Innovative Assessment for the 21st Century pp 75-100 | Cite as

# Using Evidence Centered Design to Think About Assessments

## Abstract

Evidence-centered assessment design (ECD) provides a simple principle as the basis of assessment design: assessment tasks should be designed to provide evidence of the claims which the assessment designers wish to make about the examinees. This paper looks at the Bayesian model of evidence which underlies much of the ECD philosophy. It then goes on to explore how the ECD principle can help assessment designers think about three important issues in the future of assessment: (1) How can we organize evidence about student performance gathered from diverse sources across multiple time points? (2) How should we balance information gathered about multiple aspects of proficiency? (3) How should we collect evidence from complex tasks? The chapter illustrates these ideas with some examples of advanced assessments that have used ECD.

## Keywords

Evidence-centered assessment design Decision analysis Constructed response Diagnostic assessment## Notes

### Acknowledgments

Evidence-centered assessment design was originally a three-way collaboration between myself, Bob Mislevy and Linda Steinberg. Although this work represents my perspective on ECD, much of my perspective has become sufficiently mixed with ideas that originated with Bob or Linda. Similarly, my perspective has been expanded by discussions with too many colleagues to mention. Malcolm Bauer, Dan Eigner, Yoon-Jeon Kim, and Thomas Quinlan made numerous suggestions that helped improve the clarity of this chapter.

Any opinions expressed in this chapter are those of the author and not necessarily of Educational Testing Service.

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