Signal Processing for High-Speed Links

  • Naresh Shanbhag
  • Andrew Singer
  • Hyeon-min Bae


The steady growth in demand for bandwidth has resulted in data-rates in the 10s of Gb/s in back-plane and optical channels. Such high-speed links suffer from impairments such as dispersion, noise and nonlinearities. Due to the difficulty in implementing multi-Gb/s transmitters and receivers in silicon, conventionally, high-speed links were implemented primarily with analog circuits employing minimal signal processing. However, the relentless scaling of feature sizes exemplified by Moore’s Law has enabled the application of sophisticated signal processing techniques to both back-plane and optical links employing mixed analog and digital architectures and circuits. As a result, over the last decade, signal processing has emerged as a key technology to the advancement of low-cost, high data-rate, backplane and optical communication systems. In this chapter, we provide an overview of some of the driving factors that limit the performance of high-speed links, and highlight some of the potential opportunities for the signal processing and circuits community to make substantial contributions in the modeling, design and implementation of these systems.


Survivor Path Chromatic Dispersion Polarization Mode Dispersion Optical Link Decision Feedback Equalizaer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    L. D. Paulson, “The ins and outs of new local I/O trends,” IEEE Computer Magazine, July 2003.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    R. Narasimha and N. R. Shanbhag, “Forward error-correction for high-speed I/O,” Proceedings of the 42th Annual Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. Blitvic, M. Lee, and V. Stojanović, “Channel coding for high-speed links: A systematic look at code performance and system simulation,” IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, pp. 268–279, May 2009.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.-J. Lee, W. J. Dally, and P. Chiang, “Low-power area-efficient high-speed i/o circuit techniques,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, pp. 1591–1599, November 2000.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. E. Jaussi, G. Balamurugan, D. R. Johnson, B. Casper, A. Martin, J. Kennedy, N. Shanbhag, and R. Mooney, “8-Gb/s source-synchronous I/O link with adaptive receiver equalization, offset cancellation, and clock de-skew,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, pp. 80–88, January 2005.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Singer, N. R. Shanbhag, and H.-M. Bae, “Electronic dispersion compensation,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, pp. 110–130, November 2008.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    G. E. Keiser, Optical Fiber Communications. McGraw-Hill International Editions: Electrical Engineering Series, 2000.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems. Wiley-Interscience, 2002.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Peters, A. Dori, and F. Kapron, “Bellcore’s fiber measurement audit of existing cable plant for use with high bandwidth systems,” Proc. of the NFOEC-97, September 1997.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Karlsson, “Probability density functions of the differential group delay in optical fiber communication systems,” IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 19, pp. 324–332, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    G. Papen and R. Blahut, Lightwave Communication Systems. 2005. draft.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    H. M. Bae, J. Ashbrook, J. Park, N. Shanbhag, A. C. Singer, and S. Chopra, “An MLSE receiver for electronic-dispersion compensation of OC-192 links,” Journal of Solid State Circuits, vol. 41, pp. 2541–2554, November 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Farbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, J.-P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, and C. Glingener, “Performance of a 10.7 Gb/s receiver with digital equaliser using maximum likelihood sequence estimation,” ECOC’2004 Proceedings, pp. PD-Th4.1.5, 2004.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Harwood, et al., “A 12.5 Gb/s SerDes in 65nm CMOS using a baud-rate ADC with digital receiver equalization and clock recovery,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, February 2007.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    O. Agazzi, et al., “A 90nm CMOS DSP MLSD transceiver with integrated AFE for electronic dispersion compensation of multi-mode optical fibers at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference, 2008.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Cao, et al., “A 500mW digitally calibrated AFE in 65nm CMOS for 10Gb/s serial links over backplane and multimode fiber,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, February 2009.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Stojanović, A. Amirkhany, and M. A. Horowitz, “Optimal linear precoding with theoretical and practical data rates in high-speed serial link back-plane communications,” IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, 2004.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    G. Balamurugan and N. R. Shanbhag, “Modeling and mitigation of jitter in multi-gbps sourcesynchronous I/O links,” Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer Design, October 2003.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Humblet and M. Azizoglu, “On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 9, pp. 1576–1582, November 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Stonick, G.-Y. Wei, J. L. Sonntag, and D. K. Weinlader, “An adaptive PAM-4 5-Gb/s backplane transceiver in 0.25μm CMOS,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, pp. 436–443, March 2003.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. Yamaguchi and et al., “12Gb/s duobinary signaling with x2 oversampled edge equalization,” IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, February 2005.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. Lee, M.-S. Chen, and H.-D. Wang, “Design and comparison of three 20-Gb/s backplane transceivers for duobinary, PAM4, and NRZ data,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, pp. 2120–2133, September 2008.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. Franck, P. B. Hansen, T. N. Nielsen, and L. Eskildsen, “Duobinary transmitter with low intersymbol interference,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, pp. 597–599, April 1998.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Qureshi, “Adaptive equalization,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 73, pp. 1349 - 1387, September 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. BiChan and A. C. Carusone, “A 6.5 Gb/s backplane transmitter with 6-tap FIR equalizer and variable tap spacing,” IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, 2008.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Q. Yu and A. Shanbhag, “Electronic data processing for error and dispersion compensation,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 24, pp. 4514 - 4525, December 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Winters and R. Gitlin, “Electrical signal processing techniques in long-haul fiber optic systems,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, pp. 1439–1453, September 1990.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Benedetto, E. Bigliere, and V. Castellani, Digital Transmission Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1987.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L.R. Bahl et al., “Optimal decoding of linear codes for minimizing symbol error rate,” IEEE Trans. on Information Theory, vol. 20, pp. 284–287, March 1974.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. Forney, “Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of digital sequences in the presence of intersymbol interference,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 18, May 1972.zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    W. Sauer-Greff, M. Lorang, H. Haunstein, and R. Urbansky, “Modified Volterra series and state model approach for nonlienar data channels,” Proc. IEEE Signal Processing ’99, pp. 19–23, 1999.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Agazzi, M. Hueda, H. Carrer, and D. Crivelli, “Maximum likelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 23, pp. 749–763, February 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    P. J. Black and T. H. Meng, “A 140-Mb/s, 32-state, radix-4 Viterbi decoder,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 27, pp. 1877–1885, Dec. 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R. Hegde, A. Singer, and J. Janovetz, “Method and apparatus for delayed recursion decoder,” US Patent, no. 7206363. filed June, 2003, issued April, 2007.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    K. K. Parhi, VLSI Digital Signal Processing Systems: Design and Implementation. Wiley, 1999.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    R. Hegde and N. R. Shanbhag, “Soft digital signal processing,” IEEE Transactions on VLSI Systems, pp. 813–823, December 2001.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    R. Griffin, “Integrated DQPSK transmitters,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2005. Technical Digest, vol. OFC/NFOEC Volume 3, p. OWE3, March 2005.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    M. E. Said, J. Stich, and M. Elmasry, “An electrically pre-equalized 10Gb/s duobinary transmission system,” Journal of Lighwave Technology, no. 1, pp. 388–400, 2005.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, and M. OŠSullivan, “Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) performance of a coherent 40Gbit/s dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) transceiver,” Post Deadline Papers OFC/NFOEC 2007, no. PDP16, 2007.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. Stuart, “Dispersive multiplexing in multimode optical fiber,” Science, vol. 289, pp. 281–283, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Tarighat, R. Hsu, A. Shah, A. Sayed, and B. Jalali, “Fundamentals and challenges of optical Multi-Input Multiple-Output multimode fiber links,” IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 1–8, May 2007.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.KAISTDaejeonSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations