Coloring Soybeans with Anthocyanins?
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The seed coats of black soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) accumulate all anthocyanins required for the red (cyanidin-), blue (delphinidin-), purple (petunidin-), and orange (pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside) coloration of plant tissues. Metabolic engineering of anthocyanin biosynthesis in black soybean may potentially be used to generate distinct colors for the visible identification of transgenic seeds. Presently the causal agents of black coloration in soybean seed coats are speculative, and factors such as anthocyanic vacuolar inclusions (AVIs), co-pigmentation, and oxidation are likely involved in generating the black phenotype. This chapter is a perspective on anthocyanin biosynthesis in black soybean, the present understanding of black coloration in plant tissues, and potential strategies for engineering seed colors in light of substantial equivalence.
KeywordsSeed Coat Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Seed Color Seed Coat Color Black Soybean
The authors thank Dr. Ammar Saleem (University of Ottawa) for his assistance with HPLC, Dr. Shea Miller for performing the microscopy, and Drs. Malcolm Morrison and Elroy Cober (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) for providing seeds and for their helpful discussions. We would also like to thank the reviewers for their helpful suggestions. The research was supported by an NSERC Discovery Grant and AAFC project (RBPI 126) to BM.
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