Advertisement

Dietary Fibre and Plasma Lipids: Potential for Prevention and Treatment of Hyperlipidaemias

  • A. S. Truswell
  • A. C. Beynen
Part of the ILSI Human Nutrition Reviews book series (ILSI HUMAN)

Abstract

One of the major postulates of the dietary fibre hypothesis (Trowell, 1972) was that coronary heart disease (CHD) is associated with diets low in fibre and a high-fibre diet may protect against CHD. The most obvious direct mechanism for such an effect is by reduction of plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, presumably by some interference with sterol metabolism which would have to start in the gastro-intestinal tract, since fibre is by definition indigestible (by human enzymes) and so not absorbable as such. It is difficult to visualise how any other direct mechanism could work, such as a reduced tendency to thrombosis, reduced blood pressure or reduced liability to dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, from eating more dietary fibre.

Keywords

Bile Acid Dietary Fibre Wheat Bran Plasma Cholesterol Plasma Total Cholesterol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahrens F, Hagemeister H, Pfeuffer M, Barth CA (1986) Effects of oral and intracaecal pectin administration on blood lipids in minipigs. J Nutr 116:70–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JW (1980) Oat bran ingestion selectively lowers serum low-density lipoprotein concentration in man. Am J Clin Nutr 33:915Google Scholar
  3. Anderson JW, Bridges SR (1981) Plant fiber metabolites alter hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Diabetes 30(suppl 1):133AGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson JW, Chen W-JL (1979) Plant fibre, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 32:346–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson JW, Story L, Sieling B, Chen W-JL, Petro MS, Story J (1984a) Hypercholesterolemic effects of oat bran or bean intake for hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 40:1146–1155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson JW, Story L, Sieling B, Chen W-JL (1984b) Hypercholesterolemic effects of high-fibre diets rich in water-soluble plant fibres. J Can Diet Assoc 45:140–148Google Scholar
  7. Anderson JW, Zettwock N, Feldman T, Tietyen-Clark J, Oeltgen P, Bishop CW (1988) Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid for hypercholesterolemic men. Arch Int Med 148:292–296Google Scholar
  8. Anderson JW, Deakins DA, Floore TL, Smith BM, Whitis SE (1990a) Dietary fiber and coronary heart disease. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 29:95–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Anderson JW, Gustafson NJ, Spencer DB, Tietyen J, Bryant CA (1990b) Serum lipid response of hypercholesterolemic men to single and divided doses of canned beans. Am J Clin Nutr 51:1013–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Angelico F, Clements P, Menotti A, Ricci G, Urbinati G (1978) Bran and changes in serum lipids: observations during a project of primary prevention of coronary heart disease. In: Carlson LA (ed) International conference on atherosclerosis. Raven Press, New York, p 205Google Scholar
  11. Aro A, Uusitupa M, Voultilainen E, Hersio K, Korhonen T, Siitonen O (1981) Improved diabetic control and hypocholesterolaemic effect induced by long-term dietary supplementation with guar gum in type 2 (insulin-independent) diabetes. Diabetologia 21:29–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Aro A, Uusitupa M, Voutilainen E, Korhonen T (1984) Effects of guar gum in male subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 39:911–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Atkins TW, Al-Hussary NAJ, Taylor KG (1987) The treatment of poorly controlled non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects with granulated guar gum. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 3:153–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Avgerinos GC, Fuchs HM, Flock MH (1977) Increased cholesterol and bile acid excretion during a high fibre diet. Gastroenterology 72:1026Google Scholar
  15. Behall KM, Lee KH, Moser PB (1984) Blood lipids and lipoproteins in adult men fed four refined fibres. Am J Clin Nutr 39:209–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Birkeland KI, Gullestad L, Falch D, Torsvik H (1990) Oat bran and serum cholesterol. N Engl J Med 322:1748–1749Google Scholar
  17. Bosaeus I, Carlsson N-G, Sandberg A-S, Andersson H (1986) Effect of wheat bran and pectin on bile acid and cholesterol excretion in ileostomy patients. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 40C:429–440Google Scholar
  18. Bosello O, Cominacini I, Zocca I, Garbin U, Ferrari F, Davioli A (1984) Effects of guar gum on plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins CII and Oil in patients affected by familial combined hyperlipoproteinemia. Am J Clin Nutr 40:1165–1174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Botha APJ, Steyn AF, Esterhuysen AJ, Slabbert M (1981) Glycosylated haemoglobin, blood glucose and serum cholesterol levels in diabetics treated with guar gum. S Afr Med J 59:333–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bremner JM, McElrea R, Scott RS (1986) Treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes with high fibre diets: comparison of guar and bran. J N Z Diet Assoc 40:29–37Google Scholar
  21. Bremner WF, Brooks PM, Third JL, Lawrie TDV (1975) Bran in hypertriglyceridaemia: a failure of response. Br Med J iii:574Google Scholar
  22. Brodribb AJM, Humphreys DM (1976) Diverticular disease. Three studies. Br Med J i:424–430Google Scholar
  23. Canella C, Golinelli G, Melli A (1962) Influenza sui valori colestrerolemici della polpa de mela aggiunta al normale alimentazione. Arch S Anna de Ferrara 15:803–814Google Scholar
  24. Carroll DG, Dykes V, Hodgson W (1981) Guar gum is not a panacea in diabetes management. NZ Med J 93:292–294Google Scholar
  25. Catenazzo C, Torri A, Camisasca E et al. (1983) Effeti del guar sulle variazione della triglyceridemia opo un pasto di provo e dopo omministrazione acido di MCT. Minerva Dietol Gastroenterol 29:307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chenoweth WL, Bennink MR (1976) Hypocholesterolemic effect of oat fiber. Fed Proc 35:495Google Scholar
  27. Cobiac L, McArthur R, Nestel PJ (1990) Can eating baked beans lower plasma cholesterol? Eur J Clin Nutr 44:819–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Connell AM, Smith CL, Somsel M (1975) Absence of effect of bran on blood lipids. Lancet i:496–497Google Scholar
  29. Connor WE (1990) Dietary fiber — nostrum or critical nutrient? N Engl J Med 322:193–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dalzell GW, McNeill AJ, Hadden DR (1985) Effect of guar in poorly controlled non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Autumn meeting of British Diabetic Association, Belfast, 5–7 Sept, p34Google Scholar
  31. de Groot AP, Luyken R, Pikaar NA (1963) Cholesterol-lowering effect of rolled oats. Lancet ii:303–304Google Scholar
  32. Delbarre F, Rondier J, de Géry A (1977) Lack of effect of two pectins in idiopathic or gout-associated hyperdyslipidemia hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 30:463–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Demark-Wahnefried W, Bowering J, Cohen PS (1990) Reduced serum cholesterol with dietary change using fat-modified and oat bran supplemented diet. J Am Diet Assoc 90:223–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Descovich GC, Sirtori CR et al. (1980) Multicentre study of soybean protein diet for outpatient hypercholesterolaemic patients. Lancet ii:709–712Google Scholar
  35. Dixon M (1978) Bran and HDL cholesterol. Lancet i:578Google Scholar
  36. Dodson PM, Stocks J, Holdsworth G, Galton DJ (1981) High-fibre and low-fat diets in diabetes mellitus. Br J Nutr 46:289–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Durrington P, Wicks ACB, Heaton KW (1975) Effect of bran on blood lipids. Lancet ii:133Google Scholar
  38. Durrington PN, Manning AP, Bolton CH, Hartog M (1976) Effect of pectin on serum lipids and lipoproteins, whole-gut transit-time, and stool weight. Lancet ii:394–396Google Scholar
  39. Eastwood M (1969) Dietary fibre and serum lipids. Lancet ii: 1222–1225Google Scholar
  40. Eastwood MA, Kirkpatrick JR, Mitchell WD, Bone A, Hamilton T (1973) Effects of dietary supplements of wheat bran and cellulose on faeces and bowel function. Br Med J iv:392–394Google Scholar
  41. Ebeling P, Hannele YJ, Aro A, Helve E, Sinisalo M, Koivisto VA (1988) Glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in type I diabetes: the effect of guar gum. Am J Clin Nutr 48:98–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Edwards CA, Blackburn NA, Craigen L et al. (1987) Viscosity of food gums determined in vitro related to their hypoglycemic actions. Am J Clin Nutr 38:72–77Google Scholar
  43. Edwards CA, Johnson IT, Read NW (1988) Do viscous polysaccharides slow absorption by inhibiting diffusion or convection? Eur J Clin Nutr 42:307–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ellis PR, Morris ER, Low AG (1986) Guar gum: the importance of reporting data on its physico-chemical properties. Diabetic Med 3:490–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fahrenbach MH, Riccardi BA, Saunders JC, Lourie N, Heider JC (1965) Comparative effects of guar gum and pectin on human serum cholesterol levels. Circulation 31 & 32 (Suppl II): 11Google Scholar
  46. Farrell DJ, Girle L, Arthur J (1978) Effects of dietary fibre on the apparent digestibility of major food components and blood lipids in man. Aus J Exp Biol Med Sci 56:469–479Google Scholar
  47. Fisher H, Griminger P, Sostman ER, Brush MK (1965) Dietary pectin and plasma cholesterol. J Nutr 86:113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Flanagan M, Little C, Milliken J et al. (1980) The effects of diet on high density lipoprotein. J Hum Nutr 34:43–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fuessl HS, Williams G, Adrian TE, Bloom SR (1987) Guar sprinkled on food: effect on glycaemic control, plasma lipids and gut hormones in NIDDM. Diabetic Med 4:463–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gallaher D, Schneeman BO (1986) Intestinal interaction of bile acids, phospholipids, dietary fibers and cholestyramine. Am J Physiol 250:G420–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Garcia MJ, Charlez M, Fauli C, delPozo Carrascosa A, Ghirardi PE (1988) Physicochemical comparison of the dietary fibers glucomannan, galactomannan, carboxymethylcellulose, pectin, and wheat bran. Curr Ther Res 43:1010–1013Google Scholar
  52. Gariot P, Digby JP, Genton P, Lambert D, Bau RMH, Debry G (1986) Long-term effect of bran ingestion on lipid metabolism in healthy men. Ann Nutr Metab 30:369–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gatenby JJ (1990) Guar gum and hyperlipidaemia — a review of the literature. In: Leeds AR, Burley VJ (eds) Dietary fibre perspectives, reviews and bibliography, vol 2. John Libbey, London, pp 100–115Google Scholar
  54. Gatti E, Catenazzo G, Camisasca E, Torri A, Denegri E, Sirtori CR (1984) Effects of guar-enriched pasta in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidaemia. Nutr Metab 28:1–10Google Scholar
  55. Ginter E, Kubec FJ, Vozar J, Bobek P (1979) Natural hypercholesterolemic agent: pectin plus ascorbic acid. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 49:406–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gold KV, Davidson DM (1988) Oat bran as a cholesterol-reducing dietary adjunct in a young, healthy population. West J Med 148:299–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gormley TR, Kevany J, Egan JP, McFarlane R (1977) Effects of apples on serum cholesterol levels in humans. Irish J Food Sci Technol 1:117–128Google Scholar
  58. Gormley TR, Kevany J, O’Donnell B, McFarlane R (1979) Effect of peas on serum cholesterol levels in humans. Irish J Food Sci Technol 3:101–109Google Scholar
  59. Grande F, Anderson JT, Keys A (1965) Effect of carbohydrates of leguminous seeds, wheat and potatoes on serum cholesterol concentrations in man. J Nutr 86:313–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Grande F, Anderson JT, Keys A (1974) Sucrose and various carbohydrate-containing foods and serum lipids in man. Am J Clin Nutr 27:1043–1051PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Groen JJ, Tijong KB, Koster M, Willebrands AF, Verdonck G, Pierloot M (1962) The influence of nutrition and ways of life on blood cholesterol and the prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease among Trappist and Benedictine monks. Am J Clin Nutr 10:456–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hamilton CC, Tietyen J, Spencer BA, Anderson JW (1989) Serum lipid responses of hypercholesterolemic men to a ready to eat oat bran cereal. J Am Diet Assoc 89 (Suppl):A1Google Scholar
  63. Heaton KW, Pomare EW (1974) Effect of bran on blood lipids and calcium. Lancet i:49–50Google Scholar
  64. Heaton KW, Manning AP, Hartog M (1976) Lack of effect on blood lipid and calcium concentrations of young men on changing from white to whole meal bread. Br J Nutr 35:55–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hegsted M, Windhauser MM, Lester SB, Morris SK (1990) Stabilized rice bran and oat bran lower cholesterol in humans. FASEB J 4:A368Google Scholar
  66. Henry RW, Stout RW, Love HG (1978) Lack of effect of bran enriched bread on plasma lipids, calcium, glucose and body weight. Irish J Med Sci 147:249–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hillman LC, Peters SG, Fisher CA, Pomare EW (1985) The effects of the fibre components pectin, cellulose and lignin on serum cholesterol levels. Am J Clin Nutr 42:207–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Holman RR, Steenson J, Darling P, Turner RC (1987) No glycemic benefit from guar administration in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 10:68–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hopson JJ (1967) Studies on the effect of dietary pectin on plasma and fecal lipids. MSc thesis, University of Iowa, quoted by Chenoweth WL, Leveille GA: Metabolism and physiological effects of food pectins. In: Jeanes A, Hodge J (eds) Physiological effects of food carbohydrates, pp 312–334Google Scholar
  70. Huth K, Fettel M (1975) Bran and blood-lipids. Lancet ii:456Google Scholar
  71. Illman RJ, Topping DL (1985) Effects of dietary oat bran on faecal steroid excretion, plasma volatile fatty acids and lipid synthesis in rats. Nutr Res 5:839Google Scholar
  72. Illman RJ, Trimble RP, Snowsell AM, Topping DL (1982) Daily variations in the concentrations of volatile fatty acids in the splanchnic blood vessels of rats fed diets high in pectin and bran. Nutr Rep Int 26:439–446Google Scholar
  73. Illman RJ, Topping DL, Mcintosh GH et al. (1988) Hypocholesterolemic effects of dietary propionate: studies in whole animals and perfused rat liver. Ann Nutr Metab 32:97–107Google Scholar
  74. Jenkins DJA, Leeds AR, Newton C, Cummings JH (1975a) Effect of pectin guar gum and wheat fibre on serum cholesterol. Lancet i: 1116–1117Google Scholar
  75. Jenkins DJA, Hill MS, Cummings JH (1975b) Effect of wheat fiber on blood lipids, fecal steroid excretion and serum iron. Am J Clin Nutr 28:1408–1411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Jenkins DJA, Leeds AR, Gassull HH, Houston MA, Goff DV, Hill MJ (1976) The cholesterol lowering properties of guar and pectin. Clin Sci Mol Med 51:8Google Scholar
  77. Jenkins DJA, Leeds AR, Gassull MA, Cochet B, Alberti KGMM (1977) Decrease in postprandial insulin and glucose concentrations from guar and pectin. Ann Intern Med 86:20–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Jenkins DJA, Leeds AR, Slavin B, Mann J, Jepson EM (1979a) Dietary fiber and blood lipids: reduction of serum cholesterol in type II hyperlipidaemia by guar gum. Am J Clin Nutr 32:16–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Jenkins DJA, Reynolds D, Leeds AR, Waller AL, Cummings JH (1979b) Hypocholesterolemic action of dietary fiber unrelated to fecal bulking effect. Am J Clin Nutr 32:2430–2435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Jenkins DJA, Reynolds D, Slavin B, Leeds AR, Jenkins AL, Jepson EM (1980) Dietary fibre and blood lipids: treatment of hypercholesterolaemia with guar crispbread. Am J Clin Nutr 33:575–581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Jenkins DJA, Wong GS, Patten R et al. (1983) Leguminous seeds in the dietary management of hyperlipidaemia. Am J Clin Nutr 38:567–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Johansen K (1981) Decreased urinary glucose excretion and plasma cholesterol level in on-insulin-dependent diabetic patients with guar. Diabète Métab 7:87–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jones DB, Slaughter P, Lousley S, Carter JD, Jelfs R, Mann JI (1985) Low dose guar improves diabetic control. J R Soc Med 78:546–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Judd PA, Truswell AS (1981) The effect of rolled oats on blood lipids and fecal steroid excretion in man. Am J Clin Nutr 34:2061–2067PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Judd PA, Truswell AS (1982) Comparison of the effects of high and low-methoxyl pectins on blood and faecal lipids in men. Br J Nutr 48:451–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Judd PA, Truswell AS (1985a) Dietary fibre and blood lipids in man. In: Leeds AR (ed) Dietary fibre perspectives, vol 1. John Libbey, London, pp 23–39Google Scholar
  87. Judd PA, Truswell AS (1985b) The hypocholesterolaemic effects of pectins in rats. Br J Nutr 53:409–425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Judd PA, Kay RM, Truswell AS (1976) Cholesterol-lowering effect of lignin in rats. Proc Nutr Soc 35:73AGoogle Scholar
  89. Kay RM, Truswell AS (1975) The effect of wheat fibre on the plasma cholesterol in rats. Proc Nutr Soc 34:17APubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kay RM, Truswell AS (1977a) The effect of wheat fibre on plasma lipids and faecal steroid excretion in man. Br J Nutr 37:227–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kay RM, Truswell AS (1977b) Effect of citrus pectin on blood lipids and fecal steroids in men. Am J Clin Nutr 30:171–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kay RM, Truswell AS (1980) Dietary fiber: effects on plasma and biliary lipids in man. In: Spiller GA, Kay RM (eds) Medical aspects of dietary fiber. Plenum Press, New York, pp 153–173Google Scholar
  93. Kay RM, Judd PA, Truswell AS (1978) The effect of pectin on serum cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 31:562–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kesäniemi YA, Tarpila S, Miettinen TA (1990) Low vs. high dietary fiber and serum, biliary, and fecal lipids in middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr 51:1007–1012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kestin M, Moss R, Clifton PM, Nestel PJ (1990) Comparative effects of three cereal brans on plasma lipids, blood pressure and glucose metabolism in mildly hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 52:661–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Keys A, Fidanza F, Keys MH (1955) Further studies on serum cholesterol of clinically healthy men in Italy. Voeding 16:492–497Google Scholar
  97. Keys A, Anderson JT, Grande F (1960) Diet-type (fats constant) and blood lipids in man. J Nutr 70:257–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Keys A, Grande F, Anderson JT (1961) Fiber and pectin in the diet and serum cholesterol concentration in man. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 106:555–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Khan AR, Khan GY, Mitchel A, Qadeer MA (1981) Effect of guar gum on blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 34:2446–2449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kirby RW, Anderson JW, Sieling B et al. (1981) Oat-bran intake selectively lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 34:824–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kiriyama S, Okazaki Y, Yoshida A (1969) Hypocholesterolemic effect of polysaccharides and polysaccharide-rich foodstuffs in cholesterol-fed rats. J Nutr 97:382–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Komai M, Kimura S (1987) Effect of dietary fiber on fecal steroid profiles in germfree and conventional mice. Nutr Rep Int 36:365–375Google Scholar
  103. Kretsch MJ, Crawford L, Calloway DH (1979) Some aspects of bile acid and urobilinogen excretion and fecal elimination in men given a rural Guatemalan diet and egg formulas with and without oat bran. Am J Clin Nutr 32:1492–1496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Krotkiewski M (1984) Effect of guar gum on body weight, hunger ratings and metabolism in obese subjects. Br J Nutr 52:97–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kyllastinen M, Lahikainen T (1981) Long-term dietary supplementation with a fibre product (guar gum) in elderly diabetics. Curr Ther Res 30:872–879Google Scholar
  106. Langley NJ, Thye FW (1977) The effect of wheat bran and/or citrus pectin on serum cholesterol and triglycerides in middle aged men. Fed Proc 36:1118Google Scholar
  107. Leadbetter J, Ball MJ, Mann JI (1991) Effect of increasing quantities of oat bran in hypercholesterolemic people? Am J Clin Nutr 54:841–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Letchford P, Zabroja R, Arthur J, Farrell D (1978) Manipulation of plasma cholesterol in man and its suppression. Proc Nutrition Soc Australia 3:97Google Scholar
  109. Leveille GA, Sauberlich HE (1966) Mechanisms of the cholesterol depressing effect of pectin in the cholesterol-fed rat. J Nutr 88:209–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lewis B, Katan M, Merkx I et al. (1981) Towards an improved lipid-lowering diet; additive effects of changes in nutrient intake. Lancet ii: 1310–1313Google Scholar
  111. Liebman M, Smith MC, Iverson J et al. (1983) Effects of coarse wheat bran fiber and exercise on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in moderately overweight men. Am J Clin Nutr 37:71–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Lindgärde F, Larsson L (1984) Effects of a concentrated bran fibre preparation on HDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolaemic men. Human Nutr Clin Nutr 38C:39–45Google Scholar
  113. Lindner P, Möller B (1973) Lignin: a cholesterol-lowering agent? Lancet ii:1259–1260Google Scholar
  114. Lo GS, Goldberg AP, Lim A, Grundhauser JJ, Anderson C, Schonfeld G (1986) Soy fiber improves lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in primary hyperlipidemic subjects. Atherosclerosis 62:239–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lopez A, Hopson J, Krehl WA (1968) Effects of dietary pectin on plasma and fecal lipids. Fed Proc 27:485Google Scholar
  116. Luyken R, Pikaar NA, Polman H, Schippers FA (1962) The influence of legumes on the serum cholesterol level. Voeding 23:447–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Luyken R, de Wijn JF, Pikaar NA, van der Meer R (1965) De invloed van havermout op het serum-cholesterolgehalte van het bloed. Voeding 26:229–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Mahalko JR, Sandstead HH, Johnson LAK et al. (1984) Effect of consuming fiber from corn bran, soy hulls, or apple powder on glucose tolerance and plasma lipids in type II diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 39:25–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Mathur KS, Khan MA, Sharma RD (1968) Hypocholesterolaemic effect of Bengal gram: a long-term study in man. Br Med J i:30–31Google Scholar
  120. Mathur MS, Singh F, Chadda VS (1977) Effect of bran on blood lipids. J Assoc Physicians India 25:275–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. McDougall RM, Yakymyshyn L, Walker K, Thurston OG (1978) Effect of wheat bran on serum lipoproteins and biliary lipids. Can J Surg 21:433–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mclvor ME, Cummings CC, Duyn MA et al. (1986) Long-term effects of guar gum on blood lipids. Atherosclerosis 60:7–13Google Scholar
  123. McNaughton JP, Morrison DD, Huhner LJ, Earnest MM, Ellis MA, Howell GL (1985) Changes in total serum cholesterol levels of diabetics fed 5 g guar gum daily. Nutr Rep Int 31:505–520Google Scholar
  124. Miettinen TA (1980) Effects of dietary fibre on serum lipids and cholesterol metabolism in man. In: Gotto AM, Smith LC, Allen NB (eds) Atherosclerosis V. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 311–315Google Scholar
  125. Miettinen TA, Tarpila S (1977) Effect of pectin on serum cholesterol fecal bile acids and biliary lipids in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic individuals. Clin Chim Acta 79:471–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Mokady S (1974) Effect of dietary pectin and algin on the biosynthesis of hepatic lipids in growing rats. Nutr Metab 16:203–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Mueller MA, Cleary MP, Kritchevsky D (1983) Influence of dietary fibre on lipid metabolism in meal-fed rats. J Nutr 113:2229–2238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Munoz JM, Sandstead HH, Jacob RA (1979) Effects of some cereal brans and TVP on plasma lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 32:508–592Google Scholar
  129. Najemnik C, Kritz H, Irsiglier K et al. (1984) Guar and its effect on metabolic control in type II diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 7:215–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Nakamura H, Ishikawa T, Tada N et al. (1982) Effect of several kinds of dietary fibres on serum and lipoprotein lipids. Nutr Rep Int 26:215–221Google Scholar
  131. Nervi F, Covarrubias C, Bravo P et al. (1989) Influence of legume intake on biliary lipids and cholesterol saturation in young Chilean men. Gastroenterology 96:825–830PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Nishina PM, Schneeman BO, Freedland RA (1991) Effects of dietary fibers on nonfasting plasma lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels in rats. J Nutr 121:431–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. O’Moore RR, Flanagan M, McGill AR, Wright EA, Little C, Weir DG (1978) Diet and heart disease. Br Med J i:1213Google Scholar
  134. Osilesi O, Trout DL, Gover EE et al. (1985) Use of xanthan gum in dietary management of diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 42:597–603PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Palmer GH, Dixon DG (1966) Effects of pectin dose on serum cholesterol levels. Am J Clin Nutr 18:437–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Penagini R, Veilio P, Vigorelli R et al. (1986) The effect of dietary guar on serum cholesterol, intestinal transit, and fecal output in man. Am J Gastroenterol 81:123–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Persson I, Ruby K, Fønns-Beck P, Jensen E (1975) Bran and blood lipids. Lancet ii:1208Google Scholar
  138. Persson I, Ruby K, Fønss-Beck P, Jensen E (1976) Effects of prolonged bran administration on serum levels of cholesterol, ionized calcium and iron in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 24:334–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Peterson DB, Mann JI (1985) Guar: pharmacological fibre or food fibre? Diabetic Med 2:345–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Peterson DB, Ellis PR, Baylis JM, Frost PG, Leeds AR, Jepson EM (1984) Effects of guar on diabetes and lipids — food and pharmacology compared. Diabetologia 27:319AGoogle Scholar
  141. Pfeffer PE, Doner LW, Hoagland PD, McDonald GG (1981) Molecular interactions with dietary fiber components. Investigation of the possible association of pectin and bile acids. J Agric Food Chem 29:455–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Phillips DR (1986) The effect of guar gum in solution on diffusion of cholesterol mixed micelles. J Sci Food Agric 37:548–552Google Scholar
  143. Prather ES (1964) Effect of cellulose on serum lipids in young women. J Am Diet Assoc 45:230–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Ranhotra GS (1973) Effect of cellulose and wheat millfractions on plasma and liver cholesterol levels in cholesterol-fed rats. Cereal Chem 50:358–363Google Scholar
  145. Rasmussen LP, Damsgaard EM, Iversen S (1981) Granuleret guargummi (Slocose) til ikke-insulinkraevende diabetikere. Ugeskr Laeger 143:1267–1270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Ray TK, Mansell KM, Knight LC, Malmud LS, Owen OE, Boden G (1983) Long-term effects of dietary fibre on glucose tolerance and gastric emptying in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Am J Clin Nutr 37:376–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Raymond TL, Connor WE, Lin DS, Warner S, Fry MM, Connor SL (1977) The interaction of dietary fibres and cholesterol upon the plasma lipids and lipoproteins, sterol balance and bowel function in human subjects. J Clin Invest 60:1429–1437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Reynolds HR, Lindeke E, Hunninghake DB (1989) Effect of oat bran on serum lipids. J Am Diet Assoc 89 (suppl):A112Google Scholar
  149. Rhodes J, Jones GR, Newcombe RG, Davies D (1977/8) Effect of dietary bran on serum lipids in patients with previous myocardial infarction, with gallstones and in normal subjects. Curr Med Res Opin 5:310–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Richter WO, Weisweiler P, Schwandt P (1981) Therapie der Hypercholesterinemie mit Apfelpektin. Deutsch Med Wochenschr 106:628Google Scholar
  151. Robertson J, Brydon WG, Tadesse K, Wenham P, Walls A, Eastwood MA (1979) The effect of raw carrot on serum lipids and colon function. Am J Clin Nutr 32:1889–1892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Ross AH, Eastwood MA, Brydon WG, Anderson JR, Anderson DMW (1983) A study of the effects of dietary gum arabic in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 37:368–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Roth G, Leitzmann C (1985) Langzeiteinfluss ballaststoffreicher Frühstückscerealien auf die Blutlipide beim Menschen. Akt Ernahr 10:106Google Scholar
  154. Sasaki J, Funakoshi M, Arakawa K (1985) Effect of soybean crude fiber on the concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoproteins in hyperlipidemic subjects. Ann Nutr Metab 29:274–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Schwandt P, Richter WO, Weisweiler P, Neurenther G (1982) Cholestyramine plus pectin in treatment of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis 44:379–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Schweizer TF, Bekhechi AR, Koellreutter B, Reimann S, Pometta D, Bron BA (1983) Metabolic effects of dietary fiber from dehulled soybeans in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 38:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Sharma RD (1985) Hypocholesterolemic effect of gum acacia in men. Nutr Res 5:1321Google Scholar
  158. Shinnick FL, Longacre MJ, Ink SL, Marlett JA (1988) Oat fiber: composition versus physiological function in rats. J Nutr 118:144–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Shorey RAL, Day PJ, Willis RA, Lo GS, Steinke FH (1985) Effects of soybean polysaccharide on plasma lipids. J Am Diet Assoc 85:1461–1465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Shurpalekar KS, Doraiswamy TR, Sundaravalli OE, Narayana Rao M (1971) Effect of inclusion of cellulose in an “atherogenic” diet on the blood lipids of children. Nature 232:554–555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Shutler SM, Bircher GM, Tredger JS, Morgan LM, Walker AF, Low AG (1989) The effect of daily baked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) consumption on the plasma lipid levels of young normocholestrolaemic men. Br J Nutr 61:257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Sicart R, Sable-Amplis R, Agid R (1974) Diminution de cholesterol sanguin et hepatique induite chez le hamster pas un regime alimentaire complemente en pommes. Essais chez l’homme. Comte Rend Sean Societ Biol 173:937–943Google Scholar
  163. Simons LA, Gayst S, Balsubramanian S, Ruys J (1982) Long-term treatment of hypercholesterolaemia with a new palatable formulation of guar gum. Atherosclerosis 45:101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Simpson HCR, Simpson RW, Lousley S (1981) A high carbohydrate leguminous fibre diet improves all aspects of diabetic control. Lancet i:1–5Google Scholar
  165. Sirtori CR, Gatti E, Mantero O et al. (1979) Clinical experience with the soybean protein diet in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 32:1645–1658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Sirtori CR, Descovich G, Noseda (1980) Textured soy protein and serum cholesterol level. Lancet i:149Google Scholar
  167. Smith U, Holm G (1982) Effect of a modified guar gum preparation on glucose and lipid levels in diabetics and healthy volunteers. Atherosclerosis 45:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Stanley MM, Paul D, Gacke D, Murphy J (1973) Effect of cholestyramine, metamucil and cellulose on fecal bile acid excretion in man. Gastroenterology 65:889–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Stasse-Wolthuis M, Katan MB, Hermus RJJ, Hautvast JGAJ (1979) Increase of serum cholesterol in man fed a bran diet. Atherosclerosis 45:87–91Google Scholar
  170. Stasse-Wolthuis M, Albers HFF, van Jeveren JGC et al. (1980) Influence of dietary fiber from vegetables and fruits, bran or citrus pectin on serum lipids, fecal lipids and colonic function. Am J Clin Nutr 33:1745–1756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Storch K, Anderson JW, Young VR (1984) Oat-bran muffins low serum cholesterol of healthy young people. Clin Res 34:740AGoogle Scholar
  172. Story JA, Baldino A, Czarnecki SK, Kritchevsky D (1981) Modification of liver cholesterol accumulation of cholesterol-fed rats. Nutr Rep Int 24:1213–1219Google Scholar
  173. Superko HK, Haskell WL, Sawrey-Kubicek L, Farquhar JW (1988) Effects of solid and liquid guar gum on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in moderate hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol 62:51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Swain JF, Rouse IL, Curley CB, Sacks FM (1990) Comparison of the effects of oat bran and low-fibre wheat on serum lipoprotein levels and blood pressure. N Engl J Med 322:147–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Tagliaferro V, Cassader M, Bozzo C et al. (1985) Moderate guar gum addition to usual diet improved peripheral sensitivity to insulin and lipaemic profile in NIDD. Diabète Métab 11:380–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Tarpila S, Miettinen TA, Metsaranto L (1978) Effects of bran on serum cholesterol, faecal mass, fat, bile acids and neutral steroids and biliary lipids in patients with diverticular disease of the colon. Gut 19:137–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Thacker PA, Bowland JP (1981) Effects of dietary propionic acid on serum lipids and lipoproteins of pigs fed diets supplemented with soybean meal or canola meal. Can J Anim Sci 61:439–448Google Scholar
  178. Thiffault C, Belanger M, Pouliot M (1970) Traitement de l’hyperlipoproteinemie essentielle de type II par un nouvel agent therapeutique, la Celluline. Can Med Assoc J 103: 165–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Tietyen JL, Nevins DJ, Schneeman BO (1990) Characterization of the hypcholesterolemic potential of oat bran. FASEB J 4:A527Google Scholar
  180. Tognarelli M, Niccoli R, Giampietro O, Cerri M, Navalesi R (1986) Guar pasta: a new diet for obese subjects. Acta Diabetol Lat 23:77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Trowell HC (1972) Ischaemic heart disease and dietary fiber. Am J Clin Nutr 25:926–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Trowell HC (1975) Ischaemic heart disease, atheroma and fibrinolysis. In: Burkitt DP, Trowell HC (eds) Refined carbohydrate foods and disease: Some implications of dietary fibre. Academic Press, London, pp 195–226Google Scholar
  183. Trowell HC (1978) Diet and heart disease. Br Med J i:120–121Google Scholar
  184. Truswell AS (1977) Food fibre and blood lipids. Nutr Revs 35:51–54Google Scholar
  185. Truswell AS (1984) Dietary fiber and lipid metabolism. In: Tanphaichitr V, Dahlan W, Suphakara V, Valyasevi A (eds) Human nutrition: Better nutrition, better life. Proceedings of 4th Asian Congress of Nutrition. Aksornsmai Press, Bangkok, pp 478–487Google Scholar
  186. Truswell AS, Kay RM (1975) Absence of effect of bran on blood lipids. Lancet i:922–923Google Scholar
  187. Truswell AS, Kay RM (1976) Bran and blood lipids. Lancet i:367Google Scholar
  188. Tsai AC, Elias J, Kelley JJ, Lin RSC, Robson JRK (1976) Influence of certain dietary fibres on serum and tissue cholesterol levels in rats. J Nutr 106:118–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Tsai AC, Mott EL, Owen GM, Bennick MR, Lo GS, Steinke FH (1983) Effects of soy polysaccharide on gastrointestinal functions, nutrient balance, steroid excretions, glucose tolerance, serum lipids, and other parameters in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 38:504–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Tuomilehto J, Voutilainen E, Huttunen J, Vinni S, Homan K (1980) Effect of guar gum on body weight and serum lipids in hypercholesterolaemic females. Acta Med Scand 280:45–48Google Scholar
  191. Tuomilehto J, Karttunen P, Vinni S, Kostiainen E, Uusitupa M (1983) A double-blind evaluation of guar gum in patients with dyslipidaemia. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 37C: 109–116Google Scholar
  192. Tuomilehto J, Silvasti M, Aro A et al. (1988) Long-term treatment of severe hypercholesterolaemia with guar gum. Atherosclerosis 72:157–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Tuomilehto J, Silvasti M, Marrvinen V, Uusitupa M, Aro A (1989) Guar gum and gemfibrozil: an effective combination in the treatment of hypercholesterolaemia. Atherosclerosis 76:71–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Turnbull WH, Leeds AR (1987) Reduction of total and LDL-cholesterol in plasma by rolled oats. J Clin Nutr Gastroenterol 2:177–181Google Scholar
  195. Uusitupa M, Tuomilehto J, Karttunen P, Wolf E (1984) Long-term effects of guar gum on metabolic control, serum cholesterol and blood pressure in type 2 (NID) diabetic patients with high blood pressure. Ann Clin Res 16 (Suppl 43): 126–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Uusitupa M, Siituone O, Savolainen K, Silvasti M, Penttila M, Parvioinen M (1989) Metabolic and nutritional effects of long-term use of guar gum in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes of poor metabolic control. Am J Clin Nutr 49:345–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Vaaler S, Hanssen KF, Dahl-Jorgensson K et al. (1986) Diabetic control is improved by guar gum and wheat bran supplementation. Diabetic Med 3:230–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Vahouny GV (1982) Dietary fibers and intestinal absorption of lipids. In: Vahouny GV, Kritchevsky D (eds) Dietary fiber in health and disease. Plenum Press, New York, pp 203–227Google Scholar
  199. Van Beresteijn ECH, Van Schaik M, Mogot MFK (1979) Effect of bran and cellulose on lipid metabolism in obese female Zucker rats. J Nutr 109:2085–2097Google Scholar
  200. Van Berge-Henegouwen GP, Huybregts AW, de Werf S, Demacker P, Schade RW (1979) Effect of a standardized wheat bran preparation on serum lipids in young healthy males. Am J Clin Nutr 32:794–798PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Van Dokkum W (1978) Zemelen in brood: verteerbaarheid en invloed op het defaecatiepatroon, de mineralen-balans en de serumlipidenconcentraties bij de mens. Voedingsmiddelentechnologie 11:(41)18–21Google Scholar
  202. Van Horn L, Liu K, Parker D et al. (1986) Serum lipid response to oat product intake with a fat-modified diet. J Am Diet Assoc 86:759–764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Van Horn L, Emidy LA, Liu K et al. (1988) Serum lipid responses to fat-modified oatmeal-enhanced diet. Prev Med 17:377–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Van Horn L, Moag-Stahlberg A, Lui K et al. (1991) Effects on serum lipids of adding instant oats to usual American diets. Am J Public Health 81:183–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Van Raaij JMA, Katan MB, West CE, Hautvast JGAJ (1982) Influence of diets containing casein, soy isolate and soy concentrate on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins in middle-aged volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 35:925–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Vargo D, Doyle R, Hoch MH (1985) Colonic bacterial flora and serum cholesterol: alterations induced by dietary citrus pectin. Am J Gastroenterol 80:361–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Vinik AI, Jenkins DJA (1988) Dietary fibre in management of diabetes. Diabetes Care 11:236–249Google Scholar
  208. Watts JM, Jablonski P, Toouli J (1978) The effect of added bran to the diet on the saturation of bile in people without gallstones. Am J Surg 135:321–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Weinand HA, Sack H (1970) Beinflussung des Cholesterinstoffwechsels durch Pektin. Med Welt 23:1426–1427Google Scholar
  210. Weinreich J, Pedersen O, Dinesen K (1977) Role of bran in normals. Acta Med Scand 202:125–130Google Scholar
  211. Welch RW, Peterson DM, Schramka N (1988) Hypocholesterolemic and gastrointestinal effects of oat bran fractions in chicks. Nutr Rep Int 38:551–561Google Scholar
  212. Wirth A, Middlehoff G, Braeunuig C, Schlierf G (1982) Treatment of familial hypercholesterolaemia with a combination of bezafibrate and guar. Atherosclerosis 45:291–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Zavoral JH, Hannan P, Fields DJ et al. (1983) The hypolipidemic effect of locust bean gum food products in familial hypercholesterolemic adults and children. Am J Clin Nutr 38:285–294PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. S. Truswell
  • A. C. Beynen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations