Advertisement

Food Contact Materials: Practices, Agencies and Challenges

  • Jane MunckeEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Molecular and Integrative Toxicology book series (MOLECUL)

Abstract

Foods and beverages are often processed and packaged before we consume them. Any material that intentionally comes into contact with foodstuffs is called food contact material (FCM). Many FCMs are plastics or are made of synthetic polymeric materials, like coatings and adhesives. Individual chemicals used for the manufacture of FCMs are called food contact substances (FCS). Specific regulations aim at limiting the migration of FCS into the food, thereby reducing risks of chronic chemical exposure to human health. However, FCMs are an under-recognized source of chemical food contamination. Currently, around 4,000 substances are used in FCMs. The challenge of determining which FCSs are present in food and beverages by chemical analysis is further increased by non-intentionally added substances (NIASs) that are impurities and breakdown products, or formed as reaction by-products of polymerization processes. Over the last few decades, scientific research has increased our understanding of risks linked to chronic chemical exposures. Of particular concern are endocrine disrupting chemicals that affect our body’s hormone systems, mixture effects of chemicals present at individual no-effect levels, transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic effects, and the importance of protecting the developing fetus and infant from harmful chemical exposures. Taken together, these research findings offer important opportunities for prevention of chronic disease. This chapter summarizes current use, regulation and risk assessment of FCMs in the United States of America (U.S.) and the European Union (E.U.). Challenges to the risk assessment process arising from recent scientific insights are discussed, and recommendations how to address these challenges are made.

Keywords

Food packaging Food contact materials Food contact substances Migration Non-intentionally added substance Chemical risk assessment Toxicological testing requirements 

Notes

Acknowledgements

All statements made in this text reflect the author’s personal professional opinion and are not an expression of the Food Packaging Forum Foundation’s views.

References

  1. Alger HM, Maffini MV, Kulkarni NR et al (2013) Perspectives on how FDA assesses exposure to food additives when evaluating their safety: workshop proceedings. Compr Rev Food Sci F 12(1):90–119. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2012.00216.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashby J, Tennant RW (1988) Chemical structure, Salmonella mutagenicity and extent of carcinogenicity as indicators of genotoxic carcinogenesis among 222 chemicals tested in rodents by the U.S. NCI/NTP. Mutat Res,Genet Tox 204(1):17–115. doi: 10.1016/0165-1218(88)90114-0
  3. Bailin PS, Byrne M, Lewis S et al (2008) Public awareness drives market for safer alternatives. Bisphenol A market analysis report. Investor Environmental Health Network. http://www.iehn.org/documents/BPA%20market%20report%20Final.pdf. Accessed 2 July 2013
  4. Balbus JM, Barouki R, Birnbaum LS et al (2013) Early-life prevention of non-communicable diseases. Lancet 381(9860):3–4. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61609-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Benigni R, Bossa C (2006) Structural alerts of mutagens and carcinogens. Curr Comput Aided Drug Des 2(2):169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biedermann M, Grob K (2010) Is recycled newspaper suitable for food contact materials? Technical grade mineral oils from printing inks. Eur Food Res Technol 230(5):785–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Biedermann M, Ingenhoff J-E, Zurfluh M et al (2013) Migration of mineral oil, photoinitiators and plasticizers from recycled paperboard into dry foods: a study under controlled conditions. Food Addit Contam Part A 30(5):885–898. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2013.786189 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradley E, Coulier L (2007) An investigation into the reaction and breakdown products from starting substances used to produce food contact plastics. Central Science Laboratory, London. http://www.foodbase.org.uk//admintools/reportdocuments/518-1-911_A03054_reaction_and_breakdown_products_final_report.pdf. Accessed 2 July 2013
  9. Carwile JL, Ye X, Zhou X et al (2011) Canned soup consumption and urinary bisphenol A: a randomized crossover trial. JAMA 306(20):2218–2220. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.1721 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2012) National biomonitoring program. Environmental chemicals. http://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/environmental_chemicals.html. Accessed 2 July 2013
  11. Cheeseman MA, Machuga EJ, Bailey AB (1999) A tiered approach to threshold of regulation. Food Chem Toxicol 37(4):387–412. doi: 10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00024-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Christiansen S, Scholze M, Axelstad M et al (2008) Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat. Int J Androl 31(2):241–248. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2008.00866.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Coulier L, Bradley EL, Bas RC et al (2010) Analysis of reaction products of food contaminants and ingredients: bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) in canned foods. J Agric Food Chem 58(8):4873–4882. doi: 10.1021/jf904160a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Deichmann WB, Henschler D, Holmsted B et al (1986) What is there that is not poison? A study of the Third Defense by Paracelsus. Arch Toxicol 58(4):207–213. doi: 10.1007/BF00297107 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dewhurst I, Renwick AG (2012) Evaluation of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC)—challenges and approaches. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 65(1):168–177. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.03.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Dolinoy DC, Huang D, Jirtle RL (2007) Maternal nutrient supplementation counteracts bisphenol A-induced DNA hypomethylation in early development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(32):13056–13061PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. European Commission (2013) Food contact materials. https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/sanco_foods/main/?event=display. Accessed 16 June 2013
  18. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2008) Guidance document on the submission of a dossier on a substance to be used in food contact materials for evaluation by EFSA by the panel on additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food. EFSA J. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2008.21r
  19. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2011) Report of ESCO WG on non-plastic food contact materials. European Food Safety Authority. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/supporting/pub/139e.htm. Accessed 16 June 2013
  20. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2012a) Guidance on selected default values to be used by the EFSA scientific committee, scientific panels and units in the absence of actual measured data. EFSA J 10(3):2579–2611. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2579 Google Scholar
  21. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (2012b) Scientific opinion on exploring options for providing advice about possible human health risks based on the concept of threshold of toxicological concern (TTC). EFSA J 10(7):2750–2853. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2750 Google Scholar
  22. European Union (2007) Commission directive 2007/42/EC of 29 June 2007 relating to materials and articles made of regenerated cellulose film intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2007:172:0071:0082:EN:PDF. Accessed 18 July 2013
  23. European Union (2011) Commission regulation (E.U.) No 10/2011 of 14 January 2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:012:0001:0089:EN:PDF. Accessed 18 July 2013
  24. European Union (2012) Regulation (E.U.) No 528/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 May 2012 concerning the making available on the market and use of biocidal products. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:167:0001:0123:EN:PDF. Accessed 18 July 2013
  25. Falk-Filipsson A, Hanberg A, Victorin K et al (2007) Assessment factors: applications in health risk assessment of chemicals. Environ Res 104(1):108–127CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2002) Guidance for industry: preparation of food contact notifications for food contact substances: toxicology recommendations. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/IngredientsAdditivesGRASPackaging/ucm081825.htm. Accessed 17 June 2013
  27. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2004) Guidance for industry: frequently asked questions about GRAS. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/IngredientsAdditivesGRASPackaging/ucm061846.htm. Accessed 4 July 2013
  28. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2007a) Guidance for industry and other stakeholders: toxicological principles for the safety assessment of food ingredients. Redbook 2000. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/IngredientsAdditivesGRASPackaging/ucm2006826.htm. Accessed 16 July 2013
  29. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2007b) Guidance for industry: preparation of premarket submissions for food contact substances: chemistry recommendations. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/IngredientsAdditivesGRASPackaging/ucm081818.htm#aivti. Accessed 14 June 2013
  30. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2009) Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) of 1997. http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Legislation/FederalFoodDrugandCosmeticActFDCAct/SignificantAmendmentstotheFDCAct/FDAMA/default.htm. Accessed 2 July 2013
  31. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2011a) Guidance for industry: submitting requests under 21 CFR 170.39 Threshold of regulation for substances used in food-contact articles. Exemptions for houseware articles. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/IngredientsAdditivesGRASPackaging/ucm081833.htm#_ftn2. Accessed 14 June 2013
  32. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2011b) List of indirect additives used in food contact substances. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fcn/fcnNavigation.cfm?rpt=iaListing. Accessed 4 July 2013
  33. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2012a) Threshold of regulations exemptions. List of issued exemptions based on the threshold of regulation, since 1996 (updated December 2012). http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/ThresholdRegulationExemptions/ucm093685.htm. Accessed 14 June 2013
  34. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2012b) Cumulative estimated daily intake. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/sda/sdnavigation.cfm?sd=edisrev. Accessed 4 July 2013
  35. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2013a) Inventory of effective food contact substance (FCS) notifications. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fcn/fcnnavigation.cfm?rpt=fcslisting. Accessed 14 June 2013
  36. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (2013b) GRAS notice inventory. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/fcn/fcnNavigation.cfm?rpt=grasListing. Accessed 14 June 2013
  37. Federal Register (2012) Indirect food additives: polymers. Polycarbonate resins. 21 CFR 177.1580. https://federalregister.gov/a/2012-17366. Accessed 17 July 2013
  38. Feil R, Fraga MF (2012) Epigenetics and the environment: emerging patterns and implications. Nat Rev Genet 13(2):97–109. doi: 10.1038/nrg3142 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gallart-Ayala H, Núñez O, Lucci P (2013) Recent advances in LC-MS analysis of food-packaging contaminants. TrAC 42:99–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2012.09.017
  40. Grob K, Biedermann M, Scherbaum E et al (2006) Food contamination with organic materials in perspective: packaging materials as the largest and least controlled source? A view focusing on the European situation. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 46(7):529–535CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Grob K, Stocker J, Colwell R (2009) Assurance of compliance within the production chain of food contact materials by good manufacturing practice and documentation—part 1: legal background in Europe and compliance challenges. Food Control 20:476–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guart A, Wagner M, Mezquida A et al (2013) Migration of plasticizers from Tritan™ and polycarbonate bottles and toxicological evaluation. Food Chem 141(1):373–380. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.02.129 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. IPCS (2009) Principles and methods for the risk assessment of chemicals in food, vol 240. Environmental Health Criteria. WHO, Geneva. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/chem/principles/en/index1.html. Accessed 2 July 2013
  44. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) (2013) Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives publications. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/chem/jecfa/publications/en/index. Accessed 14 June 2013
  45. Joint Research Centre (JRC) (2012) The FACET Project: flavorings, additives and food contact materials exposure task. http://ihcp.jrc.ec.europa.eu/our_activities/food-cons-prod/chemicals_in_food/FACET. Accessed 14 June 2013
  46. Kortenkamp A, Faust M (2010) Combined exposures to anti-androgenic chemicals: steps towards cumulative risk assessment. Int J Androl 33(2):463–474. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2605.2009.01047.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kroes R, Renwick AG, Cheeseman M et al (2004) Structure-based thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC): guidance for application to substances present at low levels in the diet. Food Chem Toxicol 42(1):65–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Le HH, Carlson EM, Chua JP et al (2008) Bisphenol A is released from polycarbonate drinking bottles and mimics the neurotoxic actions of estrogen in developing cerebellar neurons. Toxicol Lett 176(2):149–156PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Maffini MV, Alger HM, Bongard ED et al (2011) Enhancing FDA’s evaluation of science to ensure chemicals added to human food are safe: workshop proceedings. Compr Rev Food Sci F 10(6):321–341. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2011.00165.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Maffini MV, Alger HM, Olson ED et al (2013) Looking back to look forward: a review of FDA’s food additives safety assessment and recommendations for modernizing its program. Compr Rev Food Sci F 12(4):439–453. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Manikkam M, Tracey R, Guerrero-Bosagna C et al (2013) Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP) induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations. PLoS ONE 8(1):e55387. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055387 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Martin OV, Scholze M, Kortenkamp A (2013) Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment—sufficient protection against mixture effects? Environ Health 12(1):53. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-53 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. McNeal TP, Biles JE, Begley TH et al (2000) Determination of suspected endocrine disruptors in foods and food packaging. In: Keith LH, Jones-Lepp TL, Needham LL (eds) Analysis of environmental endocrine disruptors, vol 747., ACS symposium series. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 33–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mori Y (2010) Rules on food contact materials and articles in Japan. In: Rijk R, Veraart R (eds) Global legislation for food packaging materials. Wiley, Weinheim, pp 291–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Morlock G, Schwack W (2006) Determination of isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) in milk, yoghurt and fat by HPTLC-FLD, HPTLC-ESI/MS and HPTLC-DART/MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 385(3):586–595CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Muncke J (2009) Exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds via the food chain: is packaging a relevant source? Sci Total Environ 407(16):4549–4559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Munro IC, Ford RA, Kennepohl E et al (1996) Correlation of structural class with no-observed-effect levels: a proposal for establishing a threshold of concern. Food Chem Toxicol 34(9):829–867CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Neltner TG, Kulkarni NR, Alger HM et al (2011) Navigating the U.S. Food Additive Regulatory Program. Compr Rev Food Sci F 10(6):342–368. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2011.00166.x
  59. Neltner TG, Alger HM, Leonard JE et al (2013) Data gaps in toxicity testing of chemicals allowed in food in the United States. Repro Tox. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2013.07.023 Google Scholar
  60. Nerin C, Alfaro P, Aznar M et al (2013) The challenge of identifying non-intentionally added substances from food packaging materials: a review. Anal Chim Acta 775:14–24 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2013.02.028
  61. Neumann HG (2009) Risk assessment of chemical carcinogens and thresholds. Crit Rev Toxicol 39(6):449–461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Nordic Council of Ministers (2005) Threshold of toxicological concern (TTC): Literature review and applicability, Nordic Council. http://www.norden.org/da/publikationer/publikationer/2005-559/at_download/publicationfile. Accessed 2 July 2013
  63. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2013) OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/oecd-guidelines-for-the-testing-of-chemicals_chem_guide_pkg-en;jsessionid=jj1gcntzpbmu.x-oecd-live-02. Accessed 13 June 2013
  64. Osimitz TG, Eldridge ML, Sloter E et al (2012) Lack of androgenicity and estrogenicity of the three monomers used in Eastman’s Tritan™ copolyesters. Food Chem Toxicol 50(6):2196–2205. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.02.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Pano (2011) Pano blueseal. http://www.pano.de/en/products/metal-packaging/pano-blueseal. Accessed 14 June 2013
  66. Pedersen GA, Jensen LK, Fankhauser A et al (2008) Migration of epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) and phthalates from twist closures into food and enforcement of the overall migration limit. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 25(4):503–510CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Rasoulpour RJ, LeBaron MJ, Ellis-Hutchings RG et al (2011) Epigenetic screening in product safety assessment: are we there yet? Toxicol Mech Methods 21(4):298–311. doi: 10.3109/15376516.2011.557883 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Renwick AG (1991) Safety factors and establishment of acceptable daily intakes. Food Addit Contam 8(2):135–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Renwick AG (2004) Risk characterisation of chemicals in food. Toxicol Lett 149(1–3):163–176. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2003.12.063 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Rexam (2011) Consumer packaging report 2011–2012. http://www.rexam.com/files/pdf/packaging_unwrapped_2011.pdf. Accessed 2 July 2013
  71. Rider CV, Furr J, Wilson VS et al (2008) A mixture of seven antiandrogens induces reproductive malformations in rats. Int J Androl 31(2):249–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Rudel RA, Gray JM, Engel CL et al (2011) Food packaging and bisphenol A and bis(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate exposure: findings from a dietary intervention. Environ Health Perspect 119(7):914–920PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rulis AM (1987) De Minimis and the threshold of regulation. In: Felix CW (ed) Food protection technology: “current and projected technologies for food protection—recommendations and implementation”. Proceedings of the 1986 conference for food protection. Lewis, Chelsea, MI, pp 29–37Google Scholar
  74. Russo VEA, Martienssen RA, Riggs AD (1997) Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  75. Schug TT, Abagyan R, Blumberg B et al (2013) Designing endocrine disruption out of the next generation of chemicals. Green Chem 15(1):181–198. doi: 10.1039/C2GC35055F
  76. Shanklin AP (2008) How FDA’s threshold of regulation program works. Food safety magazine. http://www.foodsafetymagazine.com/magazine-archive1/december-2008january-2009/how-fdas-threshold-of-regulation-program-works/. Accessed 2 July 2013
  77. Shanklin AP, Sánchez ER (2013) Regulatory report: FDA’s food contact substance notification program. http://www.fda.gov/Food/IngredientsPackagingLabeling/PackagingFCS/ucm064161.htm. Accessed 2 July 2013
  78. Silva E, Rajapakse N, Kortenkamp A (2002) Something from “nothing”—eight weak estrogenic chemicals combined at concentrations below NOECs produce significant mixture effects. Environ Sci Technol 36(8):1751–1756CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Simoneau C, Van den Eede L, Valzacchi S (2012) Identification and quantification of the migration of chemicals from plastic baby bottles used as substitutes for polycarbonate. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 29(3):469–480. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2011.644588 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Swiss Federal Department of Home Affairs (2011) Ordinance of the federal department of home affairs on materials and articles (817.023.21). Section 8b: Packaging inks. http://www.bag.admin.ch/themen/lebensmittel/04867/10015/index.html?lang=en. Accessed 14 June 2013
  81. United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organization (UNEP/WHO) (2013) State of the science of endocrine disrupting chemicals 2012. In: Bergman A, Heindel JJ, Jobling S, Kidd KA, Zoeller RT (eds), United Nations Environmental Programme and the World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/ceh/publications/endocrine/en/ Accessed 2 July 2013
  82. United States Statutes at Large (1958) An Act to protect the public health by amending the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act to prohibit the use in food of additives which have not been adequately tested to establish their safety. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/85/hr13254. Accessed 2 July 2013
  83. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2009) Final list of chemicals for initial Tier 1 screening. http://www.epa.gov/endo/pubs/prioritysetting/finallist.html. Accessed 2 July 2013
  84. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2012) Human health risk assessment. http://www.epa.gov/risk_assessment/health-risk.htm. Accessed 14 June 2013
  85. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2013a) Endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). http://www.epa.gov/endo/. Accessed 2 July 2013
  86. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2013b) Overview of the second list of chemicals for Tier 1 screening. http://www.epa.gov/endo/pubs/prioritysetting/list2facts.htm. Accessed 2 July 2013
  87. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2013c) ToxCast. Screening chemicals to predict toxicity faster and better. http://www.epa.gov/ncct/toxcast/. Accessed 13 June 2013
  88. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2013d) Tox21. http://epa.gov/ncct/Tox21/. Accessed 14 June 2013
  89. U.S. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare (1958) Food additives amendment of 1958 committee report—Senate report No. 2422. Congressional Record, Washington, D.CGoogle Scholar
  90. van Leeuwen CJ (2007) Toxicity testing for human health risk assessment. General introduction. In: van Leeuwen CJ, Vermeire TG (eds) Risk assessment of chemicals: an introduction. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1–36Google Scholar
  91. Vandenberg LN, Colborn T, Hayes TB et al (2012) Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses. Endocr Rev 33(3):378-455. doi: 10.1210/er.2011-1050
  92. Vogel SA (2012) Chapter 1: Plastic food. Defining safety in the food additives act. In: Is it safe? BPA and the struggle to define the safety of chemicals. University of California Press, Berkeley, p 35Google Scholar
  93. vom Saal FS, Akingbemi BT, Belcher SM et al (2010) Flawed experimental design reveals the need for guidelines requiring appropriate positive controls in endocrine disruption research. Toxicol Sci 115(2):612–613. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq048
  94. Yang CZ, Yaniger SI, Jordan VC et al (2011) Most plastic products release estrogenic chemicals: a potential health problem that can be solved. Environ Health Perspect 119(7):989–996PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Zoeller RT, Brown TR, Doan LL et al (2012) Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection: a statement of principles from the endocrine society. Endocrinology 153(9):4097–4110. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-1422 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Packaging Forum FoundationZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations