Music and Emotion

  • Patrick G. Hunter
  • E. Glenn SchellenbergEmail author
Part of the Springer Handbook of Auditory Research book series (SHAR, volume 36)


These two quotations reflect common attitudes about music. Tolstoy’s comment suggests that music conveys emotion, whereas Torke’s question implies that music influences listeners’ emotions. Section 5.2 of the present chapter includes a discussion of the various theoretical approaches that are used to explain affective responses to music. Few scholars dispute the claim that listeners recognize emotions in music. Some argue, however, that music does not elicit true emotions in the listener (e.g., Kivy 1980, 1990, 2001). For example, many years ago Meyer (1956) posited that affective responses to music consist of experiences of tension and relaxation (rather than actual emotions), which occur when listeners’ expectancies about what will happen next in a piece of music are violated or fulfilled, respectively. This position has been challenged in recent years with findings from studies using behavioral, physiological, and neurological measures, all of which indicate that listeners respond affectively to music (e.g., Krumhansl 1997; Gagnon and Peretz 2003; Mitterschiffthaler et al. 2007; Witvliet and Vrana 2007). Nonetheless, the debate continues (e.g., Konečni 2008).


Affective Response Skin Conductance Response Cognitive Appraisal Negative Valence Musical Piece 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the Social Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.


  1. Adolphs R, Gosselin F, Buchanan TW, Tranel D, Schyns P, Damasio AR (2005) A mechanism for impaired fear recognition after amygdala damage. Nature 433:68–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Altenmüller E, Schürmann K, Lim VK, Parlitz D (2002) Hits to the left flops to the right: different emotions during listening to music are reflected in cortical lateralization patterns. Neuropsychologia 40:2242–2256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alter AL, Forgas JP (2007) On being happy but fearing failure: the effects of mood on self-handicapping strategies. J Exp Soc Psychol 43:947–954.Google Scholar
  4. Andreassi JL (2000) Psychophysiology: Human Behaviour and Physiological Response, 4th ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Balkwill L-L, Thompson WF (1999) A cross-cultural investigation of the perception of emotion in music: psychophysical and cultural cues. Music Percept 17:43–64.Google Scholar
  6. Balkwill L-L, Thompson WF, Matsunaga R (2004) Recognition of emotion in Japanese Western and Hindustani music by Japanese listeners. Jpn Psychol Res 46:337–349.Google Scholar
  7. Ball T, Rahm B, Eickhoff SB, Schulze-Bonhage A, Speck O, Mutschler I (2007) Response properties of human amygdala subregions: evidence based on functional MRI combined with probabilistic anatomical maps. PLoS One 2(3):e307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berlyne DE (1970) Novelty, complexity and hedonic value. Percept Psychophys 8:279–286.Google Scholar
  9. Bigand E, Vieillard S, Madurell F, Marozeau J, Dacquet A (2005) Multidimensional scaling of emotional response to music: the effect of musical expertise and of the duration of the excerpts. Cogn Emotion 19:1113–1139.Google Scholar
  10. Blood AJ, Zatorre RJ (2001) Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:11818–11823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blood AJ, Zatorre RJ, Bermudez P, Evans AC (1999) Emotional responses to pleasant and unpleasant music correlate with activity in paralimbic brain regions. Nat Neurosci 2:382–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bornstein RF (1989) Exposure and affect: overview and meta-analysis of research 1968–1987. Psychol Bull 106:265–289.Google Scholar
  13. Bornstein RF (1992) Inhibitory effects of awareness on affective responding. In Clark MS (ed), Emotion: Review of Personality and Social Psychology (No. 13). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 235–255.Google Scholar
  14. Bornstein RF, D’Agostino PR (1994) The attribution and discounting of perceptual fluency: ­preliminary tests of a perceptual fluency/attributional model of the mere exposure effect. Soc Cogn 12:103–128.Google Scholar
  15. Brown S (2000) The “musilanguage” model of music evolution. In Wallin N, Merker B, Brown S (eds), The Origins of Music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 271–300.Google Scholar
  16. Brown S, Martinez MJ, Parsons LM (2004) Passive music listening spontaneously engages limbic and paralimbic systems. NeuroReport 15:2033–2037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cacioppo JT, Berntson GG (1994) Relationship between attitudes and evaluative space: a critical review with emphasis on the separability of positive and negative substrates. Psychol Bull 115:401–423.Google Scholar
  18. Clore GL, Schwarz N, Conway M (1994) Affective causes and consequences of social information processing. In Wyer RS, Srull TK (eds), Handbook of Social Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 323–417.Google Scholar
  19. Costa PT Jr, McCrae RR (1992) Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO ­Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  20. Craig DG (2005) An exploratory study of physiological changes during “chills” induced by music. Musicae Scientiae 9:273–287.Google Scholar
  21. Cunningham JG, Sterling RS (1988) Developmental change in the understanding of affective meaning in music. Motiv Emotion 12:399–413.Google Scholar
  22. Damasio AR, Grabowski TJ, Bechara A, Damasio H, Ponto LLB, Parvizi J, Hichwa RD (2000) Subcortical and cortical brain activity during the feeling of self-generated emotions. Nat Neurosci 3:1049–1056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Darwin, C. (1871) The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (2 vols.). London: Murray.Google Scholar
  24. Davidson RJ (1998) Anterior electrophysiological asymmetries emotion and depression: conceptual and methodological conundrums. Psychophysiology 35:607–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Davies S (2001) Philosophical perspectives on music’s expressiveness. In Juslin PN, Sloboda JA (eds), Music and Emotion: Theory and Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 23–44.Google Scholar
  26. Diener E, Iran-Nejad A (1986) The relationship in experience between various types of affect. J Pers Soc Psychol 50:1031–1038.Google Scholar
  27. Ekman P (1984) Expression and the nature of emotion. In Scherer KR, Ekman P (eds), Approaches to Emotion. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 319–344.Google Scholar
  28. Ekman P (1992) Are there basic emotions? Psychol Rev 99:550–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ekman P, Friesen WV (1976) Pictures of Facial Affect. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  30. Evans P, Schubert E (2008) Relationships between expressed and felt emotions in music. Musicae Scientiae 12:75–99.Google Scholar
  31. Fontaine JRJ, Scherer KR, Roesch EB, Ellsworth PC (2007) The world of emotions is not ­two-dimensional. Psychol Sci 18:1050–1057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Frijda NH (1993) Moods, emotion episodes, and emotions. In Lewis M, Haviland JM (eds), Handbook of Emotions. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 381–403.Google Scholar
  33. Frijda NH (1994) Varieties of affect: emotions and episodes moods and sentiments. In Ekman P, Davidson RJ (eds), The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 59–67.Google Scholar
  34. Fritz T, Jentscke S, Gosselin N, Sammler D, Peretz I, Turner R, Friederici AD, Koelsch S (2009) Universal recognition of three basic emotions in music. Curr Biol 19: 573–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Gabrielsson A (2002) Emotion perceived and emotion felt: same or different? Musicae Scientiae (Special issue 2001–2002):123–147Google Scholar
  36. Gabrielsson A, Juslin PN (1996) Emotional expression in music performance: between the ­performer’s intention and the listener’s experience. Psychol Music 24:68–91.Google Scholar
  37. Gabrielsson A, Juslin PN (2003) Emotional expression in music. In Davidson RJ, Scherer KR, Goldsmith HH (eds), Handbook of Affective Sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 503–534.Google Scholar
  38. Gagnon L, Peretz I (2003) Mode and tempo relative contributions to “happy-sad” judgments in equitone melodies. Cogn Emotion 17:25–40.Google Scholar
  39. Geen RG, Rakosky JJ (1973) Interpretations of observed aggression and their effect on GSR. J Exp Res Pers 6:280–292.Google Scholar
  40. Goldstein A (1980) Thrills in response to music and other stimuli. Physiol Psychol 8:126–129.Google Scholar
  41. Gosselin N, Peretz I, Noulhiane M, Hasboun D, Beckett C, Baulac M, Samson S (2005) Impaired recognition of scary music following unilateral temporal lobe excision. Brain 128:628–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gosselin N, Peretz I, Johnsen E, Adolphs R (2007) Amygdala damage impairs emotion recognition from music. Neuropsychologia 45:236–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Grant VV, Stewart SH, Birch CD (2007) Impact of positive and anxious mood on implicit alcohol-related cognitions in internally motivated undergraduate drinkers. Addict Behav 32:2226–2237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Green AC, Bœrentsen KB, Stødkilde-Jørgensen H, Wallentin M, Roepstorff A, Vuust P (2008) Music in minor activates limbic structures: a relationship with dissonance? NeuroReport 19:711–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Grewe O, Nagel F, Reinhard K, Altenmüller E (2007a) Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective responses to music. Emotion 7:774–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Grewe O, Nagel F, Reinhard K, Altenmüller E (2007b) Listening to music as a re-creative process: physiological psychological and psychoacoustical correlates of chills and strong emotions. Music Percept 24:297–314.Google Scholar
  47. Guhn M, Hamm A, Zentner M (2007) Physiological and musico-acoustic correlates of the chill response. Music Percept 24:473–483.Google Scholar
  48. Gundlach RH (1935) Factors determining the characterization of musical phrases. Am J Psychol 47:624–643.Google Scholar
  49. Hamrick ND (1974) Physiological and verbal responses to erotic visual stimuli in a female ­population. Behav Eng 2:2–16.Google Scholar
  50. Harmon-Jones E, Allen JB (1998) Anger and frontal brain activity: EEG asymmetry consistent with approach motivation despite negative affective valence. J Pers Soc Psychol 74:1310–1316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Harmon-Jones E, Sigelman J (2001) State anger and prefrontal brain activity: evidence that insult-related relative left-prefrontal activation is associated with experienced anger and aggression. J Pers Soc Psychol 80:797–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hevner K (1935) The affective character of the major and minor modes in music. Am J Psychol 47:103–118.Google Scholar
  53. Hevner K (1936) Experimental studies of the elements of expression in music. Am J Psychol 48:246–268.Google Scholar
  54. Hevner K (1937) The affective value of pitch and tempo in music. Am J Psychol 49:621–630.Google Scholar
  55. Hunter PG, Schellenberg EG (2008) Misery loves company: liking for sad-sounding music increases when listeners are in a sad affective state. Paper presented at the meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago, November 13–16, 2008.Google Scholar
  56. Hunter PG, Schellenberg EG, Schimmack U (2008a) Mixed affective responses to music with conflicting cues. Cogn Emotion 22:327–352.Google Scholar
  57. Hunter PG, Schellenberg EG, Stalinski SM (2008b) Developmental changes in liking for and recognition of emotion in music. Paper presented at the Auditory Perception and Cognition Action Meeting, Chicago, November 13, 2008.Google Scholar
  58. Hunter PG, Schellenberg EG, Schimmack U (2010) Feelings and perceptions of happiness and sadness induced by music: similarities, differences, and mixed emotions. Psychol Aesthet Creativ Arts 4:47–56.Google Scholar
  59. Huron D (2006) Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  60. Husain G, Thompson WF, Schellenberg EG (2002) Effects of musical tempo and mode on arousal mood and spatial abilities. Music Percept 20:151–171.Google Scholar
  61. Ilie G, Thompson WF (2006) A comparison of acoustic cues in music and speech for three dimensions of affect. Music Percept 23:319–329.Google Scholar
  62. Ivanov VK, Geake JG (2003) The Mozart effect and primary school children. Psychol Music 31:405–413.Google Scholar
  63. Jakobovits IA (1966) Studies of fads: I. The “Hit Parade.” Psychol Rep 18:443–450.Google Scholar
  64. Juslin PN (1997) Perceived emotional expression in synthesized performances of a short melody: capturing the listener’s judgment policy. Musicae Scientiae 1:225–256.Google Scholar
  65. Juslin PN (2001) Communicating emotion in music performance: a review and theoretical framework. In Juslin PN, Sloboda JA (eds), Music and Emotion: Theory and Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 309–337.Google Scholar
  66. Juslin PN, Laukka P (2003) Communication of emotions in vocal expression and music performance: different channels same code? Psychol Bull 129:770–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Juslin PN, Laukka P (2004) Expression, perception, and induction of musical emotions: a review and a questionnaire study of everyday listening. J New Music Res 33:217–238.Google Scholar
  68. Juslin PN, Västfjäll D (2008) Emotional responses to music: the need to consider underlying mechanisms. Behav Brain Sci 31: 559–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Juslin PN, Liljeström S, Västfjäll D, Barradas G, Silva A (2008) An experience sampling study of emotional reactions to music: listener, music, and situation. Emotion 5:668–683.Google Scholar
  70. Kallinen K, Ravaja N (2006) Emotion perceived and emotion felt: same and different. Musicae Scientiae 10:191–213.Google Scholar
  71. Kastner MP, Crowder RG (1990) Perception of the major/minor distinction: IV Emotional ­connotations in young children. Music Percept 8:189–202.Google Scholar
  72. Kellaris JJ, Rice RC (1993) The influence of tempo loudness and gender of listener on responses to music. Psychol Market 10:15–29.Google Scholar
  73. Khalfa S, Roy M, Rainville P, Dalla Bella S, Peretz I (2008) Role of tempo entrainment in ­psychophysiological differentiation of happy and sad music? Int J Psychophysiol 68:17–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kivy P (1980) The Corded Shell. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Kivy P (1990) Music Alone: Philosophical Reflections on the Purely Musical Experience. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Kivy P (2001) New Essays on Musical Understanding. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  77. Koelsch S, Fritz T, Cramon DYV, Müller K, Friederici AD (2006) Investigating emotion with music: an fMRI study. Hum Brain Mapp 27:239–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Koelsch S, Fritz T, Schlaug G (2008a) Amygdala activity can be modulated by unexpected chord functions during music listening. NeuroReport 19:1815–1819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Koelsch S, Kilches S, Steinbeis N, Schelinski S (2008b) Effects of unexpected chords and of ­performer’s expressions on brain responses and electrodermal activity. PLoS ONE 3(7):e2631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Konečni VJ (2005) The aesthetic trinity: awe, being moved, thrills. Bull Psychol Arts 5:27–44.Google Scholar
  81. Konečni VJ (2008) Does music induce emotion? A theoretical and methodological analysis. Psychol Aesthet Creativ Arts 2:115–129.Google Scholar
  82. Konečni VJ, Wanic RA, Brown A (2007) Emotional and aesthetic antecedents and consequences of music-induced thrills. Am J Psychol 120:619–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kreutz G, Ott U, Teichmann D, Osawa P, Vaitl D (2008) Using music to induce emotions: influences of musical preference and absorption. Psychol Music 36:101–126.Google Scholar
  84. Krumhansl CL (1997) An exploratory study of musical emotions and psychophysiology. Can J Exp Psychol 51:336–353.Google Scholar
  85. Lang PJ (1995) The emotion probe: studies of motivation and attention. Am Psychol 50:372–385.Google Scholar
  86. Lang PJ, Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN (1997) International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Technical Manual and Affective Ratings. NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida.Google Scholar
  87. Larsen JT, McGraw AP, Cacioppo JT (2001) Can people feel happy and sad at the same time? J Pers Soc Psychol 81:684–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Larsen JT, McGraw AP, Mellers BA, Cacioppo JT (2004) The agony of victory and thrill of defeat: mixed emotional reactions to disappointing wins and relieving losses. Psychol Sci 15:325–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Larsen JT, Norris CJ, McGraw AP, Hawkley LC, Cacioppo JT (2009) The evaluative space grid: a single-item measure of positivity and negativity. Cogn Emotion 23:453–480.Google Scholar
  90. Levinson J (1996) The Pleasures of Aesthetics: Philosophical Essays. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Lucas RE, Diener E, Suh E (1996) Discriminant validity of well-being measures. J Pers Soc Psychol 71:616–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lundqvist L-O, Carlsson F, Hilmersson P, Juslin PN (2009) Emotional responses to music: ­experience, expression, physiology. Psychol Music 37:61–90.Google Scholar
  93. Lyubomirsky S, King L, Diener E (2005) The benefits of frequent positive affect: does happiness lead to success? Psychol Bull 131:803–855.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Maddel G (2002) Philosophy Music and Emotion. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  95. Matravers D (1998) Art and Emotion. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  96. McCrae RR (2007) Aesthetic chills as a universal marker of openness to experience. Motiv Emotion 31:5–11.Google Scholar
  97. McDermott J, Hauser M (2004) Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition 94:B11–B21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Meyer LB (1956) Emotion and Meaning in Music. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
  99. Miller G (2000) Evolution of human music through sexual selection. In Wallin NL, Merker B, Brown S (eds), The Origins of Music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 329–360.Google Scholar
  100. Mitterschiffthaler MT, Fu CHY, Dalton JA, Andrew CM, Williams SCR (2007) A functional MRI study of happy and sad affective states induced by classical music. Hum Brain Mapp 28:1150–1162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Morris WN (1992) A functional analysis of the role of mood in affective systems. In Clark MS (ed), Emotion: Review of Personality and Social Psychology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, pp. 213–234.Google Scholar
  102. Mull HK (1957) The effect of repetition upon the enjoyment of modern music. J Psychol 43:155–162.Google Scholar
  103. Nagel F, Kopiez R, Grewe O, Altenmüller E (2008) Psychoacoustical correlates of musically induced chills. Musicae Scientiae 12:101–113.Google Scholar
  104. Nantais KM, Schellenberg EG (1999) The Mozart effect: an artifact of preference. Psychol Sci 10:370–373.Google Scholar
  105. Newell BR, Shanks DR (2007) Recognising what you like: examining the relation between the mere-exposure effect and recognition. Eur J Cogn Psychol 19:103–118.Google Scholar
  106. Niedenthal PM, Krauth-Gruber S, Ric F (2006) Psychology of Emotion: Interpersonal Experiential and Cognitive Approaches. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  107. North AC, Hargreaves DJ (2007a) Lifestyle correlates of musical preference: 2. Media, leisure time and music. Psychol Music 35:179–200.Google Scholar
  108. North AC, Hargreaves DJ (2007b) Lifestyle correlates of musical preference: 1. Relationships, living arrangements, beliefs, and crime. Psychol Music 35:58–87.Google Scholar
  109. North AC, Hargreaves DJ (2007c) Lifestyle correlates of musical preference: 3. Travel, money, education, employment and health. Psychol Music 35:473–497.Google Scholar
  110. Nyklíček I, Thayer JF, Van Doornen LJP (1997) Cardiorespiratory differentiation of musically-induced emotions. J Psychophysiol 11:304–321.Google Scholar
  111. Ortony A, Turner TJ (1990) What’s basic about basic emotions? Psychol Rev 97:315–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Panksepp J (1995) The emotional sources of “chills” induced by music. Music Percept 13:171–207.Google Scholar
  113. Parker S, Bascom J, Rabinovitz B, Zellner D (2008) Positive and negative hedonic contrast with musical stimuli. Psychol Aesthet Creativ Arts 2:171–174.Google Scholar
  114. Pauls CA, Stemmler G (2003) Repressive and defensive coping during fear and anger. Emotion 3:284–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Peretz I (2010) Towards a neurobiology of musical emotions. In Juslin PN, Sloboda JA (eds), Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 99–126.Google Scholar
  116. Peretz I, Gaudreau D, Bonnel AM (1998) Exposure effects on music preferences and recognition. Mem Cogn 15:379–388.Google Scholar
  117. Rauscher FH, Shaw GL, Ky KN (1993) Music and spatial task performance. Nature 365:611.Google Scholar
  118. Reber R, Schwarz N, Winkielman P (2004) Processing fluency and aesthetic pleasure: is beauty in the perceiver’s processing experience? Pers Soc Psychol Rev 8:364–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Rentfrow PJ, Gosling SD (2003) The do re mi’s of everyday life: the structure and personality correlates of music preferences. J Pers Soc Psychol 84: 1236–1256.Google Scholar
  120. Rentfrow PJ, Gosling SD (2006) Message in a ballad: the role of music preferences in interpersonal perception. Psychol Sci 17:236–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Rickard NS (2004) Intense emotional response to music: a test of the physiological arousal hypothesis. Psychol Music 32:371–388.Google Scholar
  122. Ridley A (1995) Music Value and the Passions. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  123. Russell JA (1980) A circumplex model of affect. J Pers Soc Psychol 39:1161–1178.Google Scholar
  124. Russell JA (2003) Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychol Rev 110:145–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Russell JA, Carroll JM (1999) On the bipolarity of positive and negative affect. Psychol Bull 125:3–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sammler D, Grigutsch M, Fritz T, Koelsch S (2007) Music and emotion: electrophysiological ­correlates of the processing of pleasant and unpleasant music. Psychophysiology 44:293–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Schellenberg EG, Hallam S (2005) Music listening and cognitive abilities in 10- and 11-year-olds: the Blur effect. Ann NY Acad Sci 1060:202–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Schellenberg EG, Krysciak A, Campbell RJ (2000) Perceiving emotion in melody: interactive effects of pitch and rhythm. Music Percept 18:155–171.Google Scholar
  129. Schellenberg EG, Nakata T, Hunter PG, Tamoto S (2007) Exposure to music and cognitive ­performance: tests of children and adults. Psychol Music 35:5–19.Google Scholar
  130. Schellenberg EG, Peretz I, Vieillard S (2008) Liking for happy-and-sad-sounding music: effects of exposure. Cogn Emotion 22:218–237.Google Scholar
  131. Scherer KR (2004) Which emotions can be induced by music? What are the underlying mechanisms? And how can we measure them? J New Music Res 33:239–251.Google Scholar
  132. Schimmack U (2001) Pleasure displeasure and mixed feelings: are semantic opposites mutually exclusive? Cogn Emotion 15:81–97.Google Scholar
  133. Schimmack U, Crites SL (2005) The origin and structure of affect. In Albarracín D, Johnson BT, Zanna MP (eds), The Handbook of Attitudes. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 397–436.Google Scholar
  134. Schmidt LA, Trainor LJ (2001) Frontal brain electrical activity (EEG) distinguishes valence and intensity of musical emotions. Cogn Emotion 15:487–500.Google Scholar
  135. Schubert E (2001) Continuous measurement of self-report emotional response to music. In Juslin PN, Sloboda JA (eds), Music and Emotion: Theory and Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 393–414.Google Scholar
  136. Schubert E (2004) Modeling perceived emotion with continuous musical features. Music Percept 21:561–585.Google Scholar
  137. Schubert E (2007a) The influence of emotion, locus of emotion and familiarity upon preference in music. Psychol Music 35:499–515.Google Scholar
  138. Schubert E (2007b) Locus of emotion: the effect of task order and age on emotion perceived and emotion felt in response to music. J Music Therapy 44:344–368.Google Scholar
  139. Schwartz GE, Brown S-L, Ahern GL (1980) Facial muscle patterning and subjective experience during affective imagery: sex differences. Psychophysiology 17:75–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Siemer M (2001) Mood-specific effects on appraisal and emotion judgments. Cogn Emotion 15:453–485.Google Scholar
  141. Siemer M (2005) Mood-congruent cognitions constitute mood experience. Emotion 5:296–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sloboda JA (1991) Music structure and emotional response: some empirical findings. Psychol Music 19:110–120.Google Scholar
  143. Smith CA, Haynes KN, Lazarus RS, Pope LK (1993) In search of the “hot” cognitions: attributions appraisals and their relation to emotion. J Pers Soc Psychol 65:916–929.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Stang DJ (1974) Methodological factors in mere exposure research. Psychol Bull 81:1014–1025.Google Scholar
  145. Stemmler G, Heldmann M, Pauls CA, Scherer T (2001) Constraints for emotion specificity in fear and anger: the context counts. Psychophysiology 38:275–291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Szpunar KK, Schellenberg EG, Pliner P (2004) Liking and memory for musical stimuli as a function of exposure. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 30:370–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Tassinary LG, Cacioppo JT, Geen TR (1989) A psychometric study of surface electrode placements for facial electromyographic recording: I. The brow and cheek muscle regions. Psychophysiology 26:1–16.Google Scholar
  148. Terwogt MM, Van Grinsven F (1991) Musical expression of moodstates. Psychol Music 19:99–109.Google Scholar
  149. Thompson WF, Schellenberg EG, Husain G (2001) Arousal mood and the Mozart effect. Psychol Sci 12:248–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Trainor LJ, Heinmiller BJ (1998) The development of evaluative responses to music: infants prefer to listen to consonance over dissonance. Infant Behav Dev 21:77–88.Google Scholar
  151. Trainor LJ, Tsang CD, Cheung VHW (2002) Preference for sensory consonance in 2- and 4-month-old infants. Music Percept 20:187–194.Google Scholar
  152. Västfjäll D (2002) Emotion induction through music: a review of the musical mood induction procedure. Musicae Scientiae (Special issue 2001–2002):173–211.Google Scholar
  153. Vieillard S, Peretz I, Gosselin N, Khalfa S, Gagnon L, Bouchard B (2008) Happy, sad, scary and peaceful musical excerpts for research on emotions. Cogn Emotion 22:720–752.Google Scholar
  154. Vrana S (1995) Emotional modulation of skin conductance and eyeblink responses to a startle probe. Psychophysiology 32:351–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Watson D, Clark LA (1991) Self-versus peer ratings of specific emotional traits: evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. J Pers Soc Psychol 60:927–940.Google Scholar
  156. Wedin L (1972) A multidimensional study of perceptual-emotional qualities in music. Scand J Psychol 13:241–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Witvliet CVO, Vrana SR (2007) Play it again Sam: repeated exposure to emotionally evocative music polarises liking and smiling responses and influences other affective reports facial EMG and heart rate. Cogn Emotion 21:3–25.Google Scholar
  158. Zajonc RB (1968) Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. J Pers Soc Psychol Monogr 9(2 Pt 2):1–27.Google Scholar
  159. Zajonc RC, Shaver P, Tavris C, van Kreveld D (1972) Exposure satiation and stimulus discriminability. J Pers Soc Psychol 21:270 –280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Zentner MR, Kagan J (1996) Perception of music by infants. Nature 383:29.Google Scholar
  161. Zentner MR, Kagan J (1998) Infants’ perception of consonance and dissonance in music. Infant Behav Dev 21:483–492.Google Scholar
  162. Zentner MR, Grandjean D, Scherer KR (2008) Emotions evoked by the sound of music: characterization classification and measurement. Emotion 8:494–521.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Toronto at MississaugaMississaugaCanada

Personalised recommendations