Sexual and Gender Prejudice

  • Ritch C. Savin-Williams
  • Seth T. Pardo
  • Zhana Vrangalova
  • Ryan S. Mitchell
  • Kenneth M. Cohen
Chapter

Abstract

Sexual prejudice is defined by Herek (2000, p. 19) as “all negative attitudes based on sexual orientation, whether the target is homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual.”

References

  1. Adams, H. E., Wright, L. W., Jr., & Lohr, B. A. (1996). Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105, 440–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, J. (2007). Bisexuality in the media: A digital roundtable. Journal of Bisexuality, 7, 113–124.Google Scholar
  3. Allport, G. W., & Ross, J. M. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 432–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Altemeyer, B. (1998). The other “authoritarian personality.” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 47–92.Google Scholar
  5. Banerjee, N. (2008, June 1). Taking their faith, but not their politics, to the people. New York Times. Retrieved June 5, 2008, from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/01/us/01evangelical.html
  6. Basow, S. A. (1992). Gender: Stereotypes and roles (3rd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  7. Basow, S. A., & Johnson, K. (2000). Predictors of homophobia in female college students. Sex Roles, 42, 391–404.Google Scholar
  8. Berg-Kelly, K. (2003). Adolescent homosexuality: We need to learn more about causes and consequences. Acta Pædiatrica, 92, 141–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blumstein, P. W., & Schwartz, P. (1974). Lesbianism and bisexuality. In E. Goode (Ed.), Sexual deviance and sexual deviants (pp. 278–295). New York: Morrow.Google Scholar
  10. Bornstein, K. (1994). Gender outlaw: On men, women, and the rest of us. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Bradley, S. J., & Zucker, K. J. (1997). Gender identity disorder: A review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 872–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Broverman, N. (2006, February 14). By the numbers: Gay rights. Advocate, p. 36.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, M. L., & Rounsley, C. A. (1996). True selves: Understanding transsexualism. San Francisco, CA: Jossey–Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Bryant, W. M. (2001). Stereotyping bisexual men in film. Journal of Bisexuality, 1, 213–219.Google Scholar
  15. Buchanan, W. (2006, March 23). Poll finds U.S. warming to gay marriage. Retrieved March 27, 2006, from http://www.sfgate.com/egi-bin
  16. Burgess, C. (1999). Internal and external stress factors associated with the identity development of transgendered youth. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 10, 35–47.Google Scholar
  17. Campos-Flores, A. (2008). A gay marriage surge: Public support grows, according to the new Newsweek poll. Retrieved December 5, 2008, from http://www.newsweek.com/id/172399
  18. Colapinto, J. (2000). As nature made him: The boy who was raised as a girl. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  19. D’Augelli, A. R., Hershberger, S. L., & Pilkington, N. W. (2001). Suicidality patterns and sexual orientation-related factors among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 31, 250–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. D’Augelli, A. R., Pilkington, N. W., & Hershberger, S. L. (2002). Incidence and mental health impact of sexual orientation victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths in high school. School Psychology Quarterly, 17, 148–167.Google Scholar
  21. Deaux, K., & Kite, M. E. (1987). Thinking about gender. In B. B. Hess & M. M. Ferree (Eds.), Analyzing gender: A handbook of social science research (pp. 92–117). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. de Graaf, R., Sandfort, T. G. M., & ten Have, M. (2006). Suicidality and sexual orientation: Differences between men and women in a general population-based sample from the Netherlands. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 253–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dengel, D. W. (2006). Examining biphobia in heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual men and women. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Temple University.Google Scholar
  24. Denny, D. (2004). Changing models of transsexualism. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy, 8, 25–40.Google Scholar
  25. Diamond, L. M. (2008). Female bisexuality from adolescence to adulthood: Results from a 10-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 44, 5–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Diamond, M., & Sigmundson, K. (1997). Sex reassignment at birth: Long-term review and clinical implications. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 151, 298–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Doig, W. (2007, July 17). America’s real first family. Advocate, pp. 46–50.Google Scholar
  28. Duck, R. J., & Hunsberger, B. (1999). Religious orientation and prejudice: The role of religious proscription, right-wing authoritarianism, and social desirability. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 9, 157–179.Google Scholar
  29. Ekehammar, B., Akrami, N., Gylje, M., & Zakrisson, I. (2004). What matters most to prejudice: Big five personality, social dominance orientation, or right-wing authoritarianism? European Journal of Psychology, 18, 463–482.Google Scholar
  30. Eliason, M. J. (1997). The prevalence and nature of biphobia in heterosexual undergraduate students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 26, 317–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Eliason, M. (2001). Bi-negativity: The stigma facing bisexual men. Journal of Bisexuality, 1, 137–154.Google Scholar
  32. Fausto-Sterling, A. (2000). Sexing the body: Gender politics and the construction of sexuality. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  33. Feinberg, L. (1993). Stone butch blues. New York: Firebrand Books.Google Scholar
  34. Feinberg, L. (1996). Transgender warriors: Making history from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman. Boston, MA: Beacon.Google Scholar
  35. Feinberg, L. (2006). Drag king dreams. New York: Carroll & Graff.Google Scholar
  36. Fish, S. (2008, June 1). Norms and deviations: Who’s to say? New York Times. Retrieved June 1, 2008, from http://fish.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/06/01/norms-and-deviations-whos-to-say/index.html?ref=opinion
  37. Fyfe, B. (1983). “Homophobia” or homosexual bias reconsidered. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 549–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Galupo, P. M., Sailer, C. A., & St. John, S. C. (2004). Friendships across sexual orientations: Experiences of bisexual women in early adulthood. In R. C. Fox (Ed.), Current research on bisexuality (pp. 37–53). New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  39. Gandossy, T. (2007, July 7). Poll majority: Gays’ orientation can’t change. Retrieved July 7, 2007, from http://www.cnn.com/2007/Living/personal
  40. Geiger, W., Harwood, J., & Hummert, M. L. (2006). College students’ multiple stereotypes of lesbians: A cognitive perspective. Journal of Homosexuality, 51, 165–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Geller, T. (Ed.). (1990). Bisexuality: A reader and sourcebook. Novato, CA: Times Change.Google Scholar
  42. glsen.org (2007, July 31). Retrieved July 31, 2007, from http://www.glsen.org
  43. Graham, C. (2005, October 11). Good news at the 500. Advocate, p. 60.Google Scholar
  44. Green, R. (1987). The “sissy boy syndrome” and the development of homosexuality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Grossman, C. L. (2008a, June 24). Religion findings show divergence from traditional doctrines. USA Today, pp. 1D–2D.Google Scholar
  46. Grossman, C. L. (2008b, June 4). Most say gay marriage private choice. USA Today, p. 7D.Google Scholar
  47. Gunther, M. (2006, December 3). Queer Inc.: How corporate America fell in love with gays and lesbians. Retrieved December 3, 2006, from http://www.cnnmoney.com/pt/
  48. Hartman, J. E. (2005). Another kind of ‘chilly climate’: The effects of lesbian separatism on bisexual women’s identity and community. Journal of Bisexuality, 5, 61–77.Google Scholar
  49. Haslam, N., & Levy, S. R. (2006). Essentialist beliefs about homosexuality: Structure and implications for prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 471–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Herek, G. M. (1986). On heterosexual masculinity: Some psychical consequences of the social construction of gender and sexuality. American Behavioral Scientist, 29, 563–577.Google Scholar
  51. Herek, G. M. (1987). Religious orientation and prejudice: A comparison of racial and sexual attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 56–65.Google Scholar
  52. Herek, G. M. (2000). The psychology of sexual prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 19–22.Google Scholar
  53. Herek, G. M. (2002a). Gender gaps in public opinion about lesbians and gay men. Public Opinion Quarterly, 66, 40–66.Google Scholar
  54. Herek, G. M. (2002b). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. Journal of Sex Research, 39, 264–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Herek, G. M. (2004). Beyond “homophobia”: Thinking about sexual prejudice and stigma in the twenty-first century. Sexual Research and Social Policy, 1, 6–24.Google Scholar
  56. Herek, G. M. (2009). Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among sexual minority adults in the United States: Prevalence estimates from a national probability sample. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24, 54–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Herek, G. M., Cogan, J. C., Gillis, J. R., & Glunt, E. K. (1998). Correlates of internalized homophobia in a community sample of lesbians and gay men. Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 2, 17–25.Google Scholar
  58. Herek, G. M., Gillis, J. R., & Cogan, J. C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 945–951.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hill, D. B. (2003). Genderism, transphobia, and gender bashing: A framework for interpreting anti-transgender violence. In B. C. Wallace & R. T. Carter (Eds.), Understanding and dealing with violence: A multicultural approach (pp. 113–136). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  60. Hinrichs, D. W., & Rosenberg, P. J. (2002). Attitudes toward gay, lesbian, and bisexual persons among heterosexual liberal arts college students. Journal of Homosexuality, 43, 61–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hudson, W. W., & Ricketts, W. A. (1980). A strategy for the measurement of homophobia. Journal of Homosexuality, 5, 357–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hutchins, L., & Kaahumanu, L. (Eds.). (1991). Bi any other name: Bisexual people speak out. Boston, MA: Alyson.Google Scholar
  63. Igartua, K. J., Gill, K., & Montoro, R. (2003). Internalized homophobia: A factor in depression, anxiety, and suicide in the gay and lesbian population. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 22, 15–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Irwin, J. (2002). Discrimination against gay men, lesbians, and transgender people working in education. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 14, 65–77.Google Scholar
  65. Israel, T., & Mohr, J. J. (2004). Attitudes toward bisexual women and men: Current research, future directions. In R. C. Fox (Ed.), Current research on bisexuality (pp. 117–134). New York: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  66. Kahn, T. J. (1990). The adolescent transsexual in a juvenile corrections institution: A case study. Child and Youth Care Quarterly, 19, 21–29.Google Scholar
  67. Kelley, J. (2001). Attitudes toward homosexuality in 29 nations. Australian Social Monitor, 4, 15–22.Google Scholar
  68. Kite, M. E., & Whitley, B. E. (1996). Sex differences in attitudes toward homosexual persons, behavior, and civil rights: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 336–353.Google Scholar
  69. Klein, R. (1999). Group work practice with transgendered male-to-female sex workers. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 10, 95–109.Google Scholar
  70. Laird, N. (2004). Exploring biphobia: A report on participatory appraisal research workshops in Glasgow and Edinburgh. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from http://www.stonewall.org.uk/documents/Bisexual_Participatory_Appraisal_Research.pdf
  71. LaMar, L., & Kite, M. (1998). Sex differences in attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: A multidimensional approach. Journal of Sex Research, 35, 189–196.Google Scholar
  72. Lawrence, A. A. (2003). Factors associated with satisfaction or regret following male-to-female sex reassignment. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 299–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lev, A. I. (2004). Transgender emergence: Therapeutic guidelines for working with gender-variant people and their families. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  74. Lippa, R., & Arad, S. (1999). Gender, personality, and prejudice: The display of authoritarianism and social dominance orientation in interviews with college men and women. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 463–493.Google Scholar
  75. Lombardi, E. L., Wilchins, R. A., Priesing, D., & Malouf, D. (2001). Gender violence: Transgender experiences with violence and discrimination. Journal of Homosexuality, 42, 89–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Louderback, L. A., & Whitley, B. E., Jr. (1997). Perceived erotic value of homosexuality and sex-role attitudes as mediators of sex differences in heterosexual college students’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Journal of Sex Research, 34, 175–182.Google Scholar
  77. Madon, S. (1997). What do people believe about gay males? A study of stereotype content and strength. Sex Roles, 37, 663–685.Google Scholar
  78. Mahaffey, A. L., Bryan, A., & Hutchison, K. E. (2005). Sex differences in affective responses to homoerotic stimuli: Evidence for an unconscious bias among heterosexual men, but not heterosexual women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34, 537–545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Maher, M. J., Sever, L. M., & Pichler, S. (2008). How Catholic college students think about homosexuality: The connection between authority and sexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 55, 325–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Martin, C. L. (1990). Attitudes about children with nontraditional and traditional gender roles. Sex Roles, 22, 151–165.Google Scholar
  81. McCreary, D. R. (1994). The male role and avoiding femininity. Sex Roles, 31, 517–531.Google Scholar
  82. McLean, K. (2001). Living in the double closet: Bisexual youth speak out. Hecate, 27, 109–118.Google Scholar
  83. Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Miller, M. (2002). “Ethically questionable?” Popular media reports on bisexual men and AIDS. Journal of Bisexuality, 2, 93–112.Google Scholar
  85. Minter, S. (2003, October). Representing transsexual clients: Selected legal issues. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from http://www.transgenderlaw.org/resources/translaw.htm
  86. Mohr, J. J., & Rochlen, A. B. (1999). Measuring attitudes regarding bisexuality in lesbian, gay male, and heterosexual populations. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 353–369.Google Scholar
  87. Money, J., & Erhardt, A. (1972). Man and woman, boy and girl: The differentiation and dimorphism of gender identity from conception to maturity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Money, J., & Lamacz, M. (1989). Vandalized lovemaps: Paraphilic outcome of seven cases in pediatric sexology. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  89. Morrison, T. G., & Bearden, A. G. (2007). The construction and validation of the homopositivity scale: An instrument measuring endorsement of positive stereotypes about gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 52, 63–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Mulick, P. S., & Wright, L. W. Jr. (2002). Examining the existence of biphobia in the heterosexual and homosexual populations. Journal of Bisexuality, 2, 45–64.Google Scholar
  91. Muñoz-Laboy, M. A. (2008). Familism and sexual regulation among bisexual Latino men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 773–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Murphy, T. (2008, June 17). The believers. Advocate, pp. 52–58.Google Scholar
  93. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (1999). Anti-lesbian, gay, transgender, and bisexual violence in 1999: A report of the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. Retrieved June 1, 2008, from http://www.ncavp.org/publications/NationalPubs.aspx
  94. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. (2007). Anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender violence in 2007: A report of the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. Retrieved June 1, 2008, from http://www.ncavp.org/publications/NationalPubs.aspx
  95. National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. (2007). Scope of explicitly transgender-inclusive anti-discrimination laws. Retrieved June 1, 2008, from http://www.thetaskforce.org/transgender_inclusive_laws
  96. Ochs, R. (1996). Biphobia: It goes more than two ways. In B. A. Firestein (Ed.), Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp. 217–239). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  97. O’Donohue, W., & Caselles, C. E. (1993). Homophobia: Conceptual, definitional, and value issues. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 15, 177–195.Google Scholar
  98. Pardo, T. (2008). An exploratory study of identity conceptualization and development in a sample of gender nonconforming biological females. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  99. Pfafflin, F., & Junge, A. (1998). Sex reassignment: Thirty years of international follow-up studies after sex reassignment surgery: A comprehensive review, 1961–1991 [Translated from German into American English by Roberta B. Jacobson and Alf B. Meier]. International Journal of Transgenderism. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from http://www.symposion.com/ijt/pfaefflin/1000.htm
  100. Ponse, B. (1978). Identities in the lesbian world: The social construction of self. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  101. Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L. M., & Malle, B. F. (1994). Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 741–763.Google Scholar
  102. Proulx, R. (1997). Homophobia in northeastern Brazilian university students. Journal of Homosexuality, 34, 47–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Raidt, T. (2003). They don’t know which side they’re on: Biphobia as a result of Western binary thinking and the human need for stability. Retrieved October 16, 2008, from http://www.tabearaidt.de/Biphobia-TabeaRaidt.pdf
  104. Riseley, D. (1986). Gender identity disorder of childhood: Diagnostic and treatment issues. In W. A. Walters & M. W. Ross (Eds.), Transsexualism and sex reassignment (pp. 26–43). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Rosik, C. H., Griffith, L. K., & Cruz, Z. (2007). Homophobia and conservative religion: Toward a more nuanced understanding. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77, 10–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ross, M. W., & Rosser, B. R. S. (1996). Measurement and correlates of internalized homophobia: A factor analytic study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 52, 15–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rowatt, W. C., & Schmitt, D. (2003). Associations between religious orientation and varieties of sexual experience. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42, 455–465.Google Scholar
  108. Rowen, C. J., & Malcolm, J. P. (2002). Correlates of internalized homophobia and homosexual identity formation in a sample of gay men. Journal of Homosexuality, 43, 77–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ruble, D. N., Martin, C., & Berenbaum, S. A. (2007). Gender development. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (6th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 858–932). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  110. Ruble, D. N., Taylor, L., Cyphers, L., Greulich, F. K., Lurye, L. E., & Strout, P. E. (2007). The role of gender constancy in early gender development. Child Development, 78, 1121–1136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Rust, P. C. (1995). Bisexuality and the challenge to lesbian politics: Sex, loyalty, and revolution. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Rust, P. C. (2000). Bisexuality: A contemporary paradox for women. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 205–221.Google Scholar
  113. Rust, P. C. (2001). Two many and not enough: The meaning of bisexual identities. Journal of Bisexuality, 1, 31–68.Google Scholar
  114. Rust, P. C. (2002). Bisexuality: The state of the union. Annual Review of Sex Research, 13, 180–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Saad, L. (2007, May 29). Tolerance for gay rights at high-water mark. Retrieved May 29, 2007, from http://www.gallup.com/poll/27694/Tolerance-Gay-Rights-HighWater-Mark.aspx
  116. Sausa, L. A. (2005). Translating research into practice: Trans youth recommendations for improving school systems. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education, 3, 15–28.Google Scholar
  117. Savin-Williams, R. C. (2005). The new gay teenager. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Sibley, C. G., Robertson, A., & Wilson, M. S. (2006). Exploring the additive and interactive effects of social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism on prejudice and related intergroup attitudes. Political Psychology, 27, 755–768.Google Scholar
  119. Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (1999). Social dominance. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Siegel, K., Schrimshaw, E. W., Lekas, H. M., & Parsons, J. T. (2008). Sexual behaviors of non-gay identified non-disclosing men who have sex with men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37, 720–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Smith, Y. S., Van Goozen, S. H., Kuiper, A. J., & Cohen-Kettenis, P. T. (2005). Sex reassignment: Outcomes and predictors of treatment for adolescent and adult transsexuals. Psychological Medicine, 35, 89–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Southworth, A. (2008, June 17). Unconditional love. Advocate, p. 38.Google Scholar
  123. Spalding, L. R., & Peplau, L. A. (1997). The unfaithful lover: Heterosexuals’ perceptions of bisexuals and their relationships. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 611–625.Google Scholar
  124. Steffens, M. C., & Wagner, C. (2004). Attitudes toward lesbians, gay men, bisexual women, and bisexual men in Germany. Journal of Sex Research, 41, 137–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Stevens-Miller, M., Plotner, B., Williamson, D., Jackson, M., Monzo, T., & Roder, A. (1999, May). It’s time, Illinois: Report on discrimination and hate crimes against transgendered people in Illinois. Retrieved June 1, 2008, from http://www.genderadvocates.org/reports/report2000.pdf
  126. Swann, S., & Herbert, S. E. (1999). Ethical issues in the mental health treatment of gender dysphoric adolescents. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 10, 19–34.Google Scholar
  127. Theodore, P. S., & Basow, S. A. (2000). Heterosexual masculinity and homophobia: A reaction to the self? Journal of Homosexuality, 40, 31–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Vrangalova, S. (2005). Misterijata na seksualnata orientacija: Sovremeni koncepti i makedonski perspektivi [The sexual orientation mystery: Contemporary concepts and Macedonian perspectives]. Skopje, Macedonia: EGAL.Google Scholar
  129. Weber, G. N. (2008). Using to numb the pain: Substance use and abuse among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 30, 31–48.Google Scholar
  130. Weinberg, G. (1972). Society and the healthy homosexual. New York: St. Martins.Google Scholar
  131. Weinrich, J. D., & Klein, F. (2002). Bi-gay, bi-straight, and bi-bi: Three bisexual subgroups identified using cluster analysis of the Klein sexual orientation grid. Journal of Bisexuality, 2, 109–139.Google Scholar
  132. Weinstein, S. (2007, June 19). Their best foot forward. Advocate, pp. 69–70.Google Scholar
  133. Weiss, J. T. (2004). GL vs. BT: The archaeology of biphobia and transphobia within U.S. gay and lesbian community. Journal of Bisexuality, 3, 25–55.Google Scholar
  134. White, J. B., & Langer, E. J. (1999). Horizontal hostility: Relations between similar minority groups. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 537–559.Google Scholar
  135. White, J. D. (2002). Bisexuals who kill: Hollywood’s bisexual crimewave 1985–1995. Journal of Bisexuality, 2, 39–54.Google Scholar
  136. Whitley, B. E., & Ægisdóttir, S. (2000). The gender belief system, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, and heterosexuals’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Sex Roles, 42, 947–967.Google Scholar
  137. Whitley, B. E., & Lee, S. E. (2000). The relationship of authoritarianism and related constructs to attitudes toward homosexuality. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 144–170.Google Scholar
  138. Whittle, S., Turner, L., & Al-Alami, M. (2007, February). Engendered penalties: Transgender and transsexual people’s experiences of inequality and discrimination. Equalities Review. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from http://www.pfc.org.uk/files/EngenderedPenalties.pdf
  139. Whittle, S., Turner, L., Combs, R., & Rhodes, S. (2008, April). Transgender EuroStudy: Legal survey and focus on the transgender experience of health care. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from http://www.pfc.org.uk/files/eurostudy.pdf
  140. Wichstrøm, L., & Hegna, K. (2003). Sexual orientation and suicide attempt: A longitudinal study of the general Norwegian adolescent population. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 144–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Wilkinson, W. W. (2004). Religiosity, authoritarianism, and homophobia: A multidimensional approach. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 14, 55–67.Google Scholar
  142. Wilkinson, W. W. (2006). Exploring heterosexual women’s anti-lesbian attitudes. Journal of Homosexuality, 51, 139–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Wright, L. W., Jr., Adams, H. E., & Bernat, J. (1999). Development and validation of the homophobia scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 21, 337–347.Google Scholar
  144. Zucker, K. (1985). Cross-gender identified children. In B. Steiner (Ed.), Gender dysphoria: Development, research, and management (pp. 75–174). New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  145. Zucker, K. (2005). Gender identity disorder in children and adolescents. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 467–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Zucker, K. J., Bradley, S. J., & Sanikhani, M. (1997). Sex differences in referral rates of children with gender identity disorder: Some hypotheses. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 217–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ritch C. Savin-Williams
    • 1
  • Seth T. Pardo
    • 1
  • Zhana Vrangalova
    • 1
  • Ryan S. Mitchell
    • 1
  • Kenneth M. Cohen
    • 1
  1. 1.Cornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations