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Atrial Septal Defect

  • Anita SadeghpourEmail author
  • Azin Alizadehasl
  • Nehzat Akiash
  • Majid Kyavar
Chapter

Abstract

One of the most common adult congenital heart defects (CHD) is the atrial septal defect (ASD), which is a true, direct, and permanent communication between two atria. There are four major types of the ASD: ostium secundum, ostium primum, sinus venosus defect (superior and inferior types), and coronary sinus defect or unroofed coronary sinus (CS) [1, 2].

Keywords

Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Secundum Type ASD Septum Primum Type ASD Sinus Venosus Type ASD Coronary Sinus Type ASD Echocardiography 

Supplementary material

Video 19.1

Bicaval view, showing an aneurysmal inter-atrial septum with multiple fenestrations (AVI 13,948 kb)

310404_1_En_19_MOESM2_ESM.avi (1.4 mb)
Video 19.2 Two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiogphy image, showing two large secundum type atrial septal defects adjacent to each other (AVI 1,425 kb)
Video 19.3

Color flow imaging in the same patient, demonstrating a low-velocity blue color flow jet representing a left-to-right shunt across the atrial septal defect (MPG 2,150 kb)

Video 19.4

Right heart agitated saline contrast study, showing negative contrast in the right atrium (MPG 1,382 kb)

Video 19.5

Course of the catheter in the secundum type atrial septal defect: femoral vein inferior venal cava → right atrium through the atrial septal defect → left atrium → left upper pulmonary vein (WMV 128 kb)

Video 19.6

Postoperative transthoracic echocardiography in a patient with atrial septal defect repair by pericardial patch, showing a mobile echogenic mass attached to the right side of the inter-atrial septum, suggestive of thrombosis (MPG 1,634 kb)

310404_1_En_19_MOESM7_ESM.mpg (562 kb)
Video 19.7 Transesophageal echocardiography in the same patient, showing the mobile round echogenic mass attached to the inferoposterior side of the inter-atrial septum, suggestive of thrombosis since it has been resolved by anticoagulation therapy (MPG 562 kb)
Video 19.8

Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography in four-chamber view, showing the same level atrioventricular valves associated with a large defect in the most anteroinferior portion of the atrial septum suggestive of primum type ASD and partial AVSD (MPG 2,108 kb)

Video 19.9

Transesophageal echocardiography in four-chamber view, showing the same level atrioventricular valves associated with a large defect in the most anteroinferior portion of the atrial septum suggestive of primum type ASD and partial AVSD (MPG 2,000 kb)

Video 19.10

The thickened and calcified left AV valve (mitral valve) with a cleft in the anterior mitral leaflet (AML) (MPG 862 kb)

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Video 19.11 A typical feature of partial AVSD in transthoracic echocardiography with direct LVOT to RA communication (MPG 824 kb)
Video 19.12

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), showing an atrial septal defect (ASD) located at the superior region of the inter-atrial septum adjacent to the right pulmonary vein (WMV 310 kb)

Video 19.13

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in high esophageal view, demonstrating a two-dimensional defect at the superior vena cava to the right and left atrium junction (WMV 366 kb)

Video 19.14

Sinus venosus type atrial septal defect (ASD) with a left-to-right shunt by color Doppler imaging (WMV 600 kb)

Video 19.15

Color Doppler imaging in transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), showing the abnormal drainage of the right upper pulmonary vein into the right atrium (WMV 547 kb)

Video 19.16

Contrast injection into the high esophageal view (0°), demonstrating the negative contrast in the site of the right upper pulmonary vein drainage into the superior vena cava (WMV 394 kb)

Video 19.17

Cardiac catheterism, showing the course of the catheter: right femoral vein → inferior vena cava → right atrium → superior venacava → right upper pulmonary vein (WMV 685 kb)

Video 19.18

Sinus venosus type atrial septal defect (ASD): injection in the right upper pulmonary vein fills the left and right atrium. The catheter enters the right upper pulmonary vein before entering the right atrium (WMV 1,103 kb)

Video 19.19

TEE in mid esophageal view showing direct communication between LSVC and LA associated with complete unroofed coronary sinus (WMV 224 kb)

Video 19.20

Agitated saline contrast injection via the left anticubital vain in the same patient shows rapid LA opacification via the persistent LSVC to LA connection (WMV 560 kb)

310404_1_En_19_MOESM21_ESM.avi (5.6 mb)
Video 19.21 Cardiac catheterization shows the persistent Left SVC fills unroofed CS and consequently LA and LV (AVI 5,723 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Sadeghpour
    • 1
    Email author
  • Azin Alizadehasl
    • 2
  • Nehzat Akiash
    • 3
  • Majid Kyavar
    • 4
  1. 1.Echocardiography Lab, Department of CardiologyAdult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  2. 2.Echocardiography Lab, Department of CardiologyRajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyRajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research CenterTehranIran
  4. 4.Cardiovascular Imaging Ward, Department of CardiologyAdult Congenital Heart Disease Clinic, Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical ScienceTehranIran

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