Concluding Observations: The Big Picture

  • Josine Junger-Tas
  • Dirk EnzmannEmail author
  • Majone Steketee
  • Ineke Haen Marshall


This final chapter wants to accomplish three objectives. First, we provide an overview of the main findings of the study. Then, in order to place our findings in a wider theoretical context, we report on the results of a multilevel analysis of the data. The central question in the multilevel analysis is to determine if there are similarities or differences between the ISRD countries in terms of the influence of the variables associated with the four main theoretical perspectives utilized in this study. The third part of the chapter speculates about the implications of our study, both theoretically as well as from the perspective of policy.


Human Development Index Delinquent Behavior Violent Offense Deviant Peer Parental Supervision 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josine Junger-Tas
    • 2
  • Dirk Enzmann
    • 1
    Email author
  • Majone Steketee
    • 3
  • Ineke Haen Marshall
    • 4
  1. 1.University of HamburgHamburgGermany
  2. 2.University of UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Verwey-Jonker InstituteUtrechtNetherlands
  4. 4.Northeastern UniversityBostonUSA

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