Memory T Cells pp 178-188 | Cite as

Analysis of Vaccine-Induced T Cells in Humans with Cancer

  • Stefanie L. Slezak
  • Andrea Worschech
  • Ena Wang
  • David F Stroncek
  • Francesco M. Marincola
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 684)


Over the past several years, progress in the field of tumor immunology has lead to advances in active immunotherapy and vaccination as a means of eliciting tumor-specific immune responses to mediate tumor regression and clearance. Developing vaccines targeted against cancer became an important focus as a therapy following the success of viral vaccines in preventing infection and disease. In humans with cancer, similar to viral infections, the host immune system is capable of recognizing antigens expressed on tumor cells. This similarity allows the immunological framework of the viral vaccine to be adapted to the cancer setting in hopes of enhancing human T-cell reactivity against tumor.1 It is generally believed that a requirement for tumor destruction to occur is the induction of sufficient levels of immune cells with high avidity for recognition of tumor antigens. Moreover, the cells must be targeted to the tumor site and be capable of infiltrating tumor stroma.2 Several tumor-associated antigens (TAA) have been identified in the melanoma model which has allowed for immunization trials to evaluate therapeutic potential of tumor-specific T-cell induction. Some clinical trials reported limited success of T-cell mediated tumor rejection, reporting partial or complete regression in 10 to 30% of patients.3 Although tumor regression was not observed following active immunization in vivo, ex vivo assays evaluating TAA-specific T cells demonstrated tumor recognition and subsequent T-cell activation suggesting that tumor-specific T-cell induction indeed occurs but alone is not adequate to induce tumor regression.1 Recently, the usefulness and success of active-specific immunization (ASI) against TAAs as a means of eliciting a tumor-specific immune response leading to tumor regression and clearance has been a topic of debate and discussion.


Basal Cell Carcinoma Melanoma Patient Cancer Vaccine Immune Monitoring Clinical Regression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefanie L. Slezak
    • 1
  • Andrea Worschech
    • 1
  • Ena Wang
    • 1
  • David F Stroncek
    • 1
  • Francesco M. Marincola
    • 1
  1. 1.Infectious Disease and Immunogenetics Section Chief, Department of Transfusion Medicine, Clinical CenterNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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