podurets M.A. (1971), Compression of Porous Quartz by Strong Shock Waves, Izv. Earth Phys. English Transl., #2, 102–106Google Scholar
  58. Wackerle J. (1962), Shock-Wave Compression of Quartz, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 922–937ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Walsh J.M., and Christian R.H. (1955), Equation of State of Metals from Shock Wave Measurements, Phys. Rev. 97, 1544–1556ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Watt J.P., and Ahrens T.J. (1983), Shock Compression of Single-Crystal Forsterite, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 9500–9512ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Williams Q., Jeanloz R, Bass J., Svendsen B., and Ahrens T.J. (1987), The Melting Curve of Iron to 250 Gigapascals: A Constraint on the Temperature at Earth’s Center, Science 236, 181–182ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yakushev V.V. (1978), Electrical Measurements in a Dynamic Experiment, Fiz. Goreniya Vzryva 14, 3–19Google Scholar
  63. Zaitzev V.M., Pokhil P.F., and Shvedov K.K. (1960), An Electromagnetic Method for Measurement of the Velocity of Explosion Products, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 132, 1339–1340Google Scholar
  64. Zel’dovich Y.G., and Kompaneets A.S. (1960), Theory of Detonation, Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York  1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. J. Ahrens
    • 1
  1. 1.Lindhurst Laboratory of Experimental Geophysics, Siesmological Laboratory 252-21California Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations