Advertisement

The Market as Criminal and Criminals in the Market: Reducing Opportunities for Organised Crime in the International Antiquities Market

  • Simon Mackenzie
Chapter

Abstract

What is the relationship between organised crime and the antiquities market? There are two senses in which we can use the term “organised crime” here. In the first sense, we can see the international market in illicit antiquities as a criminal market (Polk 2000), organised into a structure of relations between thieves, smugglers, facilitators, sellers, and buyers of illicit commodities. We might therefore suggest that this illicit part of the trade is an example of “organised” crime. That argument could proceed without reference to the presence of conventionally stereotyped organised criminals in the market, in the sense of groups or networks of professional criminals who use violence and corruption in the pursuit of illegal financial gain.

Keywords

Organise Criminal Organise Crime Cultural Object Market Country Sector Vulnerability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Albanese, J. S. (1987). Predicting the Incidence of Organized Crime: A Preliminary Model. In Bynum, T. (ed.), Organized Crime in America: Concepts and Controversies. New York: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  2. Albanese, J. S. (1995). Where Organized and White-Collar Crime Meet: Predicting the Infiltration of Legitimate Business. In Albanese, J. S. (ed.), Contemporary Issues in Organized Crime. New York: Criminal Justice Press.Google Scholar
  3. Albanese, J. S. (2008). Risk Assessment in Organized Crime: Developing a Market and Product-Based Model to Determine Threat Levels. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(3), 263–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bator, P. M. (1983). The International Trade in Art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bowman, B. A. (2008). Transnational Crimes Against Culture: Looting at Archaeological Sites and the “Grey” Market in Antiquities. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(3), 225–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brodie, N. (2009). Consensual Relations? Academic Involvement in the Illegal Trade in Ancient Manuscripts. In Mackenzie, S., Green, P. (eds.), Criminology and Archaeology: Studies in Looted Antiquities. Oxford: Hart.Google Scholar
  7. Brodie, N., Doole, J., Watson, P. (2000). Stealing History: The Illicit Trade in Cultural Material. Cambridge: The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  8. Brodie, N., Doole, J., Renfrew, C. (eds.) (2001). Trade in Illicit Antiquities: The Destruction of the World’s Archaeological Heritage. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, S. (2001). States of Denial: Knowing About Atrocities and Suffering. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, L. E., Felson, M. (1979). Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Department for Culture Media and Sport (2004). Dealing in Tainted Cultural Objects: Guidance on the Dealing in Cultural Objects (Offences) Act 2003 (DCMS Cultural Property Unit Publication PP639). London: DCMS.Google Scholar
  12. Edwards, A., Gill, P. (2002). Crime as Enterprise? The Case of Transnational Organised Crime. Crime, Law and Social Change, 37(3), 203–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Edwards, A., Gill, P. (2003). Introduction. In Edwards, A., Gill, P. (eds.), Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global Security. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Elia, R. J. (1994). The World Cannot Afford Many More Collectors with a Passion for Antiquities. The Art Newspaper, 41(October), 19.Google Scholar
  15. Felson, M. (1994). Crime and Everyday Life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  16. Gerstenblith, P. (2007). Controlling the International Market in Antiquities: Reducing the Harm, Preserving the Past. Chicago Journal of International Law, 8(1), 167–195.Google Scholar
  17. Kaye, L. M., Main, C. T. (1995). The Saga of the Lydian Hoard: From Ushak to New York and Back Again. In Tubb, K. W. (ed.), Antiquities Trade or Betrayed: Legal, Ethical and Conservation Issues (150–161). London: Archetype.Google Scholar
  18. Kersel, M. M. (2006). From the Ground to the Buyer: A Market Analysis of the Trade in Illegal Antiquities. In Brodie, N., Kersel, M. M., Luke, C., Walker Tubb, K. (eds.), Archaeology, Cultural Heritage and the Antiquities Trade (188–205). Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
  19. Mackenzie, S. (2002a). Illicit Antiquities, Criminological Theory and the Deterrent Power of Criminal Sanctions for Targeted Populations. Art Antiquity and Law, 7(2), 125–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mackenzie, S. (2002b). Regulating the Market in Illicit Antiquities (Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice No. 239). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.Google Scholar
  21. Mackenzie, S. (2005a). Dig a Bit Deeper: Law, Regulation and the Illicit Antiquities Market. British Journal of Criminology, 45, 249–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mackenzie, S. (2005b). Going, Going, Gone: Regulating the Market in Illicit Antiquities. Leicester: Institute of Art and Law.Google Scholar
  23. Mackenzie, S. (2006). Psychosocial Balance Sheets: Illicit Purchase Decisions in the Antiquities Market. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, 18(2), 221–240.Google Scholar
  24. Mackenzie, S. (2007). Transnational Crime, Local Denial. Social Justice, 34(2), 111–124.Google Scholar
  25. Mackenzie, S., Green, P. (2008). Performative Regulation: A Case Study in How Powerful People Avoid Criminal Labels. British Journal of Criminology, 48(2), 138–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mackenzie, S., Green, P. (2009). Criminalising the Market in Illicit Antiquities: An Evaluation of the Dealing in Cultural Objects (Offences) Act 2003 in England and Wales. In Mackenzie, S., Green, P. (eds.), Criminology and Archaeology: Studies in Looted Antiquities. Oxford: Hart.Google Scholar
  27. McBarnet, D. (2003). When Compliance is Not the Solution but the Problem: From Changes in Law to Changes in Attitude. In Braithwaite, V. (ed.), Taxing Democracy: Understanding Tax Avoidance and Evasion. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  28. McBarnet, D. (2006). After Enron will “Whiter than White Collar Crime” Still Wash? British Journal of Criminology, 46(6), 1091–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Murphy, J. D. (1995). Plunder and Preservation: Cultural Property Law and Practice in the People’s Republic of China. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. O’Keefe, P. J. (1997). Trade in Antiquities: Reducing Destruction and Theft. London: Archetype.Google Scholar
  31. Palmer, N. (1994). Recovering Stolen Art. Current Legal Problems, 47, 215–254.Google Scholar
  32. Polk, K. (2000). The Antiquities Trade Viewed as a Criminal Market. Hong Kong Lawyer, September, 82.Google Scholar
  33. Polk, K. (2002). Controlling the Traffic in Illicit Antiquities: Are Criminal Sanctions Appropriate? Paper presented at the Implementation of the UNESCO 1970 Convention conference. London: Department for Culture Media and Sport.Google Scholar
  34. Renfrew, C. (1993). Collectors Are the Real Looters. Archaeology, 46(3), 16–17.Google Scholar
  35. Renfrew, C. (1999). Loot, Legitimacy and Ownership: The Ethical Crisis in Archaeology. Amsterdam: Joh. Enschede.Google Scholar
  36. Schneider, J. L. (2008). Reducing the Illicit Trade in Endangered Wildlife: The Market Reduction Approach. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(3), 274–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Smith Jr., D. C. (1980). Paragons, Pariahs and Pirates: A Spectrum-Based Theory of Enterprise. Crime and Delinquency, 26(3), 358–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stead, I. M. (1998). The Salisbury Hoard. Gloucestershire: Tempus.Google Scholar
  39. Sutton, M. (1998). Handling Stolen Goods & Theft: A Market Reduction Approach (Home Office Research Study 178). London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  40. Sutton, M., Schneider, J., Hetherington, S. (2001). Tackling Theft with the Market Reduction Approach (Crime Reduction Research Series Paper 8). London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  41. Sykes, G. M., Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of Neutralisation: A Theory of Delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22, 664–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. van de Bunt, H. G., van der Schoot, C. R. A. (2003). Prevention of Organised Crime: A Situational Approach. Den Haag: WODC.Google Scholar
  43. Vander Beken, T. (2004). Risky Business: A Risk-Based Methodology to Measure Organized Crime. Crime, Law and Social Change, 41, 471–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vander Beken, T. (ed.) (2005). Organised Crime and Vulnerability of Economic Sectors: The European Transport and Music Sector. Antwerp: Maklu.Google Scholar
  45. Vander Beken, T. (ed.) (2007a). The European Pharmaceutical Sector and Crime Vulnerabilities. Antwerp: Maklu.Google Scholar
  46. Vander Beken, T. (ed.) (2007b). The European Waste Industry and Crime Vulnerabilities. Antwerp: Maklu.Google Scholar
  47. Vander Beken, T., Defruytier, M. (2004). Methodological Tools for Assessing the Risk of Organised Crime. In van Duyne, P. C., Jager, M., von Lampe, K., Newell, J. T. (eds.), Threats and Phantoms of Organised Crime, Corruption and Terrorism: Rhetoric and Critical Perspectives. Nijmegen: Wolf Legal.Google Scholar
  48. Vander Beken, T., Van Daele, S. (2008). Legitimate Businesses and Crime Vulnerabilities. International Journal of Social Economics, 35(10), 739–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Watson, P. (1997). Sotheby’s: The Inside Story. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice ResearchUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

Personalised recommendations