Substance Use Prevalence in Criminal Justice Settings

  • Michele Staton-Tindall
  • Jennifer R. Havens
  • Carrie B. Oser
  • Mary Carroll Burnett
Chapter
Part of the Issues in Children's and Families' Lives book series (IICL, volume 11)

Abstract

Since the mid-1970s, research studies in the United States have focused on the drug-crime connection. Federal drug abuse efforts in the early 1980s targeted controlling the supply of drugs, determinate sentencing for drug offenders, and long prison terms. With the growing number of substance users involved in the criminal justice system, this chapter overviews recent prevalence studies on substance use among individuals involved in differing levels of the criminal justice system from prison and jail to community corrections, including a discussion of special populations of offenders. This chapter also overviews the theoretical underpinnings of the relationship between drug use and crime as it relates to the development of treatment approaches for this population. Finally, the chapter concludes with an overview of evidence-based interventions and promising approaches for substance abuse for the criminal justice population and future directions.

Keywords

Drug offenders Jail inmates Prison inmates Community supervision 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Ball, J. C., Lawrence, R., Flueck, J. A., & Nurco, D. N. (1982). Lifetime criminality of heroin addicts in the United States. Journal of Drug Issues, Summer, 225–239.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, A. J. (2000). Prisoners in 1999 (Publication No. 183476). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  4. Belenko, S., Shedlin, M., & Chaple, M. (2005). HIV risk behaviors, knowledge, and prevention service experiences among African American and other offenders. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 16, 108–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennett, T., Holloway, K., & Farrington, D. (2008). The statistical association between drug misuse and crime. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13, 107–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bigelow, G., & Silverman, K. (1999). Theoretical and empirical foundations of contingency management treatments for drug abuse. In S. T. Higgins & K. Silverman (Eds.), Motivating behavior change among illicit drug abusers: Research on contingency management intervention (pp. 15–31). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blankenship, K. M., Smoyer, A. B., Bray, S. J., & Mattocks, D. (2005). Black-white disparities in HIV/AIDS: The role of drug policy in the corrections system. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 16, 140–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brewer, V. E., Marquart, J. W., Mullings, J. L., & Crouch, B. N. (1998). AIDS-related risk behaviors among female prisoners with histories of mental impairment. Prison Journal, 78, 101–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brockett, R. (2000). Conceptual incarceration: A thirteenth-amendment look at African Americans and policing. In M. W. Markowitz & D. D. Jones-Brown (Eds.), The system in black and white: Exploring the connections between race, crime, and justice (pp. 109–124). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Carroll, K. M. (2000). A cognitive-behavioral approach: Treating cocaine addiction (Publication No. 0-4308). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  11. Carroll, K. M., Ball, S. A., Nich, C., Martino, S., Frankforter, T. L., Farentinos, C., et al. (2006). Motivational interviewing to improve treatment engagement and outcome in individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse: A multisite effectiveness study. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 81, 301–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carroll, K. M., Farentinos, C., Ball, S. A., Crits-Christoph, P., Libby, B., Morgenstern, J., et al. (2002). MET meets the real world: Design issues and clinical strategies in the Clinical Trials Network. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 23, 73–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carroll, K. M., & Onken, L. S. (2005). Behavioral therapies for drug abuse. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1452–1460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA). (2009). Shoveling up II: The impact of substance abuse on federal, state, and local budgets. The National Center of Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University. Retrieved August 4, 2009, from http://www.casacolumbia.org/su2report
  15. Chandler, R. K., Fletcher, B. W., & Volkow, N. D. (2009). Treating drug abuse and addiction in the criminal justice system: Improving public health and safety. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(2), 183–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chitwood, D. D., Rivers, J. E., & Inciardi, J. A. (Eds.). (1996). The American pipe dream: Crack and the inner city. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  17. Cleckley, H. (1988). The mask of sanity (5th ed.). Atlanta, GA: C.V. Mosby Co.Google Scholar
  18. Cornelius, M. D., Goldschmidt, L., Day, N. L., & Larkby, C. (2002). Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among pregnant teenagers: 6-year follow-up of offspring growth effects. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 24(6), 703–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cornelius, M. D., Leech, S., & Larkby, C. (2007). Prenatal substance exposure: Growth outcomes among 10-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Neurotoxicology & Teratology, 29(3), 409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cotton-Oldenburg, N. U., Jordan, K., Martin, S. L., & Kupper, L. (1999). Women inmates’ risky sex and drug behaviors: Are they related? American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 25, 129–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Covington, C. Y., Nordstrom-Klee, B., Ager, J., Sokol, R., & Delaney-Black, V. (2002). Birth to age 7 growth of children prenatally exposed to drugs: A prospective cohort study. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 24(4), 489–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cropsey, K. L., Villalobos, G. C., & St. Clair, C. L. (2005). Pharmacotherapy treatment in substance-dependent correctional populations: A review. Substance Use & Misuse, 40, 1983–1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De La Rosa, M., Lambert, E. Y., & Gropper, B. (Eds.). (1990). Drugs and violence: Causes, correlates, and consequences (NIDA Research Monograph 103). Rockville, MD: NIDA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  24. De Li, S., Priu, H. D., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2000). Drug involvement, lifestyles, and criminal activities among probationers. Journal of Drug Issues, 30(3), 593–620.Google Scholar
  25. DeLeon, G. (2000). The therapeutic community: Theory, model, and method. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Deitsch, D. A., Carlton, S., Koutsenok, I. B., & Marsolais, K. (2002). Therapeutic community treatment in prisons. In C. Leukefeld, F. Tims, & D. Farabee (Eds.), Treatment of drug offenders (pp. 127–137). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Donovan, D. M., Kadden, R. M., DiClemente, C. C., & Carroll, K. M. (2002). Client satisfaction with three therapies in the treatment of alcohol dependence: Results from project MATCH. The American Journal on Addictions, 11, 291–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Farabee, D., Joshi, V., & Anglin, M. (2001). Addiction careers and criminal specialization. Crime and Delinquency, 47, 196–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Field, G. (2002). Historical trends of drug treatment in the criminal justice system. In C. Leukefeld, F. Tims, & D. Farabee (Eds.), Treatment of drug offenders (pp. 9–21). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  30. Friedmann, P. (2005). CJDATS brief report: Step’n out. Retrieved August 15, 2009 from http://www.cjats.org
  31. Frost, N. A., Greene, J., & Pranis, K. (2006). Hard hit: The growth in the imprisonment of women, 1977–2004. The Punitiveness report, Institute on Women & Criminal Justice. Retrieved October 22, 2009 from http://www.wpaonline.org/institute/hardhit/foreword.htm
  32. Glaze, L. E., & Bonczar, T. P. (2006). Probation and parole in the United States, 2005 (Publication No. 215091). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  33. Glaze, L. E., & Bonczar, T. P. (2008). Probation and parole in the United States, 2007 statistical tables (Publication No. 224707). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  34. Gorski, T. (1984). Relapse prevention therapy with chemically dependent criminal offenders: The relapse prevention workbook for the criminal offender. Independence, MO: Independence Press.Google Scholar
  35. Greenfeld, L. A., & Snell, T. L. (1999). Women offenders (Publication No. 175688). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  36. Hall, S. (1998). Drug abuse treatment. In E. A. Blechman & K. D. Brownell (Eds.), Behavioral medicine & women: A comprehensive handbook (pp. 420–424). York, PA: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  37. Harrison, P. M., & Beck, A. J. (2003). Prisoners in 2002 (Publication No. 200248). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  38. Harrison, P. M., & Beck, A. J. (2005). Prisoners in 2004 (Publication No. 210677). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  39. Henderson, D. J. (1998). Drug abuse and incarcerated women. Journal of Substance abuse Treatment, 15, 579–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Huang, N. A., Svikis, D. S., & Diclemente, C. (2004). Motivational enhancement therapy for nicotine dependence in methadone-maintained pregnant women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors, 18, 289–292.Google Scholar
  41. Inciardi, J. A. (1979). Heroin use and street crime. Crime Delinquency, 25, 335–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Inciardi, J. A. (1981). Drug use and criminal behavior: Major research issues. In J. A. Inciardi (Ed.), The drugs-crime connection. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  43. Inciardi, J. A., Martin, S. S., & Butzin, C. A. (2004). Five-year outcomes of therapeutic community treatment of drug-involved offenders after release from prison. Crime and Delinquency, 50(1), 88–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Inciardi, J. A., Martin, S. S., Butzin, C. A., Hooper, R. M., & Harrison, L. D. (1997). An effective model of prison-based treatment for drug-involved offenders. Journal of Drug Issues, 27(2), 261–278.Google Scholar
  45. Inciardi, J. A., & Pottieger, A. E. (1991). Kids, crack, and crime. Journal of Drug Issues, 21(2), 257–271.Google Scholar
  46. Ingram-Fogel, C. (1991). Health problems and needs of incarcerated women. Journal of Prison & Jail Health, 10, 43–57.Google Scholar
  47. James, D. J., & Glaze, L. E. (2006). Mental health problems of prison and jail inmates (Publication No. 213600). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  48. Karberg, J. C., & James, D. J. (2005). Substance dependence, abuse, and treatment of jail inmates, 2002 (Publication No. 209588). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  49. Kinlock, T. W., Battjes, R. J., & Schwartz, R. P. (2005). A novel opioid maintenance program for prisoners: Report of post-release outcomes. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(3), 433–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Knight, K., Simpson, D. D., Chatham, L. R., & Camacho, L. M. (1997). An assessment of prison-based drug treatment: Texas’ in-prison therapeutic community program. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 24(3/4), 75–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Knight, K., Simpson, D. D., & Hiller, M. L. (1999). Three-year reincarceration outcomes for in-prison therapeutic community treatment in Texas. The Prison Journal, 79(3), 337–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Leukefeld, C., Tims, F., & Farabee, D. (Eds.). (2002). Treatment of drug offenders. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  53. Lieber, C. S. (1993). Women and alcohol: Gender differences in metabolism and susceptibility. In E. S. L. Gomberg & T. D. Nirenberg (Eds.), Women and substance abuse (pp. 1–17). Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
  54. Lipton, D. S. (1998, October). Therapeutic communities: History, effectiveness and prospects. Corrections Today. Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6399/is_n6_v60/ai_n28712553/
  55. Lipton, D. S., Falkin, G. P., & Wexler, H. K. (1992). Correctional drug abuse treatment in the United States: An overview. In C. G. Leukefeld & F. M. Tims (Eds.), Drug abuse treatment in prisons and jails (NIDA Research Monograph 118, pp. 8–30). Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  56. MacKenzie, D. L., & Herbert, E. E. (1996). Correctional boot camps: A tough intermediate sanction. National Institute of Justice Research Report. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  57. Maude-Griffin, P. M., Hohenstein, J. M., Humfleet, G. L., Reilly, P. M., Tusel, D. J., & Hall, S. M. (1998). Superior efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for crack cocaine abusers: Main and matching effects. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 66, 832–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mayer, M. (1999). Race to incarcerate: The sentencing project. New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  59. McLellan, T. (2009, April 20). What’s wrong with addiction treatment: What could help? Paper presentation, Robert Straus Distinguished Speaker Lecture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.Google Scholar
  60. Miller, W. R. (1995). Motivational enhancement therapy with drug abusers. The University of New Mexico, Department of Psychology and Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions (CASAA). Retrieved August 25, 2007, from http://motivationalinterview.org/clinical/METDrugAbuse.PDF
  61. Minton, T. D., & Sabol, W. J. (2009). Jail inmates at midyear 2009 – Statistical tables (Publication No. 225709). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  62. Mitchell, O., Wilson, D. B., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2007). Does incarceration-based drug treatment reduce recidivism? A meta-analytic synthesis of the research. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 3, 352–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mumola, C. J. (1999). Substance abuse and treatment, state and federal prisoners, 1997 (Publication No. 172871). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  64. Mumola, C. J., & Bonczar, T. (1998). Substance abuse and treatment of adults on probation, 1995 (Publication No. 166611). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  65. Mumola, C. J., & Karberg, J. C. (2006). Drug use and dependence, state and federal prisoners, 2004 (Publication No. 213530). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  66. National Institute on Drug and Alcohol Abuse. (1999). Principles of drug addiction treatment: A research-based guide (Publication No. 0-4180). Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  67. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2006). Principles of drug abuse treatment for criminal justice populations: A research-based guide (Publication No. 6-5316). Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  68. National Survey on Drug Use and Health. (2007). National survey on drug use and health [Computer file]. ICPSR23782-v2 (United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies). Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2009-08-12. doi:10.3886/ICPSR23782.Google Scholar
  69. O’Brien, P. (2001). Making it in the “free world.” Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  70. Office of Justice Programs. (2009). Growth in prison and jail populations slowing: 16 states report declines in the number of prisoners. Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice (Press release). Retrieved August 9, 2009, from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs
  71. Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2009). ADAMII: 2008 Annual report: Arrestee drug abuse monitoring program. Washington, DC: Abt Assoicates, Inc. Retrieved October 22, 2009, from http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/pdf/adam2008.pdf Google Scholar
  72. Parsons, M. L., & Warner-Robbins, C. (2002). Factors that support women’s successful transition to the community following jail/prison. Health Care for Women International, 23, 6–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pearson, F. S., & Lipton, D. S. (1999). A meta-analytic review of the effectiveness of corrections-based treatment for drug abuse. The Prison Journal, 79, 384–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Prendergast, M. (2009). Intervention to promote successful re-entry among drug-abusing parolees. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 5(1), 4–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Prendergast, M. L., Hall, E. A., Wexler, H. K., Melnick, G., & Cao, Y. (2004). Amity prison-based therapeutic community: 5-year outcomes. The Prison Journal, 84(1), 36–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Prendergast, M., Podus, D., Finney, J., Greenwell, L., & Roll, J. (2006). Contingency management for treatment of substance use disorders: A meta analysis. Addiction, 101, 1546–1560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ramchand, R., Pacula, R. L., & Iguchi, M. Y. (2006). Racial differences in marijuana-users’ risk of arrest in the United States. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 84, 264–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rohsenow, D. J., Monti, P. M., Martin, R. A., Colby, S. M., Myers, M. G., Gulliver, S. B., et al. (2004). Motivational enhancement and coping skills training for cocaine abusers: Effects on substance use outcomes. Addiction, 99, 862–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Roll, J. M., Prendergast, M. L., Sorensen, K., Prakash, S., & Chudzynski, J. E. (2005). A comparison of voucher exchanges between criminal justice involved and noninvolved participants enrolled in voucher based contingency management drug abuse treatment programs. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31, 393–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ross, P. H., & Lawrence, J. E. (1998). Health care for women offenders. Corrections Today, 60, 122–127.Google Scholar
  81. Sabol, W. J., & Couture, H. (2008). Prison inmates at midyear 2007 (Publication No. 221944). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  82. Sacks, J. Y. (2004). Women with co-occurring substance use and mental disorders (COD) in the criminal justice system: A research review. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 22, 449–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Scalia, J. (2001). Federal drug offenders, 1999 (Publication No. 187285). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  84. Smoyer, A., & Blankenship, K. M. (2004). Drug policy: Definition, discussion, and state variation. New Haven, CT: Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS.Google Scholar
  85. Sprang, G., Kaak, H. O., Staton-Tindall, M., Clark, J., Hubbard, K., Whitt-Woosley, A., et al. (2009). A response from the field: Perspectives on translating neuroscience to clinical practice. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 14(4), 315–346.Google Scholar
  86. Staton-Tindall, M., Duvall, J. L., Leukefeld, C., & Oser, C. B. (2007). Health, mental health, substance use, and service utilization among rural and urban incarcerated women. Women’s Health Issues, 17, 183–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stephens, R. S., Roffman, R. A., Fearer, S. A., Williams, C., & Burke, R. S. (2007). The Marijuana check-up: Promoting change in ambivalent marijuana users. Addiction, 102, 947–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2001). The DASIS report. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved August 4, 2009, from http://www.dasis.samhsa.gov.99ufds/Resource-556/t35.htm
  89. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2008). Results from the 2007 National survey on drug use and health: National findings (NSDUH Series H-34, DHHS Publication No. SMA 08-4343). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies.Google Scholar
  90. Treatment Episode Dataset. (2007). Treatment episode data set – Admissions (TEDS-A), 2007 [Computer file]. ICPSR24280-v3 (United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies). Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2009-09-15. doi:10.3886/ICPSR24280.Google Scholar
  91. Uniform Crime Reports. (2002). Crime in the United States, 2002. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation.Google Scholar
  92. van Kammen, W. B., & Loeber, R. (1994). Are fluctuations in delinquent activities related to the onset and offset in juvenile illegal drug use and drug dealing? Journal of Drug Issues, 24(1/2), 9–25.Google Scholar
  93. Wanberg, K. W., & Milkman, H. B. (1999). Criminal conduct and substance abuse treatment: Strategies for self-improvement and change: The participant’s workbook. Thousand Oakes, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  94. West, H. C., & Sabol, W. J. (2009). Prison inmates at midyear 2008 – Statistical tables (Publication No. 225619). Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  95. Wexler, H. K., Melnick, G., Lowe, L., & Peters, J. (1999). Three-year reincarceration outcomes for Amity in-prison therapeutic community and aftercare in California. The Prison Journal, 79(3), 321–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yochelson, S., & Samenow, S. E. (1976). The criminal personality, Volume I: A profile for change. New York: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Staton-Tindall
    • 1
  • Jennifer R. Havens
    • 2
  • Carrie B. Oser
    • 3
  • Mary Carroll Burnett
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Social WorkCenter on Drug and Alcohol Research, University of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Behavioral ScienceCenter on Drug and Alcohol Research, University of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of SociologyCenter on Drug and Alcohol Research, University of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  4. 4.University of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations