This chapter presents the issue of pollution from stationary sources and introduces available mitigation options. It focuses on both direct and indirect control mechanisms and indicates the benefits and shortcomings of each option. The chapter elaborates on the cap-and-trade programme used in the US for mitigation of acid rains and also introduces the problems related to indoor air pollution.
KeywordsAir pollution Control strategies Standards Taxes and charges Cap and trade Performance Technology
- BP Statistical Review of World Energy. (2018). London: BP plc.Google Scholar
- Bruce, N., Perez-Padilla, R., & Albalak, R. (2002). The health effects of indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
- Burtraw, D., & Palmer, K. (2003). The Paparazzi take a look at a living legend: The SO2 cap-and-trade program for power plants in the United States. Resources for the future discussion paper 15. http://www.rff.org/rff/Documents/RFF-DP-03-15.pdf.
- Burtraw, D., & Szembelan, S. J. (2009). U.S. Emissions trading markets for SOx and NOx, RFF-DP-09-40. Washington DC: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
- de Leeuw, F, Benesova, N., & Horalek, J. (2016). Evaluation of international air quality standards. Technical Paper 2016/10. European Technical Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation, Bilthoven, The Netherlands. https://acm.eionet.europa.eu/reports/docs/ETCACM_TP_2016_10_AAQstandards.pdf.
- Defense, Environmental. (2000). From obstacle to opportunity: How acid rain emissions trading is delivering cleaner air. New York: Environmental Defense.Google Scholar
- EPA. (2005). Evaluating ozone control programs in the Eastern United States, focus on NOx budget trading program. Washington, DC. http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2005/ozonenbp.pdf.
- EPA. (2010). Acid rain and related programs: 2009 emission compliance and market analyses. Washington, DC: Environment Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- EPA. (2011). 2010 Progress report: Emission, compliance and market analyses. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- Eurostat. (2019). Environmental tax statistics, eurostat. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/pdfscache/5085.pdf.
- Ezzati, M., & Kammen, D. M. (2002). Household energy, indoor air pollution and public health in developing countries, RFF Issue bried 02-26. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
- IEA. (2012). Technology roadmaps: High efficiency, low emissions coal-fired power generation. Paris: International Energy Agency.Google Scholar
- IEA. (2016). Energy and air pollution, world energy outlook special report 2016. Paris: International Energy Agency.Google Scholar
- Lovei, M. (1998). Phasing out lead from gasoline: Worldwide experiences and policy implications. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTURBANTRANSPORT/Resources/b09phasing.pdf.
- Millstein, D., R Wyser, M Bolinger and G Barbose, 2017, The climate and air-quality benefits of wind and solar power in the United States, Nature Energy, 2, https://doi.org/10.1038/nenergy.2018.134.
- OTC. (2003a). NOX budget program: 1999–2002 progress report. Washington, DC: Ozone Transportation Commission.Google Scholar
- OTC. (2003b). 2002 OTC NOx budget program compliance report. Washington, DC: OTC. http://www.otcair.org/document.asp?fview=Report#.
- Palit, D., & Bhattacharyya, S. C. (2014). Adoption of cleaner cookstoves: Barriers and wayforward. Boiling Point, 64, 6–11.Google Scholar
- TERI. (2015). Green growth and air pollution in India. New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute. https://www.teriin.org/projects/green/pdf/National-Air-Pollution.pdf.
- WHO. (2016). Burning opportunity: Clean household energy for health, sustainable development and wellbeing of women and children. Geneva: World Health Organisation. https://www.who.int/airpollution/publications/burning-opportunities/en/.
- World Bank. (1992). World development report 1992: Development and the environment. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
- EPA. (2003). Tools of the trade: A guide to designing and operating a Cap and Trade Programme for pollution control. Washington, DC: US Energy Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- Eskeland, G. S., & Devarajan, S. (1996). Taxing bads by taxing goods: Pollution control with presumptive charges. World Bank.Google Scholar
- Krupnick, A., Morgenstern, R., Fisher, C., Rolfe, K., Logarta, J., & Rufo, B. (2003). Air pollution control policy options for Metro Manila, RFF Discussion paper 03-30. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
- EC. (2001). Directive 2001/80/EC on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from large combustion plants.Google Scholar
- World Bank. (1999). Pollution prevention and abatement handbook: Toward cleaner production. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar