Structure and Innervation in the Human

  • John Dixon
  • John Gosling


Until recently the smooth musculature of the bladder and urethra was considered to be controlled by the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system with very little influence by the sympathetic component. This concept has subsequently been modified following the results of numerous recent investigations using a variety of neurohistochemical, electron microscopic and immunologic techniques. Studies of the anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the vesicourethral musculature in experimental animals and humans have provided a wealth of new information and it is now evident that the processes of urine storage and micturition are considerably more complex than was once believed. This chapter provides a summary of current knowledge on the structure of the human urinary bladder and urethra, including their extrinsic and intrinsic innervation.


Bladder Neck Pudendal Nerve Detrusor Muscle Detrusor Smooth Muscle Proximal Urethra 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Dixon
  • John Gosling

There are no affiliations available

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