This is the incredible story of how a couple of decades ago an entire academic discipline fell under the spell of an inherently improbable hypothesis, the advocates of which succeeded in neutralizing almost all academic dissent; and how it eventually, against considerable odds, began to unravel. The conditions required to sustain the African Eve hypothesis are quite obvious and precise:
1. Because Graciles and Robusts are purported to be different species, they need to be sharply separated in the paleoanthropological record by distinguishing morphological features.
2. For the same reason the genetic signatures immediately before and after the claimed replacement need to be sufficiently different to indicate separate species.