Advertisement

Resilience, Spirituality and Posttraumatic Growth: Reshaping the Effects of Climate Change

  • Tamasin RamsayEmail author
  • Lenore Manderson
Chapter
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)

Abstract

With increased extreme weather events and associated crises, there has been a growing emphasis away from identifying vulnerabilities and ensuring effective disaster management to considering people’s own strategies for coping and adapting. Concepts such as resilience and posttraumatic growth, and the role of spirituality in realizing these, have increasingly been recognized as important to individual and community preparedness and recovery. In this chapter, the authors describe these concepts in the context of climate change and extreme environmental events. In so doing, they address ways to increase resilience in varied cultural contexts.

Keywords

Resilience Spirituality Meaning, Culture 

References

  1. Agrimson, L. B., & Taft, L. B. (2009). Spiritual crisis: A concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65(2), 454–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguirre, B. E. (2006). Preliminary paper #356 on the concept of resilience. University of Delaware Disaster Research Center.Google Scholar
  3. Ai, A. L., Tice, T. N., Peterson, C., & Huang, B. (2005). Prayers, spiritual support, and positive attitudes in coping with the September 11 national crisis. Journal of Personality, 73(3), 763–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asmundson, G. J. G., Carleton, R. N., Wright, K. D., & Taylor, S. (2004). Psychological sequelae of remote exposure to the September 11th terrorist attacks in Canadians with and without panic. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 33(2), 51–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Asmundson, G. J. G., Stapleton, J. A., & Taylor, S. (2004). Are avoidance and numbing distinct PTSD symptom clusters? Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(6), 467–475.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Basit, A. (2007). An Islamic perspective on coping with catastrophe. Southern Medical Journal, 100(9), 950–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergman, J. C. (2008). The shape of disaster and the universe of relief: A social history of disaster relief and the “Hurricane of ‘38,” Suffolk County, Long Island, New York, 1938–1941. Unpublished Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY.Google Scholar
  8. BKWSU. (1992). The Earth Summit. Paper presented at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Retrieved August 5, 2009, from http://www.bkwsu.com/bkun/earth/earth7.html
  9. BKWSU. (1995). A world in transition. Paper presented at the World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, Denmark. Retrieved August 5, 2009, from http://www.bkun.org/papers/wit5.html
  10. BKWSU. (2000). In search of the human face of social integration. Paper presented at the World Summit For Social Development And Beyond: Acheiving Social Development for all in a Globalizing World, Geneva, Switzerland, June 26–30.Google Scholar
  11. BKWSU. (2002). Spirituality – The heart of sustainable development. Paper presented at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, August 26 to September 4.Google Scholar
  12. BKWSU. (2006). Unfinished business: Effective partnerships for human security and sustainable development. Paper presented at the 59th Annual DPI/NGO Conference, September 6–8.Google Scholar
  13. BKWSU. (2007). Climate change: How it impacts us all. Paper presented at the Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University Statement for the 60th Annual DPI/NGO Conference, September 4–7. Retrieved August 5, 2009, from http://www.bkun.org/papers/ngodpi07.html
  14. BKWSU. (2009a). Brahma Kumaris official website. Retrieved February 22, from http://www.bkwsu.org/whereweare/center
  15. BKWSU (2009b). Consciousness and climate: Confluence of two living systems. Paper presented at the COP15 United Nations Conference on Climate Change, December 8–15.Google Scholar
  16. Bongar, B., Brown, L., Beutler, L., Breckenridge, J., & Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology of terrorism. Oxon: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bouma, G. D. (2003). Globalisation, social capital and the challenge to harmony of recent changes in Australia’s religious and spiritual demography: 1947–2001. Australian Religious Studies Review, Spring, 16(2), 55–68.Google Scholar
  18. Brome, D. R., Owens, M. D., Allen, K., & Vevaina, T. (2000). An examination of spirituality among African American women in recovery from substance abuse. Journal of Black Psychology, 26(4), 470–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cain, D. S., & Barthelemy, J. (2008). Tangible and spiritual relief after the storm: The religious community responds to Katrina. Journal of Social Service Research, 34(3), 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2006a). Expert companions: Posttraumatic growth in clinical practice. In R. G. Tedeschi & L. G. Calhoun (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 291–310). Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum & Associates.Google Scholar
  21. Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. (2006b). Foundations of posttraumatic growth. In L. G. Calhoun & R. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 1–23). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  22. Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. (Eds.). (2006c). Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  23. Chester, D. K. (2005). Theology and disaster studies: The need for dialogue. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 146(4), 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chester, D. K., Duncan, A. M., & Dibben, C. J. L. (2008). The importance of religion in shaping volcanic risk perception in Italy, with special reference to Vesuvius and Etna. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 172(3–4), 216–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chhean, V. K. (2007). A Buddhist perspective on coping with catastrophe. Southern Medical Journal, 100(9), 952–953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chiu, L., Emblen, J. D., Van Hofwegen, L., Sawatzky, R., & Meyerhoff, H. (2004). An integrative review of the concept of spirituality in the health sciences. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 26(4), 405–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cook, N. (1981). Demographic collapse: Indian Peru, 1520–1620. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Cousins, L. S. (1997). Buddhism. In J. R. Hinnells (Ed.), The new penguin handbook of living religions (pp. 369–444). London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  29. Cunningham, L. S. (2003). Spirituality and religion: Some reflections. In O. F. Williams (Ed.), Business, religion and spirituality: A new synthesis (pp. 168–183). Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  30. Doughty, P. (1999). Plan and pattern in reaction to earthquake: Peru, 1970–1998. In S. M. Hoffman & A. Oliver-Smith (Eds.), The angry earth: Disaster in anthropological perspective (pp. 234–255). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Dundas, P. (2002). The Jains: London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. Eco Buddhism. (2009). Retrieved November 23, 2009, from http://www.ecobuddhism.org/science/climate/a_climate_in_crisis
  33. EMA. (2002). Guidelines for psychological service practice: Mental health practitioners guide (Report). Canberra: Emergency Management Australia.Google Scholar
  34. Ferris, E. (2005). Faith-based and secular humanitarian organizations. International Review of the Red Cross, 87(858), 311–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fjord, L., & Manderson, L. (2009). Anthropological perspectives on disasters and disability: An introduction. Human Organization, 68(1), 64–72.Google Scholar
  36. Fontana, A., & Rosenheck, R. (2004). Trauma, change in strength of religious faith, and mental health service use among veterans treated for PTSD. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 192(9), 579–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Frank, A. W. (2000). The standpoint of storyteller. Qualitative Health Research, 10(3), 354–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Frankl, V. E. (1962 [1946]). Man’s search for meaning. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  39. Frankl, V. E. (1978). The unheard cry for meaning. Psychotherapy and humanism. New York: Simon & Shuster.Google Scholar
  40. Frankl, V. E. (1988). The will to meaning (2nd Expanded ed.). New York: Meridian (Penguin).Google Scholar
  41. Gist, R. (Ed.). (1999). Response to disaster: Psychosocial, community and ecological approaches. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  42. Gray, B. (2008, November 14). State emergency recovery arrangements. Paper presented at the Graduate Certificate in Emergency Health (Emergency preparedness and disaster health), Alfred Hospital, Monash University.Google Scholar
  43. Guru Granth Sahib. (1604). Kartarpur (Punjab).Google Scholar
  44. Halemba, A. (2008). “What does it feel like when your religion moves under your feet?” Religion, Earthquakes and National Unity in the Republic of Altai, Russian Federation. Zeitschrift Fur Ethnologie, 133(2), 283–299.Google Scholar
  45. Hall, D. L. (2006). Exploration of the knowledge, perceptions of personal risk and perception of the public health response to a terrorist event or natural disaster: Perspective from African American churchgoers in Columbia, South Carolina. Unpublished Ph.D., University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.Google Scholar
  46. Herman, D. (2004). Story logic: Problems and possibilities of narrative. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  47. Hoffman, S. M., & Oliver-Smith, A. (1999). Anthropology and the angry earth: An overview. In S. M. Hoffman & A. Oliver-Smith (Eds.), The angry earth: Disaster in anthropological perspective (pp. 1–17). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Jackson, C. A. (2007). Posttraumatic growth: Is there evidence for changing our practice? The Australasian Journal of Disaster and Trauma Studies 1. Retrieved May 4, 2011, from http://www.massey.ac.nz/~trauma/issues/2007-1/editorial.htm
  49. Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered assumptions: Towards a new psychology of trauma. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  50. Janoff-Bulman, R. (2006). Shema-change perspectives on posttraumatic growth. In L. G. Calhoun & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (p. 387). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associated.Google Scholar
  51. Jayasinghe, S. (2007). Faith-based NGOs and healthcare in poor countries: A preliminary exploration of ethical issues. Journal of Medical Ethics, 33(11), 623–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kleinman, A. (2006). What really matters: Living a moral life amidst uncertainty and danger. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Koenig, H. G. (2001). Religion, spirituality and medicine: How are they related and what does it mean? [Editorial]. Maya Clinic Proceedings, 76(12), 1189–1191.Google Scholar
  54. Koenig, H. G. (2005). In the wake of disaster: Religious responses to terrorism and catastrophe. Philadelphia, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.Google Scholar
  55. Koenig, H. G. (2007). Psychological needs of disaster survivors and families. Southern Medical Journal, 100(9), 934–935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leavey, G. (2008). UK clergy and people in mental distress: Community and patterns of pastoral care. Transcultural Psychiatry, 45(1), 79–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Leong, P. (2008). Therapeutic religion: A portrait of an experimental religious environment for the marginalized, the disenfranchised, and the scarred. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Southern California, United States.Google Scholar
  58. Levy, B. R., Slade, M. D., & Ranasinghe, P. (2009). Causal thinking after a tsunami wave: Karma beliefs, pessimistic explanatory style and health among Sri Lankan survivors. Journal of Religion & Health, 48(1), 38–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Martsolf, D. S., & Mickley, J. R. (1998). The concept of spirituality in nursing theories: Differing world-views and extent of focus. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27(2), 294–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Marshall, M. (2009). Life with meaning: A guide to the fundamental principles of Viktor E. Frankl’s Logotherapy. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Maritime Institute of Logotherapy.Google Scholar
  61. Musick, M. A., & Wilson, J. (2003). Volunteering and depression: The role of psychological and social resources in different age groups. Social Science & Medicine, 56(2), 259–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Napoleon, H. (1991). Yuuyaraq: The way of the human being. In C. Samson (Ed.), Health studies: A critical and cross-cultural reader (pp. 311–337). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  63. Neimeyer, R. A. (2006). Re-storying loss: Fostering growth in the posttraumatic narrative. In L. G. Calhoun & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 68–80). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  64. NVOAD. (2009, February 19). National voluntary organisations active in disaster. Retrieved February 20, 2009, from http://www.nvoad.org/
  65. Olson, M., Ball, J., & Hollerbach, A. D. (2003). Faith communities and their response to disaster. Spirituality and Health International, 4(2), 8–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Padel, F. (1995). The sacrifice of human being: British rule and the Konds of Orissa. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Palakudiyil, T., & Todd, M. (2003). Facing up to the storm. How local communities can cope with disaster: Lessons from Orissa and Gujarat (Handbook). London: Voluntary Health Association of India.Google Scholar
  68. Piedmont, R. L., & Leach, M. M. (2002). Cross-cultural generalizability of the spiritual transcendence scale in India: Spirituality as a universal aspect of human experience. American Behavioral Scientist, 45(12), 1888–1901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Perera, S. (2002). Spirit possessions and avenging ghosts: Stories of supernatural activity as narratives of terror and mechanisms of coping and remembering. In V. Das, A. Kleinman, M. Lock, M. Ramphele, & P. Reynolds (Eds.), Remaking a world: Violence, social suffering, and recovery (pp. 157–200). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  70. Pollock, D. M. (2007). Therefore choose life: The Jewish perspective on coping with catastrophe. Southern Medical Journal, 100(9), 948–949.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Rahula, W. (1974). The heritage of the Bhikkhu: The Buddhist tradition of service. New York: Grove Press.Google Scholar
  72. Ramsay, T. (2009). Custodians of purity: An ethnography of the Brahma Kumaris. Unpublished Ph.D., Monash University, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  73. Ramsay, T., & Smith, W. (2008). Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University. International Institute for Asian Studies Newsletter, 47 New Religious Movements (Spring), 1, 4, 5.Google Scholar
  74. Ramsay, T., Manderson, L., & Smith, W. (2010). Changing a mountain into a mustard seed; Spiritual practices and responses to disaster among New York Brahma Kumaris. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 25(1), 89–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Rice, G., Barrett, S., Brown, W., Crain, S., Hurst, T., Taylor, C., et al. (2009). Logotherapy assumptions. Retrieved July 22, 2009, from http://www.logotherapyinstitute.org
  76. Roberts, S., & Ashley, W. W. C. (2008). Disaster spiritual care: Practical clergy responses to community, regional and national tragedy. Woodstock, VT: SkyLight Paths.Google Scholar
  77. Seidner, S. S. (2009, June 8–11). A Trojan Horse: Logotherapeutic transcendence and its secular implications for theology. Paper presented at the ‘A Secular Age’: Tracing the Contours of Religion and Belief, Mater Dei Institute of Education.Google Scholar
  78. Smale, S. (The Reverent) (1998). The Victorian Council of Churches: Its role in community support and development. Australian Journal of Emergency Management, Winter, 26–27.Google Scholar
  79. Southern Baptist Disaster Relief. (2004). Retrieved August 17, 2009, from http://www.emergencyministry.com.au/documents/DRChaplainTrainingManual.pdf
  80. Spencer, C., & Archer, F. (2008, November 12). Cultural diversity: A challenge for disasters. Paper presented at the Graduate Certificate in Emergency Health (Emergency preparedness and disaster health), Alfred Hospital, Monash University.Google Scholar
  81. Stanton, A. L., Bower, J. E., & Low, C. A. (2006). Posttraumatic growth after cancer. In L. G. Calhoun & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 138–175). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associated.Google Scholar
  82. Stipe, C. E. (1999). Anthropologists versus missionaries. The influence of presuppositions. In M. Klass & M. Wiesgrau (Eds.), Across the boundaries of belief. Contemporary issues in the anthropology of religion (pp. 11–21). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  83. Tacey, D. (2004). The spirituality revolution: The emergence of contemporary spirituality. East Sussex: Brunner-Routledge.Google Scholar
  84. Tedeschi, R., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9(3), 455–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2006). The foundations of posttraumatic growth: An expanded framework. In R. G. Tedeschi & L. G. Calhoun (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 1–23). Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum & Associates.Google Scholar
  86. Todeschini, M. (2001). The bombs womb? Women and the atomic bomb. In V. Das, A. Kleinman, M. Lock, M. Ramphele, & P. Reynolds (Eds.), Remaking a world: Violence, social suffering and recovery (pp. 102–156). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  87. Trainor, K. (2004). Buddhism: The illustrated guide (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  88. UN. (1945). Charter of the United Nations. Retrieved August 3, 2009, from http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/
  89. UNDP. (2008). Status report: Land rights and ownership in Orissa. Retrieved February 20, from http://data.undp.org.in/LandRights_OwnershipinOrissa.pdf
  90. Vallely, A. (2002). Guardians of the transcendant: An ethnography of a Jain ascetic community. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  91. Wallace, A. (1996). Choosing reality: A Buddhist view of physics and the mind. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications.Google Scholar
  92. Walliss, J. (2002). The Brahma Kumaris as a ‘reflexive tradition’: Responding to late modernity: London: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  93. Walsh, T., Ramsay, T., & Smith, W. (2007, July 20). The transplantation of Eastern spirituality into a contemporary Australian socio-cultural environment. Paper presented at the Spirituality in Australia Psychological: Social and Religious Perspectives, University of Western Sydney.Google Scholar
  94. Whaling, F. (1995). The Brahma Kumaris. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 10(1), 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wong, P. T. P. (1998). Meaning-centred counselling. In P. T. P. Wong & P. S. Fry (Eds.), The human quest for meaning: A handbook of psychological research and clinical applications (pp. 395–436). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  96. Yetman, B. M. (2006). The Catholic Church and the fishery crisis of 1986—1992 in Newfoundland and Labrador: Seeking pastoral insight in a time of changing ocean resources. Unpublished M.A., University of St. Michael’s College (Canada), Canada.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Social Sciences and Health Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, School of Psychology and PsychiatryMonash UniversityCaulfied EastAustralia

Personalised recommendations