Distinguishing between Fertilization Failure and Early Pregnancy Loss when Identifying Male-Mediated Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes
Successful reproduction depends upon the precise orchestration of many physiological processes. With respect to male reproductive performance, normal copulatory behavior and ejaculatory function are required to insure that semen is deposited in the female tract. Then, a sufficient number of sperm must reach the site of fertilization at the optimal time for the oocyte to be fertilized, and those sperm that reach the oocyte must be capable of fertilizing the egg (binding and penetrating the zona pellucida and fusing with the oolemma). Finally, the fused spermatozoon must be intact genetically in order to support normal embryonic and postnatal development.
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