Advertisement

Impact of Herbivory on Plant Standing Crop: Comparisons Among Biomes, Between Vascular and Nonvascular Plants, and Among Freshwater Herbivore Taxa

  • David M. Lodge
  • Greg Cronin
  • Ellen van Donk
  • Adrienne J. Froelich
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 131)

Abstract

Two contradictory traditions exist regarding the impact of herbivores on the ecology and evolution of plants. For ecologists studying terrestrial ecosystems, the interaction between plants and their consumers has been a focal point for research in recent decades. Herbivores are widely regarded as an important determinant of plant abundance and species composition and as an important selective force in the evolution of terrestrial plant traits (Rhoades, 1985; Herms, and Mattson, 1992; Rosenthal and Berenbaum, 1992). Similarly, the abundance of many marine plants is often reduced by herbivores, and many seaweed traits are thought to have evolved in response to herbivory (Lubchenco and Gaines, 1981; Gaines and Lubchenco, 1982; Estes and Steinberg, 1988; Hay, 1991). By contrast, for decades the paradigm in limnology has been that live freshwater macrophytes are too tough for the mouthparts of aquatic herbivores, are of low nutritional quality, and are rarely consumed by herbivores (Lodge, 1991; Newman, 1991).

Keywords

White Dwarf Outer Core Thermal Pulse High Rotation Rate Specific Angular Momentum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrahamsson, S.A.A. Dynamics of an isolated population of the crayfish Astacus astacus Linne. Oikos 17:96–107; 1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allin, C.C.; Chasko, G.C.; Husband, T.P. Mute swans in the Atlantic flyway: a review of the history, population growth and management needs. Trans. N. E. Sec. Wildl. Soc. 44: 32–47; 1987.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, M.G.; Low, J.P. Use of sago pondweed by waterfowl on the Delta Marsh, Manitoba. J. Wildl. Manage. 40: 233–242; 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrew, N.L.; Underwood, A.J. Density-dependent foraging in the sea urchin Centros-tephanus rodgersii on shallow subtidal reefs in New South Wales, Australia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 99: 89–98; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bain, M.B. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: grass carp in large systems. Environ. Manage. 17: 211–224; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baidassare, G.A.; Bolen, E.G. Waterfowl ecology and management. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1994.Google Scholar
  7. Banko, W.E. The trumpeter swan: its history, habits and population in the United States. North American Fauna 63. Washington, DC: Bur. Sport Fish and Wildl.; 1960.Google Scholar
  8. Bazely, D.R.; Jeffries, R.L. Changes in the composition and standing crop of salt-marsh communities in response to the removal of a grazer. J. Ecol. 74: 693–706; 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Behler, J.L.; King, F.W. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. New York: Knopf; 1979.Google Scholar
  10. Bellrose, F.C. Ducks, geese & swans of North America. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole Books; 1980.Google Scholar
  11. Benedetti-Cecchi, L.; Cinelli, F. Early patterns of algal succession in a midlittoral community of the Mediterranean sea: a multifactorial experiment. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 169: 15–31; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernays, E.A. Host range in phytophagous insects: the potential role of generalist predators. Evol. Ecol. 3: 299–311; 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bertness, M.D. Habitat and community modification by an introduced herbivorous snail. Ecology. 65: 370–381; 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bickart, K.J. Recent advances in the study of neogene fossil birds I. The birds of the late Miocene-early Pliocene Big Sandy Formation, Mohave County, Arizona. Ornithol. Monogr. 44: 1–72; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonser, S.P.; Reader, R.J. Plant competition and herbivory in relation to vegetation biomass. Ecology 76: 2176–2183; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brönmark, C. Effects of tench and perch on interactions in a freshwater, benthic food chain. Ecology 75: 1818–1828; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brönmark, C. How do herbivorous freshwater snails affect macrophytes?—a comment. Ecology 71: 1212–1215; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buchsbaum, R.; Valiela, I.; Swain, T. The role of phenolic compounds and other plant constitutents in feeding by Canada geese in a coastal marsh. Oecologia 63: 343–349; 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buschmann, A.H. The role of herbivory and desiccation on early successional patterns of intertidal macroalgae in southern Chile. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 139: 221–230; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Caithamer, D.F.; Dubovsky, J.A. Waterfowl population status, 1995. Laurel, MD: U.S. Fish and Wildl. Sen; 1995.Google Scholar
  21. Campbell, H.W.; Irvine, A.B. Feeding ecology of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus Linnaeus. Aquaculture 12: 249–251; 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cargill, S.M.; Jefferies, R.L. The effects of grazing by lesser snow geese on the vegetation of a sub-arctic salt marsh. J. Aquat. Ecol. 21: 669–686; 1984.Google Scholar
  23. Cargill, S.M.; Jefferies, R.L. Changes in the composition and standing crop of salt-marsh communities in response to the removal of a grazer. J. Ecol. 74: 693–706; 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carpenter, R.C. Grazing by Diadema antillarum (Philippi) and its effects on the benthic algal community. J. Mar. Res. 39: 749–765; 1981.Google Scholar
  25. Carpenter, R.C. Partitioning herbivory and its effects on coral reef algal communities. Ecol. Monogr. 56: 345–363; 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carpenter, S.R.; Lodge, D.M. Effects of submersed macrophytes on ecosystem processes. Aquat. Bot. 26: 341–370; 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carpenter, S.R.; Titus, J.E. Composition and spatial heterogeneity of submersed vegetation in a softwater lake in Wisconsin. Vegetatio 57: 153–165; 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carr, A. Handbook of turtles. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing; 1952.Google Scholar
  29. Carter, V.; Rybicki, N.B. The effects of grazers and light penetration on the survival of transplants of Vallisneria americana Michx. in the tidal Potomac River, Maryland. Aquat. Bot. 23: 197–213; 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Castenholz, R.W. The effect of grazing on marine littoral diatom populations. Ecology 42: 783–794; 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cattaneo, A.; Mousseau, B. Empirical analysis of the removal rate of periphyton by grazers. Oecologia 103: 249–254; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Center, T.D.; Wright, A.D. Age and phytochemical composition of waterhyacinth (Pon-tederiaceae) leaves determine their acceptability to Neochetina eichhorniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environ. Entomol. 20(l): 323–334; 1991.Google Scholar
  33. Chambers, P.A.; Hanson, J.M.; Prepas, E.E. The effect of aquatic plant chemistry and morphology on feeding selectivity by the crayfish, Orconectes virilis. Freshwat. Biol. 25: 339–348; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chikwenhere, G.P. Biological control of water lettuce in various impoundments in Zimbabwe. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 32: 27–29; 1994.Google Scholar
  35. Clark, D.B.; Gibbons, J.W. Dietary shift in the turtle Pseudemys scripta (Schoepff) from youth to maturity. Copeia 4: 704–706; 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Coley, P.D.; Aide, T.M. Comparison of herbivory and plant defenses in temparate and tropical broad-leaved forests. In: Price, P.W.; Lewinsohn, T.M.; Fernandes, G.W.; Benson, W.W., eds. Plant-animal interactions: evolutionary ecology in tropical and temparate regions. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1991:25–49.Google Scholar
  37. Conant, R. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians. Boston: Houghton Mifflin; 1958.Google Scholar
  38. Conover, M.R.; Kania, G.S. Impact of interspecific aggression and herbivory by mute swans on native waterfowl and aquatic vegetation in New England. Auk 3: 744–748; 1994.Google Scholar
  39. Coppock, D.L.; Detling, J.K.; Ellis, J.E.; Dyer, M.I. Plant-herbivore interactions in a North American mixed-grass prairie. I. Effects of black-tailed prairie dogs on intraseasonal aboveground plant biomass and nutrient dynamics and plant species diversity. Oeco-logia 56:1–9;1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Creed, R.P. Direct and indirect effects of crayfish grazing in a stream community. Ecology 75: 2091–2103; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cronin, G.; Hay, M. Seaweed-herbivore interactions depend on recent history of both the plant and animal. Ecology 77: 1531–1543; 1996a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cronin, G.; Hay, M. Within-plant variation in seaweed palatability and chemical defenses: optimal defense theory versus the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis. Oecologia 105: 361–368; 1996b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Crutchfield, J.U.; Schiller, D.H.; Herlong, D.D.; Maliin, M.A. Establishment and impact of redbelly tilapia in a vegetated cooling resevoir. J. Aquat. Plant. Manage. 30: 28–35; 1992.Google Scholar
  44. Cyr, H.; Pace, M.L. Magnitude and patterns of herbivory in aquatic and terresrial ecosystems. Nature 361: 148–150; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Dahl, T.E. Wetlands losses in the United States, 1780’s to 1980’sWetlands losses in the United States, 1780’s to 1980’s. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv.; 1990.Google Scholar
  46. Dean, J.L. Biology of the crayfish Orconectes causeyi and its control of aquatic weeds in Trout Lake. Tech. Paper, Bureau Sport Fish Wildl. 24: 1–15; 1969.Google Scholar
  47. Dirzo, R.; Miranda, A. Altered patterns of herbivory and diversity in the forest understory: a case study of the possible consequences of contemporary defaunation. In: Price, P.W.; Lewinsohn, T.M.; Fernandes, G.W.; Benson, W.W., eds. Plant-animal interactions: evolutionary ecology in tropical and temparate regions. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1991: 273–287.Google Scholar
  48. Doucet, C.M.; Fryxell, J.M. The effect of nutritional quality on forage preference by beavers. Oikos 67: 201–208; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Duarte, CM. Nutrient concentration of aquatic plants: patterns across species. Limnol. Oceanogr. 37: 882–889; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Duffy, J.E.; Hay, M.E. Herbivore resistance to seaweed chemical defense: the roles of mobility and predator risk. Ecology 75: 1304–1319; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Duggins, D.O. Kelp beds and sea otters: an experimental approach. Ecology 61: 447–453; 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ernst, C. Turtles of the United States. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press; 1972.Google Scholar
  53. Esler, D. An assessment of American coot herbivory of hydrilla. J. Wildl. Manage. 53: 1147–1149; 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Estes, J.A.; Duggins, D.O. Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and variation in a community ecological paradigm. Ecol. Monogr. 65: 75–100; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Estes, J.A.; Steinberg, P.D. Predation, herbivory and kelp evolution. Paleobiology 14:19–36; 1988.Google Scholar
  56. Fassett, N.C. A manual of aquatic plants. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press; 1957.Google Scholar
  57. Feminella, J.W.; Hawkins, C.A. Interactions between stream herbivores and periphyton: a quantitative analysis of past experiments. J. North Am. Benth. Soc. 14:465–509; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Feminella, J.W.; Resh, V.H. Submersed macrophytes and grazing crayfish: an experimental study of herbivory in a California freshwater marsh. Holarct. Ecol. 12: 1–8; 1989.Google Scholar
  59. Fletcher, W.J. Interactions among subtidal Australian sea urchins, gastropods, and algae: effects of experimental removal. Ecol. Monogr. 57: 89–109; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Foster, S.A. The relative impacts of grazing by Caribbean coral reef fishes and Diadema: effects of habitat and surge. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 15: 1–20; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gaines, S.D.; Lubchenco, J. A unified approach to marine plant-herbivore interactions. II. Biogeography. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 13: 111–138; 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Geller, J.B. Gastropod grazers and algal colonization on a rocky shore in northern California: the importance of body size of grazers. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 150:1–7; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gillette, L.N.; Shea, R. An evaluation of trumpeter swan management today and a vision for the future. Trans. 60th North Am. Wildl. & Natur. Resour. Conf. Washington, DC: Wildlife Management Institute; 1995: 258–265.Google Scholar
  64. Giroux, J.F.; Bedard, J. The effects of grazing by greater snow geese on the vegetation of tidal marshes in the St. Lawrence Estuary. J. Appl. Ecol. 24: 773–788; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Grubb, P.J. Sclerophylls, pachyphylls, and pycnophylls: the nature and significance of hard leaf surfaces. In: Juniper, B.E.; Southwood, T.R.E., eds. Insects and the plant surface. London: Edwin Arnold; 1986: 137–150.Google Scholar
  66. Hansson, L.; Johansson, L.; Persson, L. Effects of fish grazing on nutrient release and succession of primary producers. Limnol. Oceanogr. 32: 723–729; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hart, D.D. Community organization in streams: the importance of species interactions, physical factors, and chance. Oecologia 91: 220–228; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hatcher, B.G. The interaction between grazing organisms and the epilithic algal community of a coral reef: a quantitative assessment. Proc. 4th Int. Coral Reef Congr. 2; 1981:515–524.Google Scholar
  69. Hatcher, B.G.; Larkum, A.W.D. An experimental analysis of factors controlling the standing crop of the epilithic algal community on a coral reef. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 69: 61–84; 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hay, M.E. Herbivory, algal distribution, and the maintenance of between-habitat diversity on a tropical fringing reef. Am. Nat. 118:520–540; 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hay, M.E. Predictable spatial escapes from herbivory: how do these affect the evolution of herbivore resistance in tropical marine communities? Oecologia 64: 396–407; 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hay, M.E. Fish-seaweed interactions on coral reefs: effects of herbivorous fishes and adaptations of their prey. In: Sale, P.F., ed. The ecology of fishes on coral reefs. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 1991:96–119.Google Scholar
  73. Hay, M.E.; Goertemiller, T. Between-habitat differences in herbivore impact on Caribbean coral reefs. In: Reake, M.L., ed. The ecology of deep and shallow coral reefs. Symposia Series for Undersea Research. Vol. 1. Rockville, MD: Office of Undersea Research, NOAA; 1983: 97–102.Google Scholar
  74. Hay, M.E.; Taylor, P.R. Competition between herbivorous fishes and urchins on Caribbean reefs. Oecologia 65: 591–598; 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hay, M.E.; Colburn, T.; Downing, D. Spatial and temporal patterns in herbivory on a Caribbean fringing reef: the effects on plant distribution. Oecologia 58: 299–308; 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Haynes, A.; Taylor, B.J.R. Food finding and food preference in Potamopyrgus jenkinsi (E.A. Smith) (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Arch. Hydrobiol. 100: 479–491; 1984.Google Scholar
  77. Heck, K.L.; Valentine, J.F. Sea urchin herbivory: evidence for long-lasting effects in subtropical seagrass meadows. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 189: 205–217; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Henderson, R.F. Beaver in Kansas. Lawrence, KS: State Biological Survey and Museum of Natural History; 1960.Google Scholar
  79. Hengeveld, R. Dynamics of biological invasions. New York: Chapman & Hall; 1989.Google Scholar
  80. Herms, D.A.; Mattson, W.J. The dilemma of plants: to grow or defend. Q. Rev. Biol. 67: 283–335; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Himmelman, J.H.; Cardinal, A.; Bourget, E. Community development following removal of urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, from the rocky subtidal zone of the St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada. Oecologia 59: 27–39; 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Hoyer, M.V.; Canfield, D.E. Bird abundance and species richness on Florida lakes: influence of trophic status, lake morphology, and aquatic macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 279/280: 107–119; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hughes, T.P.; Reed, D.C.; Boyle, M.J. Herbivory on coral reefs: community structure following mass mortalities of sea urchins. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 113: 39–59; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hulme, P.E. Herbivores and the performance of grassland plants: a comparison of arthropod, mollusc and rodent herbivory. J. Ecol. 84: 43–51; 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Huntley, N.J. Influence of refuging consumers (Pikas: Ochotona princeps) on subalpine meadow vegetation. Ecology 68: 274–283; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Jacobsen, D.; Sand-Jensen, K. Herbivory of invertebrates on submerged macrophytes from Danish freshwaters. Freshwat. Biol. 28: 301–308; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Jacobsen, D.; Sand-Jensen, K. Invertebrate herbivory on the submerged macrophyte Potamo-geton perfoliatus in a Danish stream. Freshwat. Biol. 31: 43–52; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Jacobsen, D.; Sand-Jensen, K. Variability of invertebrate herbivory on the submerged macrophyte Potamogeton perfoliatus. Freshwat. Biol. 34: 357–365; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jefferies, M. Evidence of induced plant defences in a pondweed. Freshwat. Biol. 23: 265–269; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Jones, G.P. Interactions between herbivorous fishes and macroalgae on a temperate rocky reef. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 159: 217–235; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jones, J.K.; Birney, E.C. Handbook of mammals of the north central states. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press; 1988.Google Scholar
  92. Julien, M.H.; Bourne, A.S.; Low, V.H.K. Growth of the weed Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach, (alligator weed) in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Aust. Plant Protection Q. 7:102–108; 1992.Google Scholar
  93. Jupp, B.P.; Spence, D.H.N. Limitations of macrophytes in an eutrophic lake, Loch Leven. J. Ecol. 65: 431–446; 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Kantrud, H.A.; Stewart, R.E. Use of natural basin wetlands by breeding waterfowl in North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 41: 243–253; 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Keats, D.W.; South, G.R.; Steele, D.H. Effects of an experimental reduction in grazing by green sea urchins on a macroalgal community in eastern Newfoundland. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 68: 181–193; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Kiorboe, T. Distribution and production of submerged macrophytes in Tipper Grund (Ring-kobing Fjord, Denmark), and the impact of waterfowl grazing. J. Appl. Ecol. 17:675–687; 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Kornijöw, R. The importance of invertebrates as consumers of freshwater macrophytes. Wiad. Ekol. 40: 181–195; 1994.Google Scholar
  98. Kornijow, R. Cumulative consumption of the lake macrophyte Elodea by abundant general-ist invertebrate herbivores. Hydrobiologia 319:185–190; 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Korshgen, C.E.; George, L.S.; Green, W.L. Feeding ecology of canvasbacks staging on pool 7 of the upper Mississippi River in waterfowl in winter. In: Weller, M.W., ed. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press; 1988: 237–249.Google Scholar
  100. Lacki, M.J.; Peneston, W.T.; Adams, K.B.; Vogt, F.D.; Houppert, J.C. Summer foraging patterns and diet selection of muskrats inhabiting a fen wetland. Can. J. Zool. 68: 1163–1167; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Laird, C.A.; Page, L.M. Non-native fishes inhabiting the streams and lakes of Illinois. 111. Nat. History Surv. Bull. 35: 1–51; 1996.Google Scholar
  102. Lamberti, G.A. The role of periphyton in benthic food webs. In: Stevenson, R.J.; Bothwell, M.L.; Lowe, R.L., eds. Algal ecology: freshwater benthic ecosystems. New York: Academic Press; 1996: 533–573.Google Scholar
  103. Levin, D.A. The role of trichomes in plant defense. Q. Rev. Biol. 48: 3–15; 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Lewis, S.M. The role of herbivorous fishes in the organization of a Caribbean reef community. Ecol. Monogr. 56: 183–200; 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Lewis, S.M.; Norris, J.N.; Searles, R.B. The regulation of morphological plasticity in tropical reef algae by herbivory. Ecology 68: 636–641; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lodge, D.M. Herbivory on freshwater macrophytes. Aquat. Bot. 41: 195–224; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Lodge, D.M.; Hill, A.M. Factors governing species composition, population size, and productivity of cool-water crayfishes. Nordic J. Freshwat. Res. 69: 111–136; 1994.Google Scholar
  108. Lodge, D.M.; Lorman, J.G. Reductions in submersed macrophyte biomass and species richness by the crayfish Orconectes rusticus. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44: 591–597; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lodge, D.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Striegl, R.G. A positive relationship between groundwater velocity and submersed macrophyte biomass in Sparkling Lake, Wisconsin. Limnol. Oceanogr. 34: 235–239; 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lodge, D.M.; Kershner, M.W.; Aloi, J.E.; Covich, A.P. Effects of an omnivorous crayfish (Orconectes ructicus) on a freshwater littoral food web. Ecology 75: 1265–1281; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lodge, D.M.; Stein, R.A.; Brown, K.M.; Covich, A.P.; Brönmark, C; Garvey, J.E; Klo-siewski, S.P. Predicting impact of freshwater exotic species on native biodiversity: challenges in spatial scaling. Aust. J. Ecol. (in press).Google Scholar
  112. Lovvorn, J.R. Distribution responses of canvasback ducks to weather and habitat change. J. Appl. Ecol. 26: 113–130; 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lubchenco, J.; Gaines, S.D. A unified approach to marine plant-herbivore interactions. I. Populations and communities. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 12: 405–437; 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Maceina, M.J.; Cichra, M.F.; Betsill, R.K.; Bettoli, P.W. Limnological changes in a large reservoir following vegetation removal by grass carp. J. Freshwat. Ecol. 7: 81–95; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Maringer, J.; Bandi, H.G. Art in the ice age. New York: Frederick A. Praeger; 1953.Google Scholar
  116. Marquis, R.J.; Whelan, C.J. Insectivorous birds increase growth of white oak through consumption of leaf-chewing insects. Ecology 75: 2007–2014; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Martin, T.H.; Crowder, L.B.; Dumas, CF.; Burkholder, J.M. Indirect effects of fish on macrophytes in Bays Mountain Lake: evidence for a littoral trophic cascade. Oecologia 89: 476–481; 1992.Google Scholar
  118. Matthews, M.; Reynolds, J.D. Ecological impact of crayfish plague in Ireland. Hydro-biologia 234: 1–6; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Matthews, W.J.; Stewart, A.J.; Power, M.E. Grazing fishes as components of North American stream ecosystems: Effects of Campostoma anomalum. In: Matthews, W.J.; Heins, D.C., eds. Community and evolutionary ecology of North American stream fishes. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press; 1987: 128–135.Google Scholar
  120. Mattson, W.J., Jr. Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 119–161; 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. McAtee, W.L. Three important wild duck foods. U.S. Bur. Biol. Surv. Circ. 81; 1911.Google Scholar
  122. McNaughton, S.J. Ecology of a grazing ecosystem: the Serengeti. Ecol. Monogr. 55: 259–294; 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Michot, T.C.; Chadwick, P.C. Winter biomass and nutrient values of three seagrass species as potential foods for redheads (Aythya americana Eyton) in Chandeleur Sound, Louisiana. Wetlands 14: 276–283; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Miller, M.W.; Hay, M.E. Coral-seaweed-grazer-nutrient interactions on temperate reefs. Ecol. Monogr. 66: 323–344; 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Minton, S.A. Amphibians and reptiles of Indiana. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana Academy of Science; 1972.Google Scholar
  126. Mitchell, C.A.; Thomas, W.C.; Zwank, P.J. Herbivory on shoalgrass by wintering redheads in Texas. J. Wildl. Manage. 58: 131–141; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mitchell, CD. Trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F., eds. The birds of North America, No. 105. Philadelphia, PA: The Academy of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: The American Ornithologists’ Union; 1994.Google Scholar
  128. Mitchell, S.F.; Wass, R.T. Quantifying herbivory: grazing consumption and interaction strength. Oikos 77: 1–4; 1996a.Google Scholar
  129. Mitchell, S.F.; Wass, R.T. Grazing by black swans (Cygnus atratus Lathram), physical factors, and the growth and loss of aquatic vegetation in a shallow lake. Aquat. Bot. 55: 205–215; 1996b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Mitchell, S.F.; Hamilton, D.P.; Macgibbon, W.S.; Nayer, P.K.B.; Reynolds, R.N. Interrelations between phytoplankton, submerged macrophytes, black swans (Cygnus atratus) and Zooplankton in a shallow New Zealand lake. Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol. 73: 145–170; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Morrison, D. Comparing fish and urchin grazing in shallow and deeper coral reef algal communities. Ecology 69: 1367–1382; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mount, R.H. Reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn, AL: Auburn Printing Company; 1975.Google Scholar
  133. Murdoch, W.W.; Bence, J. General predators and unstable prey populations. In: Kerfoot, W.C; Sih, A., eds. Predation: direct and indirect impacts on aquatic communities. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England; 1987: 17–30.Google Scholar
  134. Newman, R.M. Herbivory and detritivory on freshwater macrophytes by invertebrates: a review. J. North Am. Benth. Soc. 10: 89–114; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Newman, R.M.; Hanscom, Z.; Kerfoot, W.C. The watercress glucosinolate-myrosinase system: a feeding deterrent to caddisflies, snails and amphipods. Oecologia 92: 1–7; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Newman, R.M.; Kerfoot, W.C; Hanscom, Z.A.C Watercress allelochemical defends high nitrogen foliage against consumption: effects on freshwater invertebrate herbivores. Ecology 77: 2312–2323; 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Nichols, S.A. The interaction between biology and the management of aquatic macrophytes. Aquat. Bot. 41: 225–252; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ogden, J.C.; Brown, R.A.; Salesky, N. Grazing by the echinoid Diadema antillarum Philippi: formation of halos around West Indian patch reefs. Science 182: 715–717; 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Otto, C. Adaptations to benthic freshwater herbivory. In: Wetzel, R.G., ed. Periphyton of freshwater ecosystems. Boston: Dr. W. Junk Publ.; 1983: 199–205.Google Scholar
  140. Owen-Smith, N.; Cooper, S.M. Palatability of woody plants to browsing ruminants in a South African savanna. Ecology 68: 319–331; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Painter, D.S.; McCabe, K.J. Investigation into the disappearance of Eurasian water-milfoil from the Kawartha Lakes. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 26: 3–12; 1988.Google Scholar
  142. Palmer, R.S. Handbook of North American birds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1976.Google Scholar
  143. Parmenter, R.R. Effects of food availability and water temperature on the feeding ecology of pond sliders. Copeia 3: 503–514; 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Parmenter, R.R.; Avery. 1990. The feeding ecology of the slider turtle. In: Parmenter, R.R.; Avery, H.W., eds. Life history and ecology of the slider turtle. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press; 1990: 257–265.Google Scholar
  145. Pelikan, J.; Svoboda, J.; Kvet, J. Relationship between the populations of muskrats (Ondatra zibethica) and the primary production of cattail (Typha latifolia). Hydrobiologia 12: 177–180; 1971.Google Scholar
  146. Persson, L.; Diehl, S.; Johansson, L.; Andersson, G.; Hamrin, S.F. Shifts in fish communities along the productivity gradient of temperate lakes—patterns and the importance of size-structured interactions. J. Fish. Biol. 38: 281–293; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Polunin, N.V.C.; Klumpp, D.W. Algal food supply and grazer demand in a very productive coral reef zone. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 164: 1–15; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Power, M.E.; Stewart, A.J.; Matthews, W.J. Grazer control of algae in an Ozard Mountain stream: effects of short-term exclusion. Ecology 69: 1894–1898; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Prejs, A. Herbivory by temperate freshwater fishes and its consequences. Environ. Biol. Fish. 10: 281–296; 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Prince, J. Limited effects of the sea urchin Echinometra mathaei (de Blainville) on the recruitment of benthic algae and macroinvertebrates into intertidal rock platforms at Rottnest Island, Western Australia. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 186: 237–258; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Provenza, F.D. Tracking variable environments: there is more than one kind of memory. J. Chem. Ecol. 21: 911–924; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Randall, J.E. Overgrazing of algae by herbivorous marine fishes. Ecology 42: 812; 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Randall, J.E. Grazing effect on seagrasses by herbivorous reef fishes in the West Indies. Ecology 46: 255–260; 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Reinecke, K.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Moorhead, D.J.; Hodges, J.D.; Nassar, J.R. Mississippi Alluvial Valley. In: Smith, L.M.; Pederson, R.L.; Kaminski, R.M., eds. Habitat management for migrating and wintering waterfowl in North America. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Press; 1989.Google Scholar
  155. Rhoades, D.F. Offensive-defensive interactions between insects and plants: their relevance in herbivore population dynamics and ecological theory. Am. Nat. 125: 205–238; 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Richardson, M.J.; Whoriskey, F.G.; Roy, L.H. Turbidity generation and biological impacts of an exotic fish Carassius auratus, introduced into shallow seasonally anoxic ponds. J. Fish. Biol. 47: 576–585; 1995.Google Scholar
  157. Risley, L.S.; Crossley, D.A. Herbivore-caused greenfall in the southern Appalachians. Ecology 69: 1118–1127; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rockwell, R.; Abraham, K.; Jefferies, R. Tundra under siege. Nat. History 105: 20–21; 1996.Google Scholar
  159. Rose, P.M. Midwinter waterfowl counts. In: Pose, P.M., ed. Western Paleartic and South-West Asia waterfowl census 1994. Slimbridge, Gloucester, UK: Waterfowl and Wetland Res. Bur. IWRB; 1994.Google Scholar
  160. Rosenthal, G.A.; Berenbaum, M.R., eds. Herbivores: their interactions with secondary plant metabolites. Vol. II: Evolutionary and ecological processes. New York: Academic Press; 1992.Google Scholar
  161. Russ, G.R. Is the rate of removal by grazers reduced inside territories of tropical damsel-fishes? J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 110: 1–17; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sammarco, P.W. Diadema and its relationship to coral spat mortality: grazing, competition, and biological disturbance. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 45: 245–272; 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sammarco, P.W. Effects of grazing by Diadema antillarum Philippi (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) on algal diversity and community structure. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 65: 83–105; 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sammarco, P.W.; Levinton, J.S.; Ogden, J.C. Grazing and control of coral reef community structure by Diadema antillarum Philippi (Echinodermata: Echinoidea): a preliminary study. J. Mar. Res. 32: 47–53; 1974.Google Scholar
  165. Santelices, B.; Martinez, E. Effects of filter-feeders and grazers on algal settlement and growth in mussel beds. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 118:281–306; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Sarnelle, O.; Kratz, K.W.; Cooper, S.D. Effects of an invertebrate grazer on the spatial arrangement of a benthic microhabitat. Oecologia 96: 208–218; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Scheffer, M.; Hosper, S.H.; Meijer, M.-L.; Moss, B.; Jeppesen, E. Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes. Trends Ecol. Evol. 8: 275–279; 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Schreiner, E.G.; Krueger, K.A.; Happe, P.J.; Houston, D.B. Understory patch dynamics and ungulate herbivory in old-growth forests of Olympic National Park, Washington. Can. J. For. Res. 26: 255–265; 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Schütten, J.; van der Velden, A.; Smit, H. Submerged macrophytes in the recently freshened lake system Volkerak-Zoom (The Netherlands), 1987-1991. Hydrobiologia 275/276: 207–218; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Scott, M.L.; Haskins, J.L. Effects of grazing by chrysomelid beetles on two wetland herbaceous species. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 114:13–17; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Shaffer, G.P.; Sasser, C.E.; Gosselink, J.G.; Rejmanek, M. Vegetation dynamics in the emerging Atchatalaya Delta, Louisiana, USA. J. Ecol. 80: 677–687; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Sheldon, S.P. The effects of herbivorous snails on submerged macrophyte communities in Minnesota lakes. Ecology 68: 1920–1931; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sheldon, S.P. More on freshwater snail herbivory: a reply to Bronmark. Ecology 71:1215–1216; 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Shireman, J.V. Control of aquatic weeds with exotic fishes. In: Courtenay, W.R.; Stauffer, J.R., eds. Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1984: 302–312.Google Scholar
  175. Sih, A. The behavioral response race between predator and prey. Am. Nat. 123: 143–150; 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Smith, L.M.; Kadlec, J.A. Fire and herbivory in a Great Salt marsh. Ecology 66: 259–265; 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Smith, T.J.; Odum, W.E. The effects of grazing by snow geese on coastal salt marshes. Ecology 62: 98–106; 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Søndergaard, M.; Bruun, L.; Lauridsen, T.; Jeppesen, E.; Madsen, T.V. The impact of grazing waterfowl on submerged macrophytes: in situ experiments in a shallow eu-trophic lake. Aquat. Bot. 53: 73–84; 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Soska, G.J. Ecological relations between invertebrates and submerged macrophytes in the lake littoral. Ekol. Pol. 23: 393–415; 1975.Google Scholar
  180. Squires, J.R. Trumpeter swam food habitats, forage processing, activities and habitat use. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Wyoming, Laramie; 1991.Google Scholar
  181. Steinberg, P.D.; Estes, J.A.; Winter, F.C. Evolutionary consequences of food chain length in kelp forest communities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92: 8145–8148; 1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Steinman, A.D. Effects of grazers on freshwater benthic algae. In: Stevenson, R.J.; Both-well, M.L.; Lowe, R.L., eds. Algal ecology: freshwater benthic ecosystems. New York: Academic Press; 1996: 533–573.Google Scholar
  183. Sterry, P.R.; Thomas, J.D.; Patience, R.L. Behavioural responses of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say) to chemical factors from aquatic macrophytes including decaying Lemna pauci-costata (Hegelm ex Engelm). Freshwat. Biol. 13: 465–476; 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Strong, D.R.; Lawton, J.H.; Southwood, R. Insects on plants: community patterns on plants. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1984.Google Scholar
  185. Suren, A.M.; Lake, P.S. Edibility of fresh and decomposing macrophytes to three species of freshwater invertebrate herbivores. Hydrobiologia 178: 165–178; 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Taylor, J.N.; Courtenay, W.R.; McCann, J.A. Known impacts of exotic fishes in the continental United States. In: Courtenay, W.R.; Stauffer, J.R., eds. Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; 1984: 322–373.Google Scholar
  187. Taylor, K.L.; Grace, J.B. The effects of vertebrate herbivory on the plant community structure in the coastal marshes of the Pearl River, Louisiana, USA. Wetlands 15: 68–73; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Taylor, K.L.; Grace, J.B.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Foote, A.L. The interactive effects of herbivory and fire on an oligohaline marsh, Little Lake, Louisiana, USA. Wetlands 14: 82–87; 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Underwood, G.J.C.; Thomas, J.D.; Baker, J.H. An experimental investigation of interactions in snail-macrophyte-epiphyte systems. Oecologia 91: 587–595; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Urban, E. The mining fauna in four macrophyte species in Mikolajskie Lake. Ekol. Pol. 23: 417–438; 1975.Google Scholar
  191. Urbane, B.O.; Blejec, A. Aquatic macrophytes of Lake Bled: changes in species composition, distribution and production. Hydrobiologia 262: 189–194; 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Valentine, J.F.; Heck, K.L. The role of sea urchin grazing in regulating subtropical seagrass meadows: evidence from field manipulations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 154: 215–230; 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Vance, R.R. Effects of grazing by the sea urchin, Centrostephanus coronatus, on prey community composition. Ecology 60: 537–546; 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. van der Velde, G. Initial decomposition of Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze (Meny-anthaceae), as studied by the leaf-marking method. Hydrobiol. Bull. 16: 51–60; 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. van Donk, E.; Gulati, R.D. Transition of a lake to turbid state six years after biomanipula-tion: mechanisms and pathways. Wat. Sci. Techn. 32: 197–206; 1995.Google Scholar
  196. van Donk, E.; Otte, A. Effects of grazing by fish and waterfowl on the biomass and species composition of submerged macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 340: 285–290; 1996..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. van Donk, E.; De Deckere, E.; Klein-Breteler, J.G.P.; Meulemans, J.T. Herbivory by waterfowl and fish on macrophytes in a biomanipulated lake: effects on long-term recovery. Verh. Int. Verein. Limnol. 25: 2139–2143; 1994.Google Scholar
  198. van Tamelan, P.G. Early successional mechanisms in the rocky intertidal: the role of direct and indirect mechanisms. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 112:39–48; 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Verhoeven, J.T. A. Natural regulation of plant biomass in a ruppia-dominated system. Proc. EWRS 5th Symp. on Aquatic Weeds; 1978: 53–61.Google Scholar
  200. Vermaat, J.E. Periphyton removal by freshwater micrograzers. In: van Vierssen, W.; Hoots-mans, M.; Vermaat, J.E., eds. Lake Veluwe, a macrophyte-dominated system under eutrophication stress. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1994: 213–249.Google Scholar
  201. Wallace, J.B.; O’Hop, J. Life on a fast pad: waterlilly beetle impact on water lilies. Ecology 66: 1534–1544, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Wanders, J.B.W. The role of benthic algae in the shallow reef of Curacao (Netherlands Antilles) HI: the significance of grazing. Aquat. Bot. 3: 357–390; 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Whicker, A.D.; Detling, J.K. Ecological consequences of prairie dog disturbances. Bios-cience 38: 778–785; 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Whitaker, J.O. The Audubon Society field guide to mammals. New York: Knopf, Inc. 1980.Google Scholar
  205. Willey, C.H.; Halla, B.F. Mute swans of Rhode Island. Wildl. Pamphlet No. 8, Rhode Island Dept. Nat. Res., Div. of Fish and Wildl.; 1972.Google Scholar
  206. Wilsey, B.J.; Chabreck, R.H. Nutritional quality of nutria diets in three Louisiana wetland habitats. Northeast Gulf Sci. 12: 67–72; 1991.Google Scholar
  207. Wilson, E.O. The diversity of life. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.; 1992.Google Scholar
  208. Wilson, U.W.; Atkinson, J.B. Black brant winter and spring-staging use at two Washington coastal areas in relation to eelgrass abundance. Condor 97: 91–98; 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Witkowski, E.T.F. The defoliation of woody vegetation by large herbivores at Nylsvley. Dissertation, Univ. Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 1980.Google Scholar
  210. Wood, R.; Gelston, W.L. Preliminary report: the mute swans of Michigan’s Grand Traverse Bay region. Mich. Dept. Nat. Resour. Rep. 2683; 1972.Google Scholar
  211. Wootton, J.T; Oemke, M.P. Latitudinal differences in fish community trophic structure, and the role of fish herbivory in a Costa Rican stream. Environ. Biol. Fish. 35: 311–319; 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H. Spring grazing and the manipulation of food quality by barnacle geese. J. Appl. Ecol. 18: 443–453; 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Lodge
  • Greg Cronin
  • Ellen van Donk
  • Adrienne J. Froelich

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations