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Tropospheric Ozone and Plants: Absorption, Responses, and Consequences

  • Kyoungwon Cho
  • Supriya Tiwari
  • S. B. Agrawal
  • N. L. Torres
  • Madhoolika Agrawal
  • Abhijit Sarkar
  • Junko Shibato
  • Ganesh K. Agrawal
  • Akihiro Kubo
  • Randeep Rakwal
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 212)

Abstract

Ozone (O3) is known to have existed in the atmosphere since ancient times and has played a critical role in the survival of life on the Earth. In the stratosphere, O3 plays an extremely important and beneficial role in screening the lower layers of the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth from the sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the troposphere, and especially near the surface of the Earth, O3 is not beneficial. Ozone has been shown to be harmful to human health, vegetation and crop productivity (Dentener et al. 2006). In the past few decades, tropospheric O3 has emerged as a major secondary ­pollutant due to increased emissions of its precursors, e.g., nitrogen oxides (NO x ; x  =  1 or 2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (Ashmore 2005). High concentrations of O3 are associated with hot sunny weather. Such high concentrations of O3 are frequently observed in tropical areas where conditions are favorable for O3 formation (Jain et al. 2005; Tiwari et al. 2008). The adverse effects of O3 were first identified in grapevines (Richards et al. 1958), and it is now recognized as the most important rural air pollutant affecting human health, vegetation, or material that is susceptible to oxidation (Ashmore 2005; Fuhrer and Booker 2003; Karnosky et al. 2007; Karlsson et al. 2003; Laurence and Andersen 2003; Matyssek and Sandermann 2003).

Keywords

Relative Yield Loss Apoplastic Ascorbate Biphasic Oxidative Burst 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

ST, SBA, MA, and AS are thankful to CSIR, DST, MOEn, and UGC, Government of India for the financial support. KC, JS, and AK of NIES also appreciate the support by the Global Environment Research Fund (A-0806) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan. RR also acknowledges the support of Professors Seiji Shioda (Showa University) and Yoshinori Masuo (Toho University) in promoting interdisciplinary research and unselfish encouragement.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyoungwon Cho
  • Supriya Tiwari
  • S. B. Agrawal
  • N. L. Torres
  • Madhoolika Agrawal
  • Abhijit Sarkar
  • Junko Shibato
  • Ganesh K. Agrawal
  • Akihiro Kubo
  • Randeep Rakwal
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Research Laboratory for Biotechnology and Biochemistry (RLABB)KathmanduNepal
  2. 2.School of MedicineShowa UniversityShinagawaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceToho UniversityFunabashiJapan

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