Creativity and Rationale pp 105-119

Part of the Human–Computer Interaction Series book series (HCIS, volume 20)

Achieving Both Creativity and Rationale: Reuse in Design with Images and Claims

  • D. Scott McCrickard
  • Shahtab Wahid
  • Stacy M. Branham
  • Steve Harrison
Chapter

Abstract

Although designers seek to create designs that are novel, most are based in some part on previous work. However, formal methods for design rationale reuse are dismissed as too inhibiting to the creative process. In this chapter we argue for the reuse of rationale as a central activity in design, and explore how this can be used as part of the creative process. Specifically, we examine how claims, paired with representative images, can stimulate the creative process while providing a bridge to rationale reuse. We present a design approach in which images and claims are presented together, supporting reuse in design activities like storyboarding. An evaluation revealed the careful interplay between creativity and rationale reuse, illustrating how they can complement each other during the design process. Our work serves to demonstrate that an appropriate design activity can be used to leverage creativity with the use of rationale.

Keywords

Reuse Creativity Rationale Claims Images 

References

  1. Alexander, C., Isikawa, S., & Silverstein, M. (1979). A pattern language: Towns, buildings, construction. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Amabile, T. M. (1982). The social psychology of creativity: A consensual assessment technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 997–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amabile, T. M. (1983). The social psychology of creativity: A componential conceptualization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 357–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amabile, T. M., Collins, M. A., Conti, R., Phillips, E., Picariello, M., Ruscio, J., & Whitney, D. (1996). Creativity in context: Update to the social psychology of creativity. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bailey, B., & Konstan, J. A. (2003). Are informal tools better? Comparing DEMAIS, pencil and paper, and authorware for early multimedia design. In Proceedings of the 2003 SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (CHI ’03, pp. 313–320). New York: ACM Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bias, R. G., & Mayhew, D. J. (2005). Cost-justifying usability. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  7. Boden, M. A. (1994). Dimensions of creativity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  8. Borchers, J. O. (2000). A pattern approach to interaction design. In Proceedings of the conference on designing interactive systems (DIS ’00, pp. 369–378). New York: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bush, V. (1945). As we may think. The Atlantic Monthly, 176(1), 101–108.Google Scholar
  10. Buxton, B. (2007). Sketching user experiences: Getting the design right and the right design. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  11. Carroll, J. M. (2003). HCI models, theories, and frameworks: Toward a multidisciplinary science. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  12. Carroll, J. M., & Kellogg, W. A. (1989). Artifact as theory-nexus: Hermeneutics meets theory-based design. In Proceedings of the 1989 SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (CHI ’89, pp. 7–14). New York: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  13. De Bono, E. (1990). Lateral thinking. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  14. Finch, C. (1973). The art of Walt Disney: From Mickey Mouse to the Magic Kingdom. New York: Harry Abrams.Google Scholar
  15. Greenberg, S., & Rounding, M. (2001). The notification collage: Posting information to public and personal displays. In Proceedings of the 2001 SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (CHI ’01, pp. 514–521). New York: ACM Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guilford, J. (1950). Creativity. American Psychologist, 5, 444–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Harrison, S., & Tatar, D. (2008, June). “It’s just a rationale!”: Creativity in the formation and application of design rationale. Paper presented at the workshop on creativity and rationale in software design, University Park, PA, USA.Google Scholar
  18. Hart, J. (1999). The art of the storyboard: Storyboarding for film, TV, and animation. Amsterdam: Focal Press.Google Scholar
  19. Harvard Business School (n.d.). Faculty & research cases. Retrieved August 4, 2011, from http://www.hbs.edu/research/publications/cases.html
  20. Herring, S. R., Chang, C. C., Krantzler, J., & Bailey, B. P. (2009). Getting inspired! Understanding how and why examples are used in creative design practice. In Proceedings of the 2009 SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (CHI ’09, pp. 87–96). New York: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  21. Hogarth, R. M. (1980). Judgement and choice: The psychology of decision. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Horner, J., & Atwood, M. E. (2006). Design rationale: Rationale and the barriers. In Proceedings of the Nordic conference on human-computer interaction (NordiCHI ’06, pp. 341–350). New York: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  23. Hughes, M. (2007). A pattern language for user assistance. Interactions, 14(1), 27–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kellaher, K. (1999). 101 picture prompts to spark super writing: Photographs, cartoons, art masterpieces to intrigue, amuse, inspire every writer in your class. New York: Scholastic Professional Books.Google Scholar
  25. Kneller, G. F. (1965). The art and science of creativity. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  26. Kuntz, W. R., & Rittel, H. W. J. (1970). Issues as elements of information systems (Technical Report No. 131). Berkeley: Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California.Google Scholar
  27. Landay, J. A., & Borriello, G. (2003). Design patterns for ubiquitous computing. IEEE Computer, 36(8), 93–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Landay, J. A., & Myers, B. A. (1995). Interactive sketching for the early stages of user interface design. In Proceedings of the 1995 SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (CHI ’95, pp. 43–50). New York: ACM Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lin, J., & Landay, J. A. (2008). Employing patterns and layers for early-stage design and ­prototyping of cross-device user interfaces. In Proceedings of the 2008 SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems (CHI ’08, pp. 1313–1322). New York: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  30. Lubart, T. (2005). How can computers be partners in the creative process: Classification and commentary on the special issue. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 63, 365–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. MacLean, A., Young, R., Bellotti, V., & Moran, T. (1991). Questions, options, and criteria: Elements of design space analysis. Human Computer Interaction, 6, 201–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McCrickard, D. S., Chewar, C. M., Somervell, J. P., & Ndiwalana, A. (2003). A model for notification systems evaluation: Assessing user goals for multitasking activity. Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10, 312–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Michalko, M. (2006). Thinkertoys. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press.Google Scholar
  34. Mumford, M. D. (2000). Managing creative people: Strategies and tactics for innovation. Human Resource Management Review, 10, 313–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nathan, L., Friedman, B., & Hendry, D. (2009). Sustainably ours: Information system design as catalyst: Human action and environmental sustainability. Interactions, 16(4), 6–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Newman, M., Lin, J., Hong, J., & Landay, J. A. (2003). DENIM: An informal web site design tool inspired by observations of practice. Human Computer Interaction, 18, 259–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Osborn, A. F. (1963). Applied imagination: Principles and procedures of creative thinking. New York: Scribner.Google Scholar
  38. Payne, C., Allgood, C. F., Chewar, C. M., Holbrook, C., & McCrickard, D. S. (2003). Generalizing interface design knowledge: Lessons learned from developing a claims library. In Proceedings of the international conference on information reuse and integration (pp. 362–369). Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
  39. Rittel, H. W. J., & Webber, M. M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4, 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rosson, M. B., & Carroll, J. M. (2002). Usability engineering: Scenario-based development of human-computer interaction. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  41. Saponas, T. S., Prabaker, M. K., Abowd, G. D., & Landay, J. A. (2006). The impact of pre-patterns on the design of digital home applications. In Proceedings of the conference on designing interactive systems (pp. 189–198). New York: ACM Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sharp, H., Rogers, Y., & Preece, J. (2007). Interaction design: Beyond human-computer interaction. West Sussex: Wiley.Google Scholar
  43. Shneiderman, B. (2000). Creating creativity: User interfaces for supporting innovation. Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7, 114–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Simon, H. A. (1996). The sciences of the artificial. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  45. Smith, S. (2009, May 1). Mobile + Social + Future: M4Change DC [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.changeist.com/changeism/2009/5/1/mobile-social-future-m4change-dc.html
  46. Sonnenburg, S. (2004). Creativity in communication: A theoretical framework for collaborative product creation. Creativity & Innovation Management, 13, 254–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sutcliffe, A. G., & Carroll, J. M. (2000). Designing claims for reuse in interactive systems design. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 50, 213–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thomas, J. C., Lee, A., & Danis, C. (2002). Creativity and interface: Enhancing creative design via software tools. Communications of the ACM, 45(10), 112–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Truong, K. N., Hayes, G. R., & Abowd, G. D. (2006). Storyboarding: An empirical determination of best practices and effective guidelines. In Proceedings of the conference on designing interactive systems (pp. 12–21). New York: ACM Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. van Duyne, D. K., Landay, J. A., & Hong, J. I. (2007). The design of sites: Patterns for creating winning web sites. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  51. von Oech, R. (2008). A whack on the side of the head. New York: Hachette Book Group.Google Scholar
  52. Wahid, S., Branham, S. M., Cairco, L., McCrickard, D. S., & Harrison, S. (2009). Picking up artifacts: Storyboarding as a gateway to reuse. In Proceedings of the IFIP TC.13 conference on human-computer interaction (pp. 528–541). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  53. Wallas, G. (1926). The art of thought. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.Google Scholar
  54. Wania, C. (2008). Examining the impact of an information retrieval pattern language on the design of information retrieval interfaces. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Google Scholar
  55. Whittaker, S., Terveen, L., & Nardi, B. A. (2000). Let’s stop pushing the envelope and start addressing it: A reference task agenda for HCI. Human Computer Interaction, 15, 75–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wright, A. (2007). Glut: Mastering information through the ages. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Yahoo! Developer Network (n.d.). Design pattern library. Retrieved August 4, 2011, from http://developer.yahoo.com/ypatterns

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Scott McCrickard
    • 1
  • Shahtab Wahid
    • 1
  • Stacy M. Branham
    • 1
  • Steve Harrison
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Human-Computer InteractionVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations