Issues in Creation, Management, Search and Presentation of Interactive 3D Content

  • Wojciech Cellary
  • Krzysztof Walczak

Abstract

In this chapter, the main issues and challenges related to creation, management, search and presentation of interactive 3D content are presented. The challenges result mainly from the continuous progress in development of 3D/VR technologies and systems. In particular, the following shifts are presented: from passive 3D content to active 3D applications, from 3D geometry to meaningful interactive virtual environments, from single-user to multi-user 3D content creation, from file search to 3D object search, and from 3D scenes to efficient 3D visualization interfaces.

References

  1. 1.
    Active Worlds. http://www.activeworlds.com (2011). Accessed 4 May 2011
  2. 2.
    AIM@SHAPE project. http://www.aimatshape.net/ (2011). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  3. 3.
    Alpcan, T., Bauckhage, C., Kotsovinos, E.: Towards 3D Internet: why, what, and how? In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Cyberworlds, pp. 95–99. IEEE Comput. Soc., Washington (2007) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anders, P.: Envisioning Cyberspace. McGraw-Hill, New York (1999) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Android. http://www.android.com/ (2011). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  6. 6.
    Aref, W.G., Samet, H.: Extending a DBMS with spatial operations. In: Gunther, O., Schek, H.J. (eds.) 2nd International Symposium on Advances in Spatial Databases, Zurich, Switzerland, pp. 299–318 (1991) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arjomandy, S., Smedley, T.J.: Visual specification of behaviours in VRML worlds. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on 3D Web Technology, Monterey, CA, USA, pp. 127–133. ACM, New York (2004) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    ARToolKit. http://artoolkit.sourceforge.net/ (2011). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  9. 9.
    Bauer, M., Bruegge, B., Klinker, G., MacWilliams, A., Reicher, T., Riss, S., Sandor, C., Wagner, M.: Design of a component-based augmented reality framework. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR 2001), New York (2001) Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beeson, C.: An object-oriented approach to VRML development. In: Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML ’97), pp. 17–24. ACM, New York (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benford, S., Snowdon, D., Greenhalgh, C., Ingram, R., Knox, I., Brown, C.: VR-VIBE: a virtual environment for co-operative information retrieval. In: Eurographics’95, Maastricht, Netherlands, pp. 349–360 (1995) Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J., Lassila, O.: The Semantic Web. Scientific American Magazine. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-semantic-web (May 2001). Accessed 25 Jun 2010
  13. 13.
    Bilasco, I.M., Gensel, J., Villanova-Oliver, M., Martin, H.: On indexing of 3D scenes using MPEG-7. In: Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 2005, Singapore, pp. 471–474 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bilasco, I.M., Gensel, J., Villanova-Oliver, M., Martin, H.: An MPEG-7 framework enhancing the reuse of 3D models. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on 3D Web Technology, Columbia, MD, USA, pp. 65–74 (2006) Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bitmanagement BS Collaborate. http://www.bitmanagement.com/products/server/bs-collaborate (2011) . Accessed 4 May 2011
  16. 16.
    Botev, J., Hohfeld, A., Schloss, H., Scholtes, I., Sturm, P., Esch, M.: The HyperVerse: concepts for a federated and Torrent-based ‘3D Web’. Int. J. Adv. Media Commun. 2(4), 331–350 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boukerche, A., Zarrad, A., Duarte, A., Araujo, R., Andrade, L.: A novel solution for the development of collaborative virtual environment simulations in large scale. In: Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real-Time Applications, pp. 86–96. IEEE Comput. Soc., Washington (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Burrows, T., England, D.: YABLE—yet another behaviour language. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on 3D Web Technology, Bangor, UK, pp. 65–73. ACM, New York (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cugini, J., Laskowski, S., Sebrechts, M.: Design of 3D visualization of search results: evolution and evaluation. In: Proceedings of IST/SPIE’s 12th Annual International Symposium, Electronic Imaging 2000, Visual Data Exploration and Analysis (SPIE 2000), San Jose, CA, USA (2000) Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dachselt, R., Hinz, M., Meissner, K.: Contigra: an XML-based architecture for component-oriented 3D applications. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on 3D Web Technology, Tempe, AZ, USA, pp. 155–163. ACM, New York (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dachselt, R., Rukzio, E.: Behavior3D: an XML-based framework for 3D graphics behavior. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on 3D Web Technologies, Saint Malo, France, pp. 101–112. ACM, New York (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    De Carolis, B., Pelachaud, C., Poggi, I., Steedman, M.: APML, a mark-up language for believable behavior generation. In: Prendinger, H., Ishizuka, M. (eds.) Life-Like Characters. Tools, Affective Functions and Applications. Springer, Berlin (2004) Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    DeMers, M.N.: Geographic information systems. In: Encyclopedia Britannica (2005) Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Diehl, S.: VRML++: adding classes to VRML. http://rw4.cs.uni-sb.de/~diehl/vrml++/content.html (1997). Accessed 30 Jun 2011
  25. 25.
    Diehl, S.: VRML++: a language for object-oriented virtual-reality models. In: Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Technology of Object-Oriented Languages and Systems (TOOLS Asia’97), Beijing, China. http://rw4.cs.uni-sb.de/users/diehl/pubs/tools97.ps (1997). Accessed 30 Jun 2011
  26. 26.
    Diehl, S.: Object-oriented animations with VRML++. In: Proceedings of Virtual Environments 98 Conference & 4th Eurographics Workshop, Stuttgart, Germany. http://rw4.cs.uni-sb.de/users/diehl/pubs/anim.ps (1998). Accessed 30 Jun 2011
  27. 27.
    Digital Imaging Group: DIG35 specification, metadata for digital images 1.0. http://xml.coverpages.org/FU-Berlin-DIG35-v10-Sept00.pdf (2000). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  28. 28.
    Dörner, R., Geiger, C., Haller, M., Paelke, V.: Authoring mixed reality—a component and framework-based approach. In: Proceedings of International Workshop on Entertainment Computing—IWEC 2002, pp. 405–413 (2002) Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Eno, J., Gauch, S., Thompson, C.: Searching for the Metaverse. In: Proceedings of the 16th ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, pp. 223–226. ACM, New York (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    EXIF, Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA) Standard, JEITA CP-3451, Exchangeable image file format for digital still cameras: Exif Version 2.2. http://www.exif.org/Exif2-2.PDF (2002). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  31. 31.
    Fernandes, A.R., Pires, H.C.: VRML+. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia VSMM 1999, Dundee, Scotland, UK, pp. 325–334 (1999) Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Funkhouser, T., Min, P., Kazhdan, M., Chen, J., Halderman, A., Dobkin, D., Jacobs, D.: A search engine for 3D models. ACM Trans. Graph. 22(1), 83–105 (2003) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Geiger, C., Paelke, V., Reimann, C., Rosenbach, W.: A framework for the structured design of VR/AR content. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST’00), pp. 75–82. ACM, New York (2000) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gilmer, B.: AAF—the advanced authoring format. EBU Technical Review, July (2002) Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Goczyła, K., Grabowska, T., Waloszek, W., Zawadzki, M.: The cartographer algorithm for processing and querying description logics ontologies. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Atlantic Web Intelligence Conference, Advances in Web Intelligence AWIC 2005, Łódź, Poland, pp. 163–169 (2005) Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Haas, W., Thallinger, G.: SALERO—semantic audiovisual entertainment reusable objects. In: The 2nd European Workshop on the Integration of Knowledge, Semantics and Digital Media Technology, EWIMT 2005, November 30–December 1, London, UK, pp. 339–340 (2005) Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hearst, M.A., Karadi, Ch.: Cat-a-cone: an interactive interface for specifying searches and viewing retrieval results using a large category hierarchy. In: Proceedings of the 20th Annual International ACM/SIGIR Conference, Philadelphia, PA (1997) Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Horn, D., Cheslack-Postava, E., Azim, T., Freedman, M.J., Levis, P.: Scaling virtual worlds with a physical metaphor. IEEE Pervasive Comput. 8(3), 50–54 (2009) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    ID3 Informal Standard, ID3 tag, Version 2.4.0. http://www.id3.org/id3v2.4.0-frames (2000). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  40. 40.
    InstantReality. http://www.instantreality.org/ (2011). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  41. 41.
    ISO 15836, ISO International Standard, ISO 15836:2009, Information and documentation—The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (2009) Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Java SE Desktop Technologies—Java 3D API. Oracle technology network. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/tech/index-jsp-138252.html. Accessed 20 Jul 2011
  43. 43.
    Java Technology Reference. Oracle technology network. http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/index.html. Accessed 30 Jun 2011
  44. 44.
    Jung, Y., Behr, J.: Extending H-Anim and X3D for advanced animation control. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on 3D Web Technology, Los Angeles, CA, USA, pp. 57–65. ACM, New York (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kato, H., Billinghurst, M., Popyrev, I., Imamoto, K., Tachibana, K.: Virtual object manipulation on a table-top AR environments. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Augmented Reality (ISAR’00) (2000) Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Krzesłowski, J., Sitnik, R., Mączkowski, G.: Integrated three-dimensional shape and reflection properties measurement system. Appl. Opt. 50(4), 532–541 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lastowka, G.: User-generated content & virtual worlds. Vanderbilt J. Entert. Technol. Law (2008) Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ledermann, F., Schmalstieg, D.: APRIL: a high-level framework for creating augmented reality presentations. In: Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2005, pp. 187–194 (2005) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lipkin, D.: Recommended practices for SQL database access. VRML Informative Annex (1998) Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    MacIntyre, B., Gandy, M., Dow, S., Bolter, J.D.: DART: a toolkit for rapid design exploration of augmented reality experiences. In: Proceedings of User Interface Software and Technology (UIST’04), Sante Fe, New Mexico, pp. 197–206 (2004) Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mączkowski, G., Sitnik, R., Krzesłowski, J.: Integrated method for 3D shape and multispectral color measurement. J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 55(3), 030502 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Marriott, A., Beard, S., Stallo, J., Huynh, Q.: VHML—directing a talking head, active media technology. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Computer Science Conference. LNCS, vol. 2252. Springer, Hong Kong (2001) Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Martínez, J.M.: MPEG-7 overview. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11. http://mpeg.chiariglione.org/standards/mpeg-7/mpeg-7.htm (2004). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  54. 54.
    Mesing, B., Hellmich, C.: Using aspect oriented methods to add behaviour to X3D documents. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on 3D Web Technology, Columbia, MD, USA, pp. 97–107. ACM, New York (2006) Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    MusicBrainz project. http://musicbrainz.org/doc/MusicBrainz (2011). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  56. 56.
    NIRVE project homepage. http://www.itl.nist.gov/iaui/vvrg/cugini/uicd/nirve-home.html. Accessed 30 Jun 2011
  57. 57.
    Object Management Group: Unified modeling language (UML). http://www.omg.org/spec/UML/ (2011). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  58. 58.
    Okazaki, N., Aya, S., Saeyor, S., Ishizuka, M.: A multimodal presentation markup language MPML-VR for a 3D virtual space. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Virtual Conversational Characters: Applications, Methods, and Research Challenges, Melbourne, Australia (2002) Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Open Cobalt. http://www.opencobalt.org/ (2011). Accessed 4 May 2011
  60. 60.
    Open Inventor. http://oss.sgi.com/projects/inventor/ (2011). Accessed 20 Jul 2011
  61. 61.
    Open Wonderland. http://openwonderland.org/ (2011). Accessed 4 May 2011
  62. 62.
    OpenSceneGraph. http://www.openscenegraph.org/ (2011). Accessed 20 Jul 2011
  63. 63.
    OpenSG. http://www.opensg.org/ (2011). Accessed 20 Jul 2011
  64. 64.
    OSgrid. http://www.osgrid.org/ (2011). Accessed 4 May 2011
  65. 65.
    P_META Metadata Library, Specification 2.1. EBU Tech 3295, July. http://tech.ebu.ch/docs/tech/tech3295v2_1.pdf (2009). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  66. 66.
    Park, S., Han, T.: Object-oriented VRML for multi-user environments. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium on Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML ’97), pp. 25–32. ACM, New York (1997) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Park, S., Han, T.: The design principles of object-oriented VRML. In: Workshop on Object Orientation and VRML, Monterey, CA, USA. http://www.cs.uni-sb.de/RW/users/diehl/workshop/a4.PDF (1998). Accessed 30 Jun 2011
  68. 68.
    Parisi, T.: Ajax3D: The open platform for rich 3D web applications. OpenSource Magazine. http://opensource.sys-con.com/node/336895 (2007). Accessed 30 Jun 2011
  69. 69.
    Pellens, B., Kleinermann, F., De Troyer, O., Bille, W.: Model-based design of virtual environment behavior. In: Zha, H., Pan, Z., Thwaites, H., Addison, A.C., Forte, M. (eds.) Interactive Technologies and Sociotechnical Systems. 12th International Conference—VSMM 2006, Xi’an, China. LNCS, vol. 4270. Springer, Berlin (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Pellens, B., De Troyer, O., Kleinermann, F.: CoDePA: a conceptual design pattern approach to model behavior for X3D worlds. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on 3D Web Technology, Los Angeles, CA, USA, pp. 91–99. ACM, New York (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Qualcomm’s AR SDK. http://www.qualcomm.com/products_services/augmented_reality.html (2011). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  72. 72.
    Rossi, A.M., Varga, M.: Visualization of massive retrieved newsfeeds in interactive 3D. In: International Conference on Information Visualisation, July 14–16, 1999 London, England (1999) Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Schmalstieg, D., Fuhrmann, A., Hesina, G., Szalavari, Z., Encarnacao, L.M., Gervautz, M., Purgathofer, W.: The Studierstube augmented reality project. Presence 11(1), 33–54 (2002) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Second Life. http://secondlife.com/ (2011). Accessed 4 May 2011
  75. 75.
    Smith, J.R., Schirling, P.: Metadata standards roundup. IEEE Multimed. 13(2), 84–88 (2006) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    SMPTE, ST: 0380-2004, Television material exchange format (MXF) standard—descriptive metadata scheme-1 (2004) Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Standard ECMA-262, ECMAScript language specification, Edition 5.1. http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm. Accessed 20 Jul 2011
  78. 78.
    Swartz, A.: MusicBrainz: a Semantic Web service. http://logicerror.com/musicbrainzArticle (2001). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  79. 79.
    Thallinger, G., Kienast, G., Mayor, O., Cullen, C., Hackett, R., Jose, J.: SALERO: Semantic AudiovisuaL Entertainment Reusable Objects. In: International Broadcasting Conference IBC 2009, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (2009) Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tufte, E.R.: Envisioning Information. Graphics Press, Cheshire (1990) Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Tufte, E.R.: The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, 2nd edn. Graphics Press, Cheshire (2001) Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Vakaloudis, A., Theodoulidis, B.: The storage and querying of 3D objects for the dynamic composition of VRML worlds. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualisation (IV ’98), pp. 267–272. IEEE Comput. Soc., Washington (1998) Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    van den Hengel, A., Dick, A., Thormählen, T., Ward, B., Torr, P.: VideoTrace: rapid interactive scene modeling from video. ACM Trans. Graph. 26(3), 86 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vilhjálmsson, H., Cantelmo, N., Cassell, J., Chafai, N.E., Kipp, M., Kopp, S., Mancini, M., Marsella, S., Marshall, A.N., Pelachaud, C., Ruttkay, Z., Thórisson, K.R., van Welbergen, H., van der Werf, R.J.: The behavior markup language: recent developments and challenges. In: Intelligent Virtual Agents. LNCS, vol. 4722. Springer, Berlin, 2007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    ViOS description at Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ViOS. Accessed 30 Jun 2011
  86. 86.
    Vitzthum, A.: SSIML/components: a visual language for the abstract specification of 3D components. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on 3D Web Technologies, Columbia, MD, USA, pp. 143–151. ACM, New York (2006) Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Vitzthum, A., Hussmann, H.: Modeling augmented reality user interfaces with SSIML/AR. J. Multimed. 1(3), 13–22 (2006) Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Walczak, K.: Beh-VR: modeling behavior of dynamic virtual reality contents. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia VSMM 2006, Xi’an, China, pp. 40–51 (2006) Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wise, J.A., et al.: Visualizing the non-visual: spatial analysis and interaction with information from text documents. In: Proceedings of the Information Visualization Symposium ’95, October 1995, pp. 51–58. IEEE Comput. Soc., Los Alamitos (1995) Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    XMP Specification. Adobe Systems Inc. http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/en/xmp/sdk/XMPspecification.pdf (2005). Accessed 6 Jun 2011
  91. 91.
    Z39.85, NISO American National Standard, ANSI/NISO Z39.85-2007, The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set (2007) Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Z39.87, NISO American National Standard, ANSI/NISO Z39.87-2006, Data dictionary—Technical metadata for digital still images (2006) Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zhang, X., Gračanin, D.: From coarse-grained components to DVE applications: a service- and component-based framework. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on 3D Web Technology, Perugia, Italy, pp. 113–121. ACM, New York (2007) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wojciech Cellary
    • 1
  • Krzysztof Walczak
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Information TechnologyPoznań University of EconomicsPoznańPoland

Personalised recommendations