CIECAM02 and Its Recent Developments

  • Ming Ronnier LuoEmail author
  • Changjun Li


The development of colorimetry can be divided into three stages: colour specification, colour difference evaluation and colour appearance modelling. Stage 1 considers the communication of colour information by numbers. The second stage is colour difference evaluation. While the CIE system has been successfully applied for over 80 years, it can only be used under quite limited viewing conditions, e.g., daylight illuminant, high luminance level, and some standardised viewing/illuminating geometries. However, with recent demands on crossmedia colour reproduction, e.g., to match the appearance of a colour or an image on a display to that on hard copy paper, conventional colorimetry is becoming insufficient. It requires a colour appearance model capable of predicting colour appearance across a wide range of viewing conditions so that colour appearance modelling becomes the third stage of colorimetry. Some call this as advanced colorimetry. This chapter will focused on the recent developments based on CIECAM02.


Color appearance model CAM CIECAM02 Chromatic adaptation transforms CAT Colour appearance attributes Visual phenomena Uniform colour spaces 


  1. 1.
    Luo MR (1999) Colour science: past, present and future. In: MacDonald LW and Luo MR (Eds) Colour imaging: vision and technology. Wiley, New York, 384–404Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    CIE Technical Report (2004) Colorimetry, 3rd ed. Publication 15:2004, CIE Central Bureau, Vienna.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Luo MR, Cui GH, Rigg B (2001) The development of the CIE 2000 colour difference formula. Color Res Appl 26:340-350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Luo MR, Hunt RWG (1998) The structure of the CIE 1997 colour appearance model (CIECAM97s). Color Res Appl 23:138–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    CIE (1998) The CIE 1997 interim colour appearance model (simple version), CIECAM97s. CIE Publication 131, CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, Austria.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moroney N, Fairchild MD, Hunt RWG, Li C, Luo MR, Newman T (2002) The CIECAM02 color appearance model, Proceedings of the 10th color imaging conference, IS&T and SID, Scottsdale, Arizona, 23–27Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    CIE (2004) A colour appearance model for colour management systems: CIECAM02, CIE Publication 159 CIE Central Bureau, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Luo MR and Li CJ (2007) CIE colour appearance models and associated colour spaces, Chapter 11 of the book: colorimetry-understanding the CIE System. In: Schanda J (ed) Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Luo MR, Cui GH, Li CJ and Rigg B (2006) Uniform colour spaces based on CIECAM02 colour appearance model. Color Res Appl 31:320–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xiao K, Luo MR, Li C, Hong G (2010) Colour appearance prediction for room colours, Color Res Appl 35:284–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Xiao K, Luo MR, Li CJ, Cui G, Park D (2011) Investigation of colour size effect for colour appearance assessment, Color Res Appl 36:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xiao K, Luo MR, Li CJ (2012) Color size effect modelling, Color Res Appl 37:4–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fu CY, Li CJ, Luo MR, Hunt RWG, Pointer MR (2007) Quantifying colour appearance for unrelated colour under photopic and mesopic vision, Proceedings of the 15th color imaging conference, IS&T and SID, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 319–324Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li CJ, Chorro-Calderon E, Luo MR, Pointer MR (2009) Recent progress with extensions to CIECAM02, Proceedings of the 17th color imaging conference, IS&T and SID, Albuquerque, New Mexico 69–74Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    CIE Publ. 17.4:1987, International lighting vocabulary, the 4th editionGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mori L, Sobagaki H, Komatsubara H, Ikeda K (1991) Field trials on CIE chromatic adaptation formula. Proceedings of the CIE 22nd session, 55–58Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    McCann JJ, McKee SP, Taylor TH (1976) Quantitative studies in Retinex theory: a comparison between theoretical predictions and observer responses to the ‘color mondrian ’ experiments. Vision Res 16:445–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Breneman EJ (1987) Corresponding chromaticities for different states of adaptation to complex visual fields. J Opt Soc Am A 4:1115–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Helson H, Judd DB, Warren MH (1952) Object-color changes from daylight to incandescent filament illumination. Illum Eng 47:221–233Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lam KM (1985) Metamerism and colour constancy. Ph.D. thesis, University of Bradford, UKGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Braun KM, Fairchild MD (1996) Psychophysical generation of matching images for cross-media colour reproduction. Proceedings of 4th color imaging conference, IS&T, Springfield, Va., 214–220Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Luo MR, Clarke AA, Rhodes PA, Schappo A, Scrivener SAR, Tait C (1991) Quantifying colour appearance. Part I. LUTCHI colour appearance data. Color Res Appl 16:166–180Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Luo MR, Gao XW, Rhodes PA, Xin HJ, Clarke AA, Scrivener SAR (1993) Quantifying colour appearance, Part IV: transmissive media. Color Res Appl 18:191–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kuo WG, Luo MR, Bez HE (1995) Various chromatic adaptation transforms tested using new colour appearance data in textiles. Color Res Appl 20:313–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Juan LY, Luo MR (2000) New magnitude estimation data for evaluating colour appearance models. Colour and Visual Scales 2000, NPL, 3-5 April, UKGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Juan LY, Luo MR (2002) Magnitude estimation for scaling saturation. Proceedings of 9th session of the association internationale de la couleur (AIC Color 2001), Rochester, USA, (June 2001), Proceedings of SPIE 4421, 575–578Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li CJ, Luo MR, Rigg B, Hunt RWG (2002) CMC 2000 chromatic adaptation transform: CMCCAT2000. Color Res Appl 27:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Judd DB (1940), Hue, saturation, and lightness of surface colors with chromatic illumination. J Opt Soc Am 30:2–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kries V (1902), Chromatic adaptation, Festschrift der Albrecht-Ludwig-Universitat (Fribourg), [Translation: MacAdam DL, Sources of Color Science, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. (1970)]Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Luo MR, Hunt RWG (1998) A chromatic adaptation transform and a colour inconstancy index. Color Res Appl 23:154–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Li CJ, Luo MR, Hunt RWG (2000) A revision of the CIECAM97s Model. Color Res Appl 25:260–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hunt RWG, Li CJ, Juan LY, Luo MR (2002), Further improvements to CIECAM97s. Color Res Appl 27:164–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Finlayson GD, Süsstrunk S (2000) Performance of a chromatic adaptation transform based on spectral sharpening. Proceedings of IS&T/SID 8th color imaging conference, 49–55Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hunt RWG (1952) Light and dark adaptation and perception of color. J Opt Soc Am 42:190–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stevens JC, Stevens SS (1963) Brightness functions: effects of adaptation. J. Opt Soc Am 53:375–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bartleson CJ, Breneman EJ (1967) Brightness perception in complex fields. J. Opt Soc Am 57:953–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Luo MR, Gao XW, Sciviner SAR (1995) Quantifying colour appearance, Part V, Simultaneous contrast. Color Res Appl 20:18–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wyszecki G, Stiles WS (1982) Color Science: concepts and methods, Quantitative data and formulae. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Helson H (1938) Fundamental problems in color vision. I. The principle governing changes in hue, saturation, and lightness of non-selective samples in chromatic illumination. J Exp Psych 23:439–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    CIE Publ. 152:2003, Moroney N, Han Z (2003) Field trials of the CIECAM02 colour appearance, Proceedings of the 25th session of the CIE, San Diego D8-2–D8-5.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tastl I, Bhachech M, Moroney N, Holm J (2005) ICC colour management and CIECAM02, Proceedings of the 13th of CIC, p 318Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gury R, Shaw M (2005) Dealing with imaginary color encodings in CIECAM02 in an ICC workflow. Proceedings of the 13th of CIC, pp 217–223Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Li CJ, Luo MR, Cui GH (2003) Colour-difference evaluation using colour appearance models. The 11th Color Imaging Conference, IS&T and SID, Scottsdale, Arizona, November, 127–131Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Luo MR, Rigg B (1986) Chromaticity–discrimination ellipses for surface colours. Color Res Appl 11:25–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Berns RS, Alman DH, Reniff L, Snyder GD, Balonon-Rosen MR (1991) Visual determination of suprathreshold color-difference tolerances using probit analysis. Color Res Appl 16:297–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hunt RWG (1952) Measuring colour, 3rd edition, Fountain Press, Kingston-upon-Thames, 1998Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Li CJ, Chorro-Calderon E, Luo MR, Pointer MR (2009) Recent progress with extensión to CIECAM02, Seventeenth Colour Imaging Conference, Final Program and Proceedings, 69–74Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brill MH (2006) Irregularity in CIECAM02 and its avoidance. Color Res Appl 31(2):142–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brill MH, Susstrunk S (2008) Repairing gamut problems in CIECAM02: a progress report. Color Res Appl 33(5):424–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Süsstrunk S, Brill M (2006) The nesting instinct: repairing non nested gamuts in CIECAM02. 14th SID/IS&T color imaging conferenceGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Li CJ, Perales E, Luo MR, Martínez-Verdú F, A Mathematical approach for predicting non-negative tristimulus values using the CAT02 chromatic adaptation transform, Color Res Appl (in press)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    ISO 15076-1 (2005) Image technology, colour management-Architecture, profile format and data structure-Part I: based on ICC.1:2004-10,
  53. 53.
    Moroney N (2003) A hypothesis regarding the poor blue constancy of CIELAB. Color Res Appl 28(5):371–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    W. Gill GW (2008) A solution to CIECAM02 numerical and range issues, Proceedings of the 16th of color imaging conference, IS&T and SID, Portland, Oregan 322–327Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kuo CH, Zeise E, Lai D (2006) Robust CIECAM02 implementation and numerical experiment within an ICC workflow. Proceedings of the 14th of CIC, pp 215–219Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hunt RWG, Li CJ, Luo MR (2002) Dynamic cone response functions for modes of colour appearance. Color Res Appl 28:82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Paula J, Alessi P (2008) Private communication pursuit of scales corresponding to equal perceptual brightness, personal correspondenceGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zheijiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.University of LeedsLeedsUK
  3. 3.Liaoning University of Science and TechnologyAnshanChina

Personalised recommendations