Frontiers in Molecular Imaging of Cartilage: Future Developments

  • Ravinder Reddy
  • Arijitt Borthakur
  • Walter R. T. Witschey
  • J. Bruce Kneeland


Recent research has led to the development of drugs that, in animal models, have shown the potential of protecting against the breakdown of macromolecules in cartilage, effectively halting the progression of OA. Because of the long natural history of OA (10–20 years in humans), validating the efficacy of these drugs over the natural course of the disease is not feasible. Instead, what is needed is a validated noninvasive imaging biomarker that can directly assess their effect on molecular changes associated with early stages of cartilage degeneration that precede morphological changes.


Biomarkers Cartilage Chemical exchange ­saturation transfer (CEST) Developments Future Frontiers Imaging pulse sequences Molecular imaging 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ravinder Reddy
    • 1
  • Arijitt Borthakur
  • Walter R. T. Witschey
  • J. Bruce Kneeland
  1. 1.Department of Radiology, School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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