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Gammarus spp. in Aquatic Ecotoxicology and Water Quality Assessment: Toward Integrated Multilevel Tests

  • Petra Y. KunzEmail author
  • Cornelia Kienle
  • Almut Gerhardt
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 205)

Abstract

More than 4500 species belong to the crustacean sub-order Gammaridea (order Amphipoda) (Bousfield Among Amphipods, the Gammaridea are the most widespread group and are found throughout a range of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats (Bousfield Lincoln, whereas the three other amphipod sub-orders (Hyperiidea, Ingolfiellidea, and Caprellidea) are highly specialized and ecologically restricted. Gammarus is the amphipod genus with the highest number of epigean freshwater species, comprising over 100 species that are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere (Karaman and Pinkster Abiotic factors such as temperature, salinity, oxygen, acidity, and pollution play an important role in the distribution of Gammarus species (Whitehurst and Lindsey and members of this species are often found in great abundance under rocks, in gravel, or in coarse substrates and among living and dead vegetation (Fitter and Manuel). These substrata provide both shelter from predators and a supply of organic detritus and other foodstuffs, with the result that in many riverine communities, amphipod species such as Gammarus pulex (Linnaeus) may represent the dominant macroinvertebrate in terms of biomass (Macneil et al. Shaw.

Keywords

Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate Feeding Activity Endocrine Disruption Antipredator Behavior Brood Pouch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Dave Whitacre for valuable and constructive comments and suggestions on the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petra Y. Kunz
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cornelia Kienle
    • 1
  • Almut Gerhardt
    • 1
  1. 1.Ecotox Centre, Swiss Center for Applied Ecotoxicology, Eawag/EPFLDübendorfSwitzerland

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