Advertisement

Is Our Environment Special?

  • M. Vázquez
  • E. Pallé
  • P. Montañés Rodríguez
Chapter
Part of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Library book series (AAL)

Abstract

We are using our planet as the reference point for interpreting future observations of terrestrial exoplanets. However, our guide may turn out to be wrong if for some reason the Earth and its environment are exceptional. To gain some insight on this fundamental problem, in this last chapter we will discuss three basic questions for which we do not yet have complete answers: Is our Sun special? How common are the planetary systems such as our own? And finally, Is the Earth something unique?

Keywords

Solar System Planetary System Giant Planet Terrestrial Planet Supernova Explosion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adams, F.C., Proszkow, E.M., Fatuzzo, M., Myers, P.C.: Early evolution of stellar groups and clusters: Environmental effects on forming planetary systems. Astrophys. J.641, 504–525 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  2. Alemi, A., Stevenson, D.: Why venus has no moon. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc.38, 491 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. Alfvén, H., Arrhenius, G.: Origin and evolution of the earth-moon system. Moon5, 210–230 (1972)ADSGoogle Scholar
  4. Allende Prieto, C.: Solar chemical peculiarities? In: Israelian, G., Meynet, G. (eds.) The Metal-Rich Universe, pp. 36–40. Cambridge University Press, London (2008)Google Scholar
  5. Andrews-Hanna, J.C., Zuber, M.T., Banerdt, W.B.: The Borealis basin and the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy. Nature453, 1212–1215 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Attwood, R.E., Goodwin, S.P., Stamatellos, D., Whitworth, A.P.: Simulating star formation in molecular cloud cores. IV. The role of turbulence and thermodynamics. Astron. Astrophys.495, 201–215 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. Baliunas, S.L., Donahue, R.A., Soon, W., Henry, G.W.: Activity cycles in lower main sequence and POST main sequence stars: The HK project. In: Donahue, R.A., Bookbinder, J.A. (eds.) Cool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 154, pp. 153–172 (1998)Google Scholar
  8. Balog, Z., Muzerolle, J., Rieke, G.H., Su, K.Y.L., Young, E.T., Megeath, S.T.: Spitzer/IRAC-MIPS survey of NGC 2244: Protostellar disk survival in the vicinity of hot stars. Astrophys. J.660, 1532–1540 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes, R., Quinn, T.: The (in)stability of planetary systems. Astrophys. J.611, 494–516 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Batygin, K., Laughlin, G.: On the dynamical stability of the solar system. Astrophys. J.683, 1207–1216 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Beaugé, C., Michtchenko, T.A., Ferraz-Mello, S.: Planetary migration and extrasolar planets in the 2/1 mean-motion resonance. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.365, 1160–1170 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Beer, M.E., King, A.R., Livio, M., Pringle, J.E.: How special is the solar system? Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.354, 763–768 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Benn, C.R.: The moon and the origin of life. Earth Moon Planets85, 61–66 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Benz, W., Slattery, W.L., Cameron, A.G.W.: Collisional stripping of Mercury’s mantle. Icarus74, 516–528 (1988)ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Berger, A.: The Milankovitch astronomical theory of paleoclimates: A modern review. Vistas Astron.24, 103–122 (1980)ADSGoogle Scholar
  16. Berger, A., Loutre, M.: Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million years. Quaternary Sci. Rev.10, 297–317 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Berger, A., Loutre, H.: An exceptionally long interglacial ahead? Science297, 1287–1288 (2002)Google Scholar
  18. Berger, A., Imbrie, J., Hays, J., Kukla, G., Saltzman, B. (eds.): Milankovitch and climate: Understanding the response to astronomical forcing, Dordrecht, D. Reidel (1984)Google Scholar
  19. Bizzarro, M., Ulfbeck, D., Trinquier, A., Thrane, K., Connelly, J.N., Meyer, B.S.: Evidence for a late supernova injection of 60Fe into the protoplanetary disk. Science316, 1178–1181 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Böhm-Vitense, E.: Chromospheric activity in G and K main-sequence stars, and what it tells us about stellar dynamos. Astrophys. J.657, 486–493 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Boss, A.P.: Formation of binary stars. In: Sahade, J., McCluskey, G.E., Kondo, Y. (eds.) The realm of interacting binary stars, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, vol. 177, pp. 355–380 (1992)Google Scholar
  22. Bounama, C., Von Bloh, W., Franck, S.: How rare is complex life in the milky way? Astrobiology7, 745–756 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  23. Bouvier, J.: Lithium depletion and the rotational history of exoplanet host stars. Astron. Astrophys.408, L53–L56 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. Brandenburg, A., Saar, S.H., Turpin, C.R.: Time evolution of the magnetic activity cycle period. Astrophys. J.498, L51–L54 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. Carter, B.D., Butler, R.P., Tinney, C.G., Jones, H.R.A., Marcy, G.W., McCarthy, C., Fischer, D.A., Penny, A.J.: A planet in a circular orbit with a 6 year period. Astrophys. J.593, L43–L46 (2003)ADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Cayrel de Strobel, G.: Solar analogs seen at high spectral resolution and very high S/N ratios. In: Sánchez, F., Vázquez, M. (eds.) New Windows to the Universe, pp. 195–212. Cambridge University Press, London (1990)Google Scholar
  27. Cayrel de Strobel, G.: Stars resembling the Sun. The Astron. Astrophys. Rev.7, 243–288 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Cayrel de Strobel, G., Knowles, N., Hernandez, G., Bentolila, C.: In search of real solar twins. Astron. Astrophys.94, 1–11 (1981)ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. Centeno, R., Socas-Navarro, H.: A new approach to the solar oxygen abundance problem. Astrophys. J.682, L61–L64 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Comins, N.F.: What if the moon didn’t exist, voyages to Earths that might have been. Harper Collins (1993)Google Scholar
  31. Cumming, A., Butler, R.P., Marcy, G.W., Vogt, S.S., Wright, J.T., Fischer, D.A.: The keck planet search: Detectability and the minimum mass and orbital period distribution of extrasolar planets. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.120, 531–554 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Davies, J.H.: Did a mega-collision dry Venus’ interior? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.268, 376–383 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  33. Duquennoy, A., Mayor, M.: Multiplicity among solar-type stars in the solar neighbourhood. II – Distribution of the orbital elements in an unbiased sample. Astron. Astrophys.248, 485–524 (1991)ADSGoogle Scholar
  34. Edvardsson, B., Andersen, J., Gustafsson, B., Lambert, D.L., Nissen, P.E., Tomkin, J.: The chemical evolution of the galactic disk – Part one – Analysis and results. Astron. Astrophys.275, 101–152 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Fischer, D.A., Valenti, J.: The planet-metallicity correlation. Astrophys. J.622, 1102–1117 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. Fogg, M.J., Nelson, R.P.: Terrestrial planet formation in low eccentricity warm Jupiter systems. Astron. Astrophys.498, 575–589 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  37. Franck, S., von Bloh, W., Bounama, C.: Maximum number of habitable planets at the time of Earth’s origin: new hints for panspermia and the mediocrity principle. Int. J. Astrobiol.6, 153–157 (2007)Google Scholar
  38. Fujiwara, H., Yamashita, T., Ishihara, D., Onaka, T., Kataza, H., Ootsubo, T., Fukagawa, M., Marshall, J.P., Murakami, H., Nakagawa, T., Hirao, T., Enya, K., White, G.J.: Hot debris dust around HD 106797. Astrophys. J.695, L88–L91 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Gaidos, E.J.: Nearby young solar analogs. I. Catalog and stellar characteristics. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.110, 1259–1276 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  40. Gaspar, A., Rieke, G.H., Su, K.Y.L., Balog, Z., Trilling, D., Muzzerole, J., Apai, D., Kelly, B.C.: The low level of debris disk activity at the time of the Late Heavy Bombardment: A Spitzer study of Praesepe. Astrophys. J.697, 1578–1596 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Gaudi, B.S., et al.: Discovery of a Jupiter/Saturn analog with gravitational microlensing. Science319, 927–930 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Gonzalez, G.: Are stars with planets anomalous? Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.308, 447–458 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Gonzalez, G.: Parent stars of extrasolar planets - IX. Lithium abundances. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.386, 928–934 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Gonzalez, G., Brownlee, D., Ward, P.: The galactic habitable zone: Galactic chemical evolution. Icarus152, 185–200 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Grether, D., Lineweaver, C.H.: The metallicity of stars with close companions. Astrophys. J.669, 1220–1234 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Güdel, M.: The sun in time: Activity and environment. Living Rev. Sol. Phys.4, 3 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Gustafsson, B.: Is the sun a sun-like star? Space Sci. Rev.85, 419–428 (1998)ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Gustafsson, B.: Is the sun unique as a star – and if so, why? Phys. Scripta T130(1), 014,036 (2008)Google Scholar
  49. Haisch, K.E., Jr., Lada, E.A., Lada, C.J.: Disk frequencies and lifetimes in young clusters. Astrophys. J.553, L153–L156 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  50. Hester, J.J., Desch, S.J., Healy, K.R., Leshin, L.A.: The cradle of the solar system. Science304, 1116–1117 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  51. Hinse, T.C., Michelsen, R., Jørgensen, U.G., Goździewski, K., Mikkola, S.: Dynamics and stability of telluric planets within the habitable zone of extrasolar planetary systems. Numerical simulations of test particles within the HD 4208 and HD 70642 systems. Astron. Astrophys.488, 1133–1147 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Hopkins, A.M., Beacom, J.F.: On the normalization of the cosmic star formation history. Astrophys. J.651, 142–154 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  53. Horner, J., Jones, B.W.: Jupiter friend or foe? I: The asteroids. Int. J. Astrobiol.7, 251–261 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Horner, J., Jones, B.W.: Jupiter – friend or foe? II: the Centaurs. Int. J. Astrobiol.8, 75–80 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. Israelian, G., Santos, N.C., Mayor, M., Rebolo, R.: Lithium in stars with exoplanets. Astron. Astrophys.414, 601–611 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Jones, H.R.A., Butler, R.P., Tinney, C.G., Marcy, G.W., Penny, A.J., McCarthy, C., Carter, B.D.: An exoplanet in orbit around τ Gruis. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.341, 948–952 (2003)ADSGoogle Scholar
  57. Kashyap, V.L., Drake, J.J., Saar, S.H.: Extrasolar giant planets and x-ray activity. Astrophys. J.687, 1339–1354 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Kerr, F.J., Lynden-Bell, D.: Review of galactic constants. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.221, 1023–1038 (1986)ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. King, J.R., Boesgaard, A.M., Schuler, S.C.: Keck HIRES spectroscopy of four candidate solar twins. Astron. J.130, 2318–2325 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Kokubo, E., Ida, S.: Formation of protoplanet systems and diversity of planetary systems. Astrophys. J.581, 666–680 (2002)ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. Kornet, K., Stepinski, T.F., Różyczka, M.: Diversity of planetary systems from evolution of solids in protoplanetary disks. Astron. Astrophys.378, 180–191 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Kroupa, P.: The initial mass function of stars: Evidence for uniformity in variable systems. Science295, 82–91 (2002)ADSGoogle Scholar
  63. Lada, C.J.: Stellar multiplicity and the initial mass function: Most stars are single. Astrophys. J.640, L63–L66 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Laskar, J.: Large-scale chaos in the solar system. Astron. Astrophys.287, L9–L12 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  65. Laskar, J.: Large scale chaos and marginal stability in the solar system. Celestial Mech. Dyn. Astron.64, 115–162 (1996)MathSciNetADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  66. Laskar, J.: Chaotic diffusion in the solar system. Icarus196, 1–15 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Laskar, J., Gastineau, M.: Existence of collisional trajectories of mercury, mars and venus with the earth. Nature459, 817–819 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Laskar, J., Joutel, F., Robutel, P.: Stabilization of the earth’s obliquity by the moon. Nature361, 615–617 (1993)ADSGoogle Scholar
  69. Laskar, J., Robutel, P., Joutel, F., Gastineau, M., Correia, A.C.M., Levrard, B.: A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the earth. Astron. Astrophys.428, 261–285 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  70. Lathe, R.: Fast tidal cycling and the origin of life. Icarus168, 18–22 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  71. Lineweaver, C.H., Fenner, Y., Gibson, B.K.: The galactic habitable zone and the age distribution of complex life in the milky way. Science303, 59–62 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. Livio, M.: How rare are extraterrestrial civilizations, and when did they emerge? Astrophys. J.511, 429–431 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. Lockwood, G.W., Skiff, B.A., Henry, G.W., Henry, S., Radick, R.R., Baliunas, S.L., Donahue, R.A., Soon, W.: Patterns of photometric and chromospheric variation among sun-like stars: A 20 year perspective. Astrophys. J. Suppl.171, 260–303 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  74. Looney, L.W., Tobin, J.J., Fields, B.D.: Radioactive probes of the supernova-contaminated solar Nebula: Evidence that the sun was born in a cluster. Astrophys. J.652, 1755–1762 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Lucatello, S., Tsangarides, S., Beers, T.C., Carretta, E., Gratton, R.G., Ryan, S.G.: The binary frequency among carbon-enhanced, s-process-rich, metal-poor stars. Astrophys. J.625, 825–832 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. Lunine, J.I.: The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.98, 809–814 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Machida, M.N.: Binary formation in star-forming clouds with various metallicities. Astrophys. J.682, L1–L4 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  78. Malhotra, R.: Dynamical cause of the late heavy bombardment. In: Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts, vol. 38, pp. 2373–2374 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. Malmberg, D., Davies, M.B., Chambers, J.E.: The instability of planetary systems in binaries: How the Kozai mechanism leads to strong planet-planet interactions. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.377, L1–L4 (2007a)ADSGoogle Scholar
  80. Malmberg, D., de Angeli, F., Davies, M.B., Church, R.P., Mackey, D., Wilkinson, M.I.: Close encounters in young stellar clusters: Implications for planetary systems in the solar neighbourhood. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.378, 1207–1216 (2007b)ADSGoogle Scholar
  81. Malmberg, D., Davies, M.B., Chambers, J.E., Church, R.P., DeAngeli, F., Mackey, D., Wilkinson, M.I.: Is our sun a singleton? Phys. Scripta T130(1), 014,030 (2008)Google Scholar
  82. Marchi, S.: Extrasolar planet taxonomy: A new statistical approach. Astrophys. J.666, 475–485 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  83. Marchi, S., Ortolani, S.: Unveiling exoplanet families. In: Exoplanets: Detection, Formation and Dynamics, IAU Symposium, vol. 249, pp. 123–128. Cambridge University Press, London (2008)Google Scholar
  84. Marcy, G., Butler, R.P., Fischer, D., Vogt, S., Wright, J.T., Tinney, C.G., Jones, H.R.A.: Observed Properties of Exoplanets: Masses, Orbits, and Metallicities. Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement158, 24–42 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Marinova, M.M., Aharonson, O., Asphaug, E.: Mega-impact formation of the Mars hemispheric dichotomy. Nature453, 1216–1219 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  86. McNeil, D., Duncan, M., Levison, H.F.: Effects of type I migration on terrestrial planet formation. Astron. J.130, 2884–2899 (2005)ADSGoogle Scholar
  87. Meaney, M.J.: Nature, nurture, and the disunity of knowledge. Ann. N Y Acad. Sci.935, 50–61 (2001)ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Meléndez, J., Dodds-Eden, K., Robles, J.A.: HD 98618: A star closely resembling our sun. Astrophys. J.641, L133–L136 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  89. Meléndez, J., Ramírez, I.: HIP 56948: A solar twin with a low lithium abundance. Astrophys. J.669, L89–L92 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  90. Miller, G.E., Scalo, J.M.: The initial mass function and stellar birthrate in the solar neighborhood. Astrophys. J. Suppl.41, 513–547 (1979)ADSGoogle Scholar
  91. Mishurov, Y.N., Zenina, I.A.: Yes, the sun is located near the corotation circle. Astron. Astrophys.341, 81–85 (1999)ADSGoogle Scholar
  92. Mishurov, Y.N., Zenina, I.A., Dambis, A.K., Mel’Nik, A.M., Rastorguev, A.S.: Is the sun located near the corotation circle? Astron. Astrophys.323, 775–780 (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  93. Morbidelli, A., Crida, A.: The dynamics of Jupiter and Saturn in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Icarus191, 158–171 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  94. Morbidelli, A., Levison, H.F.: Late evolution of planetary systems. Phys. Scripta T130(1), 014,028 (2008)Google Scholar
  95. Moro-Martín, A.: On the solar system – debris disk connection. In: Exoplanets: Detection, Formation and Dynamics, IAU Symposium, vol. 249, pp. 347–354 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  96. Nimmo, F., Hart, S.D., Korycansky, D.G., Agnor, C.B.: Implications of an impact origin for the martian hemispheric dichotomy. Nature453, 1220–1223 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  97. Noyes, R.W., Hartmann, L.W., Baliunas, S.L., Duncan, D.K., Vaughan, A.H.: Rotation, convection, and magnetic activity in lower main-sequence stars. Astrophys. J.279, 763–777 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  98. Pascucci, I., Apai, D., Luhman, K., Henning, T., Bouwman, J., Meyer, M.R., Lahuis, F., Natta, A.: The different evolution of gas and dust in disks around sun-like and cool stars. Astrophys. J.696, 143–159 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  99. Pasquini, L., Biazzo, K., Bonifacio, P., Randich, S., Bedin, L.R.: Solar twins in M 67. Astron. Astrophys.489, 677–684 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  100. Pilat-Lohinger, E., Süli, Á., Robutel, P., Freistetter, F.: The Influence of Giant Planets Near a Mean Motion Resonance on Earth-like Planets in the habitable zone of sun-like stars. Astrophys. J.681, 1639–1645 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  101. Portegies Zwart, S.F.: The lost siblings of the sun. Astrophysical Journal696, L13–L16 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. Porto de Mello, G.F., da Silva, L.: HR 6060: The closest ever solar twin? Astrophys. J.482, L89– (1997)ADSGoogle Scholar
  103. Porto de Mello, G., del Peloso, E.F., Ghezzi, L.: Astrobiologically interesting stars within 10 parsecs of the sun. Astrobiology6, 308–331 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  104. Prantzos, N.: On the “galactic habitable zone”. Space Sci. Rev.135, 313–322 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  105. Price, D.J., Bate, M.R.: The impact of magnetic fields on single and binary star formation. Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.377, 77–90 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  106. Quintana, E.V., Lissauer, J.J., Chambers, J.E., Duncan, M.J.: Terrestrial planet formation in the α centauri system. Astrophys. J.576, 982–996 (2002)ADSGoogle Scholar
  107. Raymond, S.N., Mandell, A.M., Sigurdsson, S.: Exotic earths: Forming habitable worlds with giant planet migration. Science313, 1413–1416 (2006)ADSGoogle Scholar
  108. Rhee, J.H., Song, I., Zuckerman, B.: Warm dust in the terrestrial planet zone of a sun-like pleiades star: Collisions between planetary embryos? Astrophys. J.675, 777–783 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  109. Robles, J.A., Lineweaver, C.H., Grether, D., Flynn, C., Egan, C.A., Pracy, M.B., Holmberg, J., Gardner, E.: A comprehensive comparison of the sun to other stars: Searching for self-selection effects. Astrophys. J.684, 691–706 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  110. Roškar, R., Debattista, V.P., Quinn, T.R., Stinson, G.S., Wadsley, J.: Riding the spiral waves: Implications of stellar migration for the properties of galactic disks. Astrophys. J.684, L79–L82 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  111. Rubenstein, E.P., Schaefer, B.E.: Are superflares on solar analogues caused by extrasolar planets? Astrophys. J.529, 1031–1033 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  112. Ruderman, M.A.: Possible consequences of nearby supernova explosions for atmospheric ozone and terrestrial life. Science184, 1079–1081 (1974)ADSGoogle Scholar
  113. Saar, S.H., Brandenburg, A.: Time evolution of the magnetic activity cycle period. II. Results for an expanded stellar sample. Astrophys. J.524, 295–310 (1999)Google Scholar
  114. Schaefer, B.E., King, J.R., Deliyannis, C.P.: Superflares on ordinary solar-type stars. Astrophys. J.529, 1026–1030 (2000)ADSGoogle Scholar
  115. Scott, P., Asplund, M., Grevesse, N., Sauval, A.J.: On the solar nickel and oxygen abundances. Astrophys. J.691, L119–L122 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  116. Skumanich, A.: Time scales for CA II emission decay, rotational braking, and lithium depletion. Astrophys. J.171, 565–568 (1972)ADSGoogle Scholar
  117. Sleep, N.H.: Martian plate tectonics. J. Geophys. Res.99, 5639–5655 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  118. Soderblom, D.R.: A short list of SETI candidates. Icarus67, 184–186 (1986)ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. Soubiran, C., Triaud, A.: The top ten solar analogs in the ELODIE library. Astron. Astrophys.418, 1089–1100 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  120. Takeda, Y., Tajitsu, A.: High-dispersion spectroscopic study of solar twins: HIP 56948, HIP 79672, and HIP 100963. Publ. Astron. Soc. Jpn.61, 471–480 (2009)ADSGoogle Scholar
  121. Thommes, E.W., Bryden, G., Wu, Y., Rasio, F.A.: From mean motion resonances to scattered planets: Producing the solar system, eccentric exoplanets and late heavy bombardment. Astrophys. J.675, 1538–1548 (2008a)ADSGoogle Scholar
  122. Thommes, E.W., Matsumura, S., Rasio, F.A.: Gas disks to gas giants: Simulating the birth of planetary systems. Science321, 814–817 (2008b)ADSGoogle Scholar
  123. Tohline, J.E.: The origin of binary stars. Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.40, 349–385 (2002)ADSGoogle Scholar
  124. Udry, S., Fischer, D., Queloz, D.: A decade of radial-velocity discoveries in the exoplanet domain. In: Reipurth, B., Jewitt, D., Keil, K. (eds.) Protostars and Planets V, pp. 685–699. University of Arizona Press, AZ (2007)Google Scholar
  125. Van der Wel, A.: The dependence of galaxy morphology and structure on environment and stellar mass. Astrophys. J.675, L13–L16 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  126. Vaughan, A.H., Preston, G.W.: A survey of chromospheric CA II H and K emission in field stars of the solar neighborhood. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.92, 385–391 (1980)ADSGoogle Scholar
  127. Vázquez, M., Hanslmeier, A.: The ultraviolet radiation in the solar system. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  128. Watters, T.R., McGovern, P.J., Irwin III, R.P.: Hemispheres apart: The crustal dichotomy on mars. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.35, 621–652 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar
  129. Wetherill, G.W.: Possible consequences of absence of Jupiters in planetary systems. Astrophys. Space Sci.212, 23–32 (1994)ADSGoogle Scholar
  130. Whitehouse, D.R.: The ancient sun and biogenesis. Observatory103, 160–162 (1983)ADSGoogle Scholar
  131. Wielen, R., Fuchs, B., Dettbarn, C.: On the birth-place of the sun and the places of formation of other nearby stars. Astron. Astrophys.314, 438–447 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  132. Wilhelms, D.E., Squyres, S.W.: The martian hemispheric dichotomy may be due to a giant impact. Nature309, 138–140 (1984)ADSGoogle Scholar
  133. Wright, J.T., Marcy, G.W., Butler, R.P., Vogt, S.S.: Chromospheric Ca II emission in nearby F, G, K, and M stars. Astrophys. J. Suppl.152, 261–295 (2004)ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. Wright, J.T., Marcy, G.W., Butler, R.P., Vogt, S.S., Henry, G.W., Isaacson, H., Howard, A.W.: The Jupiter twin HD 154345b. Astrophys. J.683, L63–L66 (2008)ADSGoogle Scholar
  135. Wyatt, M.C., Smith, R., Greaves, J.S., Beichman, C.A., Bryden, G., Lisse, C.M.: Transience of hot dust around sun-like stars. Astrophys. J.658, 569–583 (2007)ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Vázquez
    • 1
  • E. Pallé
    • 1
  • P. Montañés Rodríguez
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de Astrofísica de CanariasTenerifeSpain

Personalised recommendations