Dietary Fibre — A Component of Food pp 233-246

Part of the ILSI Human Nutrition Reviews book series (ILSI HUMAN) | Cite as

Faecal Bulking and Energy Value of Dietary Fibre

  • E. Wisker
  • W. Feldheim

Abstract

At first sight there seems to be no correlation between the effect of dietary fibre on faecal bulking and the energy which may be provided to the human metabolism or which may be lost due to the ingestion of dietary fibre. However, an increased consumption of fibre leads to increased stool weights, and thereby also to elevated losses of energy containing organic material. On the other hand, fibre may provide energy, because the short chain fatty acids which result from the fermentation, can be absorbed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsmethoden & 35 LMGB (1988) 00.018 Beuth, Berlin-KölnGoogle Scholar
  2. Atwater WO, Benedict FG (1897) Experiments on the digestion of food by man. Conn Agric Exp Stn Storrs Bull 18:154–167Google Scholar
  3. Bacon JSD (1979) Plant cell wall digestibility and chemical structure. Rep Rowett Res Inst 35:99–108Google Scholar
  4. Björck I, Nyman M, Pedersen B, Siljeström M, Asp N-G, Eggum BO (1987) Formation of enzyme-resistant starch during autoclaving of wheat starch: Studies in vitro and in vivo. J Cereal Sci 6:159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brodribb AJM, Groves C (1978) Effect of bran particle size on stool weight. Gut 19:60–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Calkins BM (1986) Consumption of fibre in vegetarians and nonvegetarians. In: Spiller GA (ed) CRC handbook of dietary fibre in human nutrition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 407–414Google Scholar
  7. Calloway DH, Kretsch MJ (1978) Protein and energy utilisation in men given a rural Guatemalan diet and egg formulas with and without added oat bran. Am J Clin Nutr 31:1118–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cummings JH (1981) Dietary fibre. Br Med Bull 37:65–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cummings JH (1984) Microbial digestion of complex carbohydrates in man. Proc Nutr Soc 43:35–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cummings JH (1986) The effect of dietary fibre on faecal weight and composition. In: Spiller GA (ed), Handbook of dietary fiber in human nutrition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 211–280Google Scholar
  11. Cummings JH, Branch W, Jenkins DJA, Southgate DAT, Houston H, James WPT (1978) Colonic response to dietary fibre from carrot, cabbage, apple, bran and guar gum. Lancet i:5–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davies GJ, Crowder M, Dickerson JWT (1985) Dietary fibre intake of individuals with different eating patterns. J Hum Nutr Appl 39A:139Google Scholar
  13. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung (1985) Empfehlungen für die Nährstoffzufuhr. 4. Erweiterte Überarbeitung. Umschau Verlag, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  14. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung (1988) Ernährungsbericht 1988. Henrich, FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  15. Eastwood MA, Robertson JA, Brydon WG, MacDonald D (1983) Measurement of water-holding properties of fibre and their faecal bulking ability in man. Br J Nutr 50:539–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eastwood MA, Brydon WG, Baird JD, Elton RA, Helliwell S, Smith JH, Pritchard JL (1984) Faecal weight and composition, serum lipids, and diet among subjects aged 18 to 80 years not seeking health care. Am J Clin Nutr 40:628–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Eastwood MA, Brydon WG, Anderson DMW (1986a) The effect of the polysaccharide composition and structure of dietary fibres on cecal fermentation and faecal excretion. Am J Clin Nutr 44:51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Eastwood MA, Elton RA, Smith JH (1986b) Long-term effect of wholemeal bread on stool weight, transit time, faecal bile acids, fats, and neutral sterols. Am J Clin Nutr 43:343–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Englyst HN, Cummings JH (1985) Digestion of the polysaccharides in some cereal foods in the human small intestine. Am J Clin Nutr 42:778–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Eyton A (1982) F-plan diet. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, UKGoogle Scholar
  21. Goering HK, Van Soest PJ (1970) Forage fibre analysis. ARS/USDA agriculture handbook 379. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  22. Göranzon H, Forsum E (1987) Metabolizable energy in humans in two diets containing different sources of dietary fibre. Calculation and analysis. J Nutr 117:267–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Göranzon H, Forsum E, Thilen M (1983) Calculation and determination of metabolizable energy in mixed diets to humans. Am J Clin Nutr 38:954–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Heller SN, Hackler LR, Rivers JM et al. (1980) Dietary fibre: The effects of particle size of wheat bran on colonic function in young adult men. Am J Clin Nutr 33:1734–1744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Jenkins DJA, Peterson RD, Thorne MJ et al. (1987) Wheat fibre and laxation: dose response and equilibration time. Am J Gastroenterol 82:1259–1263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Judd PA (1982) The effects of high intakes of barley on gastrointestinal function and apparent digestibilities of dry matter, nitrogen and fat in human volunteers. J Plant Foods 4:79–88Google Scholar
  27. Kelsay JL, Behall KM, Prather ES (1978) Effects of fibre from fruits and vegetables on metabolic responses of human subjects. I. Bowel transit time, number of defecations, faecal weight, urinary excretions of energy and nitrogen and apparent digestibilities of energy, nitrogen, and fat. Am J Clin Nutr 31:1149–1153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kelsay JL, Clark WM, Herbst BJ, Prather ES (1981) Nutrient utilisation by human subjects consuming fruits and vegetables as sources of fibre. J Agric Food Chem 29:461–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kleiber M (1975) The fire of life. Kreiger, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Livesey G (1989) Procedures for calculating the digestible and metabolizable energy values of food components making a small contribution to dietary intake. J Agric Food Sci 48:475–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Livesey G (1990) Energy values of unavailable carbohydrates and diets. An inquiry and analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 51:617–637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Livesey G, Davies IR, Brown JC, Faulks RM, Southon S (1990) Energy balance and energy values of amylase (EC 3.2.1.1)-resistant maize and pea (Pisum sativum) starches in the rat. Br J Nutr 63:467–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lubbe AM (1971) Dietary evaluation. A comparative study of rural and urban venda males. S Afr Med J 45:1289–1297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. McNeil N (1984) The contribution of the large intestine to energy supplies in man. Am J Clin Nutr 39:338–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. McNeil NI, Cummings JH, James WPT (1978) Short chain fatty acid absorption by the human large intestine. Gut 19:819–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Merrill AL, Watt BK (1955) Energy value of foods; basis and derivation. US Department of Agriculture. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (Agriculture handbook no. 74)Google Scholar
  37. Miles CW, Kelsay JL, Wong NF (1988) Effect of dietary fibre on metabolizable energy of human diets. J Nutr 118:1075–1081PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Miller DS, Judd PA (1984) The metabolizable energy value of foods. J Sci Food Agric 35:111–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Miller DS, Payne PR (1959) A ballistic bomb calorimeter. Br J Nutr 13:501–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Miyoshi H, Okuda T, Oi Y, Koishi H (1986) Effects of fibre on faecal weight, apparent digestibility of energy, nitrogen and fat, and degradation of neutral detergent fibre in young men. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 32:581–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Paul AA, Southgate DAT (eds) (1978) McCance and Widdowson’s The composition of foods, 4th rev edn. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Rubner M (1885) Calorimetrische Untersuchungen I und II. Z Biol 21:250–334, 337–410Google Scholar
  43. Selvendran RR (1984) The plant cell wall as a source of dietary fibre: chemistry and structure. Am J Clin Nutr 39:320–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Slavin JL, Nelson NL, McNamara EA et al. (1985) Bowel function of healthy men consuming liquid diets with and without dietary fibre. J Parent Entr Nutr 9:317–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Smith AN, Drummond E, Eastwood MA (1981) The effect of coarse and fine Canadian Red Spring Wheat and French Soft Wheat bran on colonic motility in patients with diverticular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 34:2460–2463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Southgate DAT (1973) Fibre and the other unavailable carbohydrates and their effects on the energy value of the diet. Proc Nutr Soc 32:131–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Southgate DAT (1975) Fibre and other unavailable carbohydrates and energy effects in the diet. In: White PL, Selvey NB (eds) Proceedings of the Western Hemisphere Nutrition Congress IV. Publishing Science Group Inc, Acton, MA, pp 51–55Google Scholar
  48. Southgate DAT, Durnin JVGA (1970) Calorie conversion factors: an experimental reassessment of the factors used in the calculation of the energy value of human diets. Br J Nutr 24:517–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Spiller GA (1986) Suggestions for a basis on which to determine a desirable intake of dietary fiber. In: Spiller GA (ed) Handbook of dietary fibre in human nutrition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 281–283Google Scholar
  50. Spiller GA, Chernoff MC, Shipley EA, Beigler MA, Briggs GM (1977) Can faecal weight be used to establish a recommended intake of dietary fibre (plantix)? Am J Clin Nutr 30:659–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Spiller GA, Story JA, Wong LG et al. (1986) Effect of increasing levels of hard wheat fibre on faecal weight, minerals and steroids and gastrointestinal transit time in healthy young women. J Nutr 116:778–785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Stephen AM, Cummings JH (1980) Mechanism of action of dietary fibre in the human colon. Nature 284:283–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stephen AM, Wiggins HS, Englyst HN, Cole TJ, Wayman BJ, Cummings JH (1986) Effect of age, sex and level of intake of dietary fibre from wheat on large-bowel function in 30 healthy subjects. Br J Nutr 56:349–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Stevens J, Levitsky DA, Van Soest PJ, Roberts JB, Kalkwarf HJ, Roe AD (1987) Effect of psyllium gum and wheat bran on spontaneous energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 46:812–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Tucker DM, Sandstead HH, Logan GM et al. (1981) Dietary fibre and personality factors as determinants of stool output. Gastroenterology 81:879–883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Van Dokkum W, Pikaar NA, Thissen JTNM (1983) Physiological effects of fibre-rich types of bread. II. Dietary fibre from bread: Digestibility by the intestinal microflora and water holding capacityin the colon of human subjects. Br J Nutr 50:61–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB (1976) Chemical and physical properties of dietary fibre. In: Hawkins WW (ed) Dietary fibre. Proc. Miles Symposium Nutrition Society of Canada, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, pp 13–25Google Scholar
  58. Widdowson EM (1955) Assessment of energy value of human foods. Proc Nutr Soc 14:142–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Widdowson EM (1978) Note on the calculation of the energy value of foods and diets. In: Paul AA, Southgate DAT (eds) McCance and Widdowson’s The composition of foods, 4th rev. edn. HMSO, London, pp 322–329Google Scholar
  60. Wisker E, Feldheim W (1983) Einfluß von Ballaststoffen aus Obst, Gemüse oder Brot auf die Darmfunktion von jungen Frauen. Akt Ernähr 5:200–205Google Scholar
  61. Wisker E, Feldheim W (1990) Metabolizable energy of diets low or high in dietary fibre from fruits and vegetables when consumed by humans. J Nutr 120:1331–1337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Wisker E, Feldheim W, Pomeranz Y, Meuser F (1985) Dietary fibre in cereals. In: Pomeranz Y (ed) Advances in cereal science and technology. American Association of Cereal Chemists, pp 169–226Google Scholar
  63. Wisker E, Krumm U, Feldheim W (1986) Einfluß der Partikelgröße von Getreideprodukten auf das Stuhlgewicht von jungen Frauen. Akt Ernähr 11:208–211Google Scholar
  64. Wisker E, Hudtwalker G, Feldheim W (1987a) Untersuchungen zum Kalzium- und Phosphorstoffwechsel beim Menschen. 4. Mitteilung: Einfluß einer veränderten Zufuhr von Phosphat und Ballaststoffen mit der Kost auf die Bilanzen von Phosphor, Kalzium und Magnesium. Akt Ernähr 12:149–153Google Scholar
  65. Wisker E, Maltz A, Feldheim W (1987b) Metabolisierbare Energie von Kostformen mit unterschiedlichem Gehalt an Getreideballaststoffen — Vergleich von gemessenen und berechneten Werten. Getreide Mehl Brot 41:340–344Google Scholar
  66. Wisker E, Maltz A, Feldheim W (1988) Metabolizable energy of diets low or high in dietary fibre from cereals when eaten by humans. J Nutr 118:945–952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Wisker E, Feldheim W, Schweizer TF (1990) Metabolic effects of raw and processed carrots in humans. In: Southgate DAT, Waldron K, Johnson IT, Fenwick GR (eds) Dietary fibre: chemical and biological aspects. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp 318–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wrick KL, Robertson JB, Van Soest PJ et al. (1983) The influence of dietary fibre source on human intestinal transit and stool output. J Nutr 113:1464–1479PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Wisker
  • W. Feldheim

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations