Advertisement

Three Dimensional Ultrasound Analysis of Fascicle Orientation in Human Tibialis Anterior Muscle Enables Analysis of Macroscopic Torque at the Cellular Level

  • T. Hiblar
  • E. L. Bolson
  • M. Hubka
  • F. H. Sheehan
  • M. J. Kushmerick
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 538)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the internal structure of the bipennate human tibialis anterior muscle is sufficiently homogenous throughout the muscle that the cellular stresses could be interpreted correctly from measurable anatomic properties and torque in the limb. This result is needed for facile comparison of extrinsic mechanical data and intrinsic energetic fluxes. Three-dimensional imaging of the fascicles of the human tibialis anterior muscle was made by capturing a series of ultrasound images while registering their location in space. Subsequent tracing of hundreds of structures in the ultrasound images with the use of custom software identified muscle boundaries, tendon surfaces, and fascicles as anatomic elements in 3-D space. The tendon was reconstructed as a mesh through the tracings identified as a component of the tendon. The angle of insertion of each identified fascicle at the tendon was calculated against the nearest normal in the mesh of the tendon. In three subjects the average angle of insertion of the fascicles onto the internal tendon was 11° (coefficient of variation 40%). The angle decreased along the length of the muscle from ∼ 15° near the belly of the muscle to 6° near the ankle in fascicles superior and inferior to the central tendon. The angle increased by several degrees during a voluntary contraction. Despite the differences in angles of insertion that can be measured, these distinctions have little significance for the distribution of forces along cellular axes within the muscle: the angles, their distribution within the muscle and change with contraction are small. For his bipennate muscle the cosine of the angle of insertion of the cellular bundles is always close to unity. Thus measurements of whole muscle mechanical data are simply related to mechanical stress of its cells.

Keywords

Maximal Voluntary Contraction Human Muscle Tibialis Anterior Muscle Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction Muscle Fascicle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Fukunaga, T., Y. Ichinose, et al. (1997). “Determination of fascicle length and pennation in a contracting human muscle in vivo.” J Appl Physiol 82(1): 354–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Fukunaga, T., R. R. Roy, et al. (1992). “Physiological cross-sectional area of human leg muscles based on magnetic resonance imaging.” J Orthop Res 10(6): 928–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hoy, M. G., F. E. Zajac, et al. (1990). “A musculoskeletal model of the human lower extremity: the effect of muscle, tendon, and moment arm on the moment-angle relationship of musculotendonactuators at the hip, knee, and ankle.” J Biomech 23(2): 157–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ito, M., Y. Kawakami, et al. (1998). “Nonisometric behavior of fascicles during isometric contractions of a human muscle.” J Appl Physiol 85(4): 1230–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Kanehisa, H., S. Ikegawa, et al. (1994). “Comparison of muscle cross-sectional area and strength between Koh, untrained women and men.” Eur J Appl Physiol 68(2): 148–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. T. J. and W. Herzog (1998). “Increasing the moment arm of the tibialis anterior induces structural and Legget, functional adaptation: implications for tendon transfer.” J Biomech 31(7): 593–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. M. E., D. F. Leotta, et al. (1998). “System for Quantitative Three-Dimensional Echocardiography of the Left Ventricle Based on a Magnetic-Field Position and Orientation Sensing System.” IEEE Biomed. Engineering 45(4): 494–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Maganaris, C. N., V. Baltzopoulos, et al. (1998). “In vivo measurements of the triceps surae complex architecture in man: implications for muscle function.” J Physiol 512(Pt 2): 603–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Maganaris, C. N., V. Baltzopoulos, et al. (1999). “Changes in the tibialis anterior tendon moment arm from rest to maximum isometric dorsiflexion: in vivo observations in man.” Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 14(9): 661–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Maganaris, C. N. and J. P. Paul (1999). “In vivo human tendon mechanical properties.” J. Physiol. 521: 307–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Muramatsu, T., T. Muraoka, et al. (2002). “In vivo determination of fascicle curvature in contracting human skeletal muscles.” J Appl Physiol 92(1): 129–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Narici, M. (1999). “Human skeletal muscle architecture studied in vivo by non-invasive imaging techniques: functional significance and applications.” J Electromyogr Kinesiol 9(2): 97–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Narici, M. V., T. Binzoni, et al. (1994). “Human gastrocnemius muscle architecture from rest to the contracted state.” Journal of Physiology 475: 17 P.Google Scholar
  14. Rugg, S. G., R. J. Gregor, et al. (1990). “In vivo moment arm calculations at the ankle using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).” J Biomech 23(5): 495–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sheehan, F. H., E. L. Bolson, et al. (1998). “Three Dimensional Echocardiography System for Quantitative Analysis of the Left Ventricle.” IEEE Computers in Cardiology 25: 649–652.Google Scholar
  16. Spoor, C. W., J. L. Van Leeuwen, et al. (1990). “Estimation of the instantaneous moment arms of lower-leg muscles.” J. Biomechanics 23(12): 1247–1259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Spoor, C. W., J. L. Van Leeuwen, et al. (1991). “Active Force-Length Relationship of Human Lower-leg 29(3): Muscles Estimated from Morphological Data: a Comparison of Geometric Muscle Models.” Europ. J. Van Morphol. 137–160.Google Scholar
  18. Leeuwen, J. L. and C. W. Spoor (1992). “Modelling mechanically stable muscle architectures.” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 336: 275–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Van Leeuwen, J. L. and C. W. Spoor (1993). “Modelling the pressure and force equilibrium in unipennate van muscles with in-line tendons.” Philos Trans R Soc Lond [Biol] 342(1302): 321–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leeuwen, J. L. and C. W. Spoor (1996). “A Two Dimensional Model for the Prediction of Muscle Shape and. Intramuscular Pressure.” Europ. J. Morphol. 34(1): 15–30.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Hiblar
  • E. L. Bolson
  • M. Hubka
  • F. H. Sheehan
  • M. J. Kushmerick
    • 1
  1. 1.University of WashingtonSeattleWashington

Personalised recommendations