Principles of Combining ISCO with Other In Situ Remedial Approaches
Interactions between in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) and other in situ remediation technologies, and optional approaches for coupling ISCO with bioremediation, surfactant/cosolvent flushing, air sparging, or thermal treatment.
ISCO applied in combination with other remedial technologies, particularly when plans are formulated prior to implementing a remedy, may provide significant benefit over ISCO alone.
Enhanced in situ bioremediation and monitored natural attenuation are most frequently combined with ISCO.
ISCO may temporarily decrease aerobic and anaerobic microbial abundance and diversity, but these typically rebound with time.
ISCO combined with surfactants or cosolvents may enhance contaminant removal, though chemical compatibility of remedial agents must be considered.
Air sparging and thermal methods may interact synergistically with ISCO, while in situ chemical reduction acts in opposition to ISCO.
KeywordsPolycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Reductive Dechlorination Permeable Reactive Barrier Permanganate Oxidation Nonaqueous Phase Liquid
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