Advertisement

Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy

  • Antonio Cicione
  • Francesco Cantiello
  • Rocco Damiano
Chapter

Abstract

Prostate biopsy (PBx) is one of the most common urological procedures, with more than one million procedures performed per year in Europe and the United States. PBx is performed to diagnose prostate cancer (PCa) that may be considered as a singular malignancy despite other neoplastic diseases for which the biopsy can be direct to a single suspect area. At present, PBx is can be carried out in an office setting with low morbidity however the role of prostate biopsy (PBx) has changed and its findings play a crucial role in the choice of prostate cancer treatment. For instance, the recent introduction of active surveillance and focal therapy as ideally available treatment options have emphasized the role of PBx to assist patient clinical management requiring persuasive details on PCa quality. Likewise, in the effort to improve both the cancer detection and the cancer features assessment a notable improvement in PBx instrumentations and technologies has occurred over the last years moving from Vim-Silverman needle originally used in the 1980 to perform digital-guided PBx to many imaging technologies such as elastosonography or magnetic resonance aimed to improve the PCa detection. PBx can be carried out by both perineal and trans rectal approach. Herein, main technical aspects of the trans rectal prostate biopsy are summarized in order to provide the most current knowledge on this topic.

Keywords

Prostate biopsy Transrectaly ultrasound Technique 

References

  1. 1.
    American Urological Association. AUA Guidelines – detection of prostate cancer. 2013. Available on: https://www.auanet.org/education/guidelines/prostate-cancer-detection.cfm.
  2. 2.
    Bertaccini A, Fandella A, Prayer-Galetti T, et al. Systematic development of clinical practice guidelines for prostate biopsies: a 3-year Italian project. Anticancer Res. 2007;27:659–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Boccon-Gibod L, Van der Kwast TH, Montironi R, Boccon-Gibod L, Bono A. Handling and pathology reporting of prostate biopsies. Eur Urol. 2004;46:177–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cantiello F, Cicione A, Autorino R, Cosentino C, Amato F, Damiano R. Pelvic plexus block is more effective than periprostatic nerve block for pain control during office transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy: a single center, prospective, randomized, double arm study. J Urol. 2012;188:417–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chowdhury R, Abbas A, Idriz S, Hoy A, Rutherford EE, Smart JM. Should warfarin or aspirin be stopped prior to prostate biopsy? An analysis of bleeding complications related to increasing sample number regimes. Clin Radiol. 2012;67:e64–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cicione A, Cantiello F, De Nunzio C, Tubaro A, Damiano R. Prostate biopsy quality is independent of needle size: a randomized single-center prospective study. Urol Int. 2012;89:57–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    De Nunzio C, Lombardo R, Presicce F, et al. Transrectal-ultrasound prostatic biopsy preparation: rectal enema vs. mechanical bowel preparation. Cent Eur J Urol. 2015;68:223–8.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Djavan B, Remzi M, Schulman CC, Marberger M, Zlotta AR. Repeat prostate biopsy: who, how and when? A review. Eur Urol. 2002;42:93–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    European Association of Urology. EAU Guidelines – oncology guidelines. 2015. Available on: https://uroweb.org/guideline/prostate-cancer/.
  10. 10.
    Fajardo DA, Epstein JI. Fragmentation of prostatic needle biopsy cores containing adenocarcinoma: the role of specimen submission. BJU Int. 2010;105:172–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fine SW, Amin MB, Berney DM, Bjartell A, Egevad L, Epstein JI, Humphrey PA, Magi-Galluzzi C, Montironi R, Stief C. A contemporary update on pathology reporting for prostate cancer: biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens. Eur Urol. 2012;62:20–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Giannarini G, Mogorovich A, Valent F, et al. Continuing or discontinuing low-dose aspirin before transrectal prostate biopsy: results of a prospective randomized trial. Urology. 2007;70:501–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Guenaga KF, Matos D, Wille-Jorgensen P. Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(9):CD001544.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Herget EJ, Saliken JC, Donnelly BJ, Gray RR, Wiseman D, Brunet G. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: relation between ASA use and bleeding complications. Can Assoc Radiol J. 1999;50:173–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Issa MM, Al-Qassab UA, Hall J, Ritenour CW, Petros JA, Sullivan JW. Formalin disinfection of biopsy needle minimizes the risk of sepsis following prostate biopsy. J Urol. 2013;190:1769–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Maan Z, Cutting CW, Patel U, Kerry S, Pietrzak P, Perry MJ, Kirby RS. Morbidity of transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsies in patients after the continued use of low-dose aspirin. BJU Int. 2003;91:798–800.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nash PA, Bruce JE, Indudhara R, Shinohara K. Transrectal ultrasound guided prostatic nerve blockade eases systematic needle biopsy of the prostate. J Urol. 1996;155:607–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Scattoni V, Zlotta A, Montironi R, Schulman C, Rigatti P, Montorsi F. Extended and saturation prostatic biopsy in the diagnosis and characterisation of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of the literature. Eur Urol. 2007;52:1309–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ukimura O, Coleman JA, de la Taille A, et al. Contemporary role of systematic prostate biopsies: indications, techniques, and implications for patient care. Eur Urol. 2013;63:214–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    van der Kwast TH, Lopes C, Santonja C, Pihl CG, Neetens I, Martikainen P, Di LS, Bubendorf L, Hoedemaeker RF. Guidelines for processing and reporting of prostatic needle biopsies. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56:336–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zani EL, Clark OA, Rodrigues NN Jr. Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(5):CD006576.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonio Cicione
    • 1
  • Francesco Cantiello
    • 1
  • Rocco Damiano
    • 1
  1. 1.Urology UnitMagna Graecia UniversityCatanzaroItaly

Personalised recommendations