Advertisement

Gender, Adult Development, and Aging

  • Abigail J. Stewart
  • Nicky J. Newton
Chapter

The subject of gender in adulthood is, on its face, too large for a single chapter. In an attempt to define it so that it is feasible to address, we narrow our focus to three broad issues: gender and lifespan developmental approaches to studying adult personality; gender and the aging mind and body across adulthood; and the implications of gendered social roles for adult development and aging. We chose these issues for several reasons.

First, we wanted to highlight the differences between a “lifespan developmental” approach to understanding gender in adulthood and an “aging” approach (see also Elder & Shanahan, 2006; Fuller-Iglesias, Antonucci, & Smith, 2008). The first emphasizes growth across the lifespan, often includes qualitatively distinct periods or stages, and does not focus on decline or decrements. This approach emphasizes ways that adults of different ages (e.g., in their 20s vs. their 40s) may differ from each other in important ways. The second approach nearly always...

Keywords

Sexual Orientation African American Woman Social Role Sexual Minority Personality Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Antonucci, T. C. (2001). Social relations: An examination of social networks, social support, and sense of control. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (pp. 427–453) San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baltes, P. B., & Staudinger, U. M. (2000). Wisdom: A metaheuristic (pragmatic) to orchestrate mind and virtue toward excellence. American Psychologist 55, 122–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlett, C. P., Vowles, C. L., & Saucier, D. A. (2008). Meta-analyses of the effects of media images on men’s body-image concerns. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27, 279–310.Google Scholar
  4. Barnett, R. C., & Baruch, G. K. (1978). Women in the middle years: A critique of research and theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 3, 187–197.Google Scholar
  5. Barnett, R. C., & Hyde, J. S. (2001). Women, men, work, and family: An expansionist theory. American Psychologist, 56, 781–796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrett, A. E. (2005). Gendered experiences in midlife: Implications for age identity. Journal of Aging Studies, 19, 163–183.Google Scholar
  7. Brawer, M. K. (2004). Testosterone replacement in men with andropause: An overview. Reviews in Urology, 6, 9–15.Google Scholar
  8. Butler, R. (1974). Successful aging and the role of life review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 22, 529–535.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Butler, R. (1975). Why survive? Being old in America. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  10. Canetto, S. S. (2001). Older adult women: Issues, resources, and challenges. In R. K. Unger (Ed.), Handbook of the psychology of women and gender (pp. 183–197). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Carp, F. M. (1997). Retirement and women. In J. M. Coyle (Ed.), Handbook on women and aging (pp. 112–128) Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  12. Carstensen, L. L., Fung, H. H., & Charles, S. T. (2003). Socioemotional selectivity theory and the regulation of emotion in the second half of life. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 103–123.Google Scholar
  13. Charlton, R. (2004). Ageing male syndrome, andropause, androgen decline or mid-life crisis? Journal of Men’s Health and Gender, 1(1), 55–59.Google Scholar
  14. Chrisler, J. C. (2007). Body image issues of women over 50. In V. Muhlbauer & J. C. Chrisler (Eds.), Women over 50: Psychological perspectives (pp. 6–25). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  15. Connidis, I. A. (2006). Intimate relationships: Learning from later life experience. In T. M. Calasanti & K. F. Slevin (Eds.), Age matters: Realigning feminist thinking (pp. 123–153) New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Conway-Turner, K. (1999). Older women of color: A feminist exploration of intersections of personal, familial, and community life. Journal of Women & Aging 11(2/3), 115–130.Google Scholar
  17. Costa, P. T., Jr. & McCrae, R. R. (1994). Set like plaster? Evidence for the stability of adult personality. In T. F. Heatherton & J. L. Weinberger (Eds.), Can personality change? (pp. 21–40).Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  18. Craik, F. I. M., & Salthouse, T. A. (Eds.) (2000). The handbook of aging and cognition (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Desmarais, S., & Curtis, J. (1997). Gender and perceived pay entitlement: Testing for effects of experience with income. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 141–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Diekman, A. B., & Eagly, A. H. (2008). Of men, women, and motivation: A role congruity account. In J. Y. Shah & W. L. Gardner (Eds.), Handbook of motivation science (pp. 434–447) New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  21. Dillaway, H. E. (2005). Menopause is the “good old”: Women’s thoughts about reproductive aging. Gender & Society, 19, 398–417.Google Scholar
  22. Duncan, L. E., & Agronick, G. S. (1995). The intersection of life stage and social events: Personality and life outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 558–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Eagly, A. H. (2007). Female leadership advantage and disadvantage: Resolving the contradictions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, 1–12.Google Scholar
  24. Ebner, N. C., Freund, A. M., & Baltes, P. B. (2006). Developmental changes in personal goal orientation from young to late adulthood: From striving for gains to maintenance and prevention of losses. Psychology and Aging, 21, 664–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Elder, G. H., & Shanahan, M. J. (2006). The life course and human development. In R. M. Lerner (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology(Vol. 1, pp. 665–715). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Elder, G. H., Shanahan, M. J., & Clipp, E. C. (1994). When war comes to men’s lives: Life-course patterns in family, work, and health. Psychology and Aging, 9, 5–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton. [Original work published 1950.]Google Scholar
  28. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  29. Erikson, E. H. (1969). Gandhi’s truth. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  30. Erikson, E. H. (1982). The life cycle completed. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  31. Erikson, E. H., Erikson, J. M., & Kivnick, H. Q. (1986). Vital involvement in old age. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  32. Facio, E. (1997). Chicanas and aging: Toward definitions of womanhood. In J. M. Coyle, (Ed.), Handbook on women and aging (pp. 335–350) Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  33. Feingold, A., & Mazzella, R. (1998). Gender differences in body image are increasing. Psychological Science, 9, 190–195.Google Scholar
  34. Franz, C. E., & McClelland, D. C. (1994). Lives of women and men active in social protests of the 1960s: A longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 190–205.Google Scholar
  35. Franz, C. E., & White, K. M. (1985). Individuation and attachment in personality development: Extending Erikson’s theory. Journal of Personality, 53, 224–256.Google Scholar
  36. Fredrickson, B., & Roberts, T-A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173–206.Google Scholar
  37. Freud, S. (1953). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 7, pp. 135–243).London: Hogarth. [Original work published 1905.]Google Scholar
  38. Fuller-Iglesias, H., Antonucci, T. C., & Smith, J. (2008). Theories of aging from a life course and life span perspective: An overview and Outlook. New York: MacArthur Foundation Aging Society Network.Google Scholar
  39. Gergen, M. M. (1990). Finished at 40: Women’s development within the patriarchy. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 14, 471–493.Google Scholar
  40. Gerson, M. (2002). Moral dilemmas, moral strategies, and the transformation of gender: Lessons from two generations of work and family change. Gender & Society, 16, 8–28.Google Scholar
  41. Gerson, M., Berman, L. S., & Morris, A. M. (1991). The value of having children as an aspect of adult development. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 152, 327–339.Google Scholar
  42. Giles, D. C., & Close, J. (2008). Exposure to “lad magazines” and drive for muscularity in dating and non-dating young men. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1610–1616.Google Scholar
  43. Gluck, J., Bluck, S., Baron, J., & McAdams, D. (2005). The wisdom of experience: Autobiographical narratives across adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29, 197–208.Google Scholar
  44. Gordon, J. R., Whelan-Berry, K. S., & Hamilton, E. A. (2007). The relationship among work-family conflict and enhancement, organizational work-family culture, and work outcomes for older working women. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 350–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gullette, M. (1997). Declining to decline. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia.Google Scholar
  46. Gutmann, D. (1987). Reclaimed powers: Toward a new psychology of men and women in later life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  47. Halliwell, E., & Dittmar, H. (2003). A qualitative investigation of women’s and men’s body image concerns and their attitudes toward aging. Sex Roles, 49, 675–684.Google Scholar
  48. Hansson, R. O., DeKoekkoek, P. D., Neece, W. M., & Patterson, D. W. (1997). Successful aging at work [Annual review, 1992–1996]: The older worker and transitions to retirement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51, 202–233.Google Scholar
  49. Hartmann, H. I., Kuriansky, J. A., & Owens, C. L. (1996). Employment and women’s health. In M. M. Falik & K. S. Collins (Eds.), Women’s health: The Commonwealth Fund Survey (pp. 296–323) Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Heaphy, B. (2007). Sexualities, gender, and ageing: Resources and social change. Current Sociology, 55, 193–210.Google Scholar
  51. Helson, R., Mitchell, V., & Moane, G. (1984). Personality and patterns of adherence and nonadherence to the social clock. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 1079–1096.Google Scholar
  52. Helson, R., & Soto, C. J. (2005). Up and down in middle age: Monotonic and nonmonotonic changes in roles, status, and personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 194–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Helson, R., & Wink, P. (1987). Two conceptions of maturity examined in the findings of a longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 531–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Helson, R., Stewart, A. J., & Ostrove, J. (1995). Identity in three cohorts of midlife women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 544–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hurd, L. C. (2000). Older women’s body image and embodied experience: An exploration. Journal of Women & Aging, 12, 77–97.Google Scholar
  56. Hyde, J. S., & Kling, K. C. (2001). Women, motivation, and achievement. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25, 364–378Google Scholar
  57. Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (1988). Gender differences in verbal ability.Psychological Bulletin, 104, 364–378.Google Scholar
  58. Johnson, P. J., McCreary, D. R., & Mills, J. S. (2007). Effects of exposure to objectified male and female media images on men’s psychological well-being. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8, 95–102.Google Scholar
  59. Josselson, R. (2003). Revisions: Processes in development in midlife women. In J. Demick & C. Andreotti (Eds.), Handbook of adult development (pp. 431–441). New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  60. Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Koenig, A. M., & Eagly, A. H. (2005). Stereotype threat in men on a test of social sensitivity. Sex Roles, 52, 489–496.Google Scholar
  62. Konik, J., & Stewart, A. J. (2004). Sexual identity development in the context of compulsory heterosexuality. Journal of Personality, 72, 815–844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Koropeckyj-Cox, T., Pienta, A. M., & Brown, T. H. (2007). Women of the 1950s and the “normative” life course: The implications of childlessness, fertility timing, and marital status for psychological well-being in late midlife. Journal of Aging and Human Development 64, 299–330.Google Scholar
  64. Kotre, J. (1984). Outliving the self. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Kroger, J. (1993). The role of historical context in the identity formation process of late adolescence. Youth and Society, 24, 363–376.Google Scholar
  66. Kroger, J. (1997). Gender and identity: The intersection of structure, content, and context. Sex Roles, 36, 747–770.Google Scholar
  67. Kroger, J. (2002). Identity processes and contents through the years of late adulthood. Identity, 2, 81–99.Google Scholar
  68. Kulik, L. (2007). Contemporary midlife grandparenthood. In V. Muhlbauer & J. C. Chrisler (Eds.), Women over 50: Psychological perspectives (pp. 131–146). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  69. Labouvie-Vief, G. (1992). A neo-Piagetian perspective on adult cognitive development. In R. J. Sternberg & C. A. Berg (Eds.), Intellectual development (pp. 197–228) New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Labouvie-Vief, G. (1996). Knowledge and the construction of women’s development. In P. B. Baltes & U. M. Staudinger (Eds.), Interactive minds: Life-span perspectives on the social foundation of cognition (pp. 109–130). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Labouvie-Vief, G., & Blanchard-Fields, F. (1982). Cognitive ageing and psychological growth. Ageing and Society, 2, 183–209.Google Scholar
  72. Labouvie-Vief, G., DeVoe, M., & Bulka, D. (1989). Speaking about feelings: Conceptions of emotion across the lifespan. Psychology and Aging, 4, 425–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lambert, S. M., Masson, P., & Fisch, H. (2006). The male biological clock. World Journal of Urology, 24, 611–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lang, F. R., & Carstensen, L. L. (2002). Time counts: Future time perspective, goals, and social relationships. Psychology and Aging, 17, 125–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Letherby, G. (2002). Childless and bereft? Stereotypes and realities in relation to “voluntary” and “involuntary” childlessness and womanhood. Sociological Inquiry, 72, 7–20.Google Scholar
  76. Lodi-Smith, J., & Roberts, B. W. (2007). Social investment and personality: A meta-analysis of the relationship of personality traits to investment in work, family, religion, and volunteerism. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 68–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lowe, P. A., & Reynolds, C. R. (1999). Age, gender, and education may have little influence on error patterns in the assessment of set-shifting and rule induction among normal elderly. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 14, 303–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Loevinger, J. (1987) Paradigms of personality. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  79. MacDermid, S., & Crouter, A. C. (1995). Midlife, adolescence, and parental employment in family systems. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 29–54.Google Scholar
  80. MacDermid, S., Franz, C. E., & De Reus, L. A. (1998). Generativity at the crossroads of social roles and personality. In D. P. McAdams & E. de St. Aubin (Eds.), Generativity and adult development (pp. 181–226). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  81. Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 551–558.Google Scholar
  82. Marks, S. R., Huston, T. L., Johnson, E. M., & MacDermid, S. M. (2001). Role balance among White married couples. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1083–1098.Google Scholar
  83. Marshall, B. L., & Katz, S. (2006). From androgyny to androgens: Resexing the aging body. In T. M. Calasanti & K. F. Slevin (Eds.), Age matters: Realigning feminist thinking (pp. 75–97). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  84. Matula, K. E., Huston, T. L., Grotevant, H. D., & Zamutt, A. (1992). Identity and dating commitment among men and women in college. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 21, 339–356.Google Scholar
  85. McAdams, D. P., & de St. Aubin, E. (1992). A theory of generativity and its assessment through self-report, behavioral acts, and narrative themes in autobiography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62, 1003–1015.Google Scholar
  86. McAdams, D. P., & de St. Aubin, E. (Eds.) (1998). Generativity and adult development. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  87. McCreary, D. R., & Sasse, D. (2000). An exploration of the drive for muscularity in adolescent boys and girls. Journal of American College Health, 48, 297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. McCreary, D. R., Sasse, D. K., Saucier, D. M., & Dorsch, K. D. (2004). Measuring the drive for muscularity: Factorial validity of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in men and women. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 1, 49–58.Google Scholar
  89. McCreary, D. R., Saucier, D. M., & Courtenay, W. H. (2005). The drive for muscularity and masculinity: Testing the associations among gender-role traits, behaviors, attitudes, and conflict. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 6, 83–94.Google Scholar
  90. McHugh, M. C. (2007). Women and sex at midlife: Desire, dysfunction, and diversity. In V. Muhlbauer & J. C. Chrisler (Eds.), Women over 50: Psychological perspectives (pp. 26–52). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  91. Miner-Rubino, K., Winter, D. G., & Stewart, A. J. (2004). Gender, social class and the subjective experience of aging: Self-perceived personality change from early adulthood to late midlife. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1599–1610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Mitchell, V. (2007). Earning a secure attachment style: A narrative of personality change in adulthood. In R. Josselson, A. Lieblich, & D. P. McAdams (Eds.), The meaning of others: Narrative studies of relationships (pp. 93–116). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  93. Mitchell, V., & Helson, R. (1990). Women’s prime of life: Is it the 50s? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 14, 451–470.Google Scholar
  94. Moen, P. (2001). The gendered life course. In R. H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, (5th ed., pp. 179–196). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  95. Muth, J. L., & Cash, T. F. (1997). Body-image attitudes: What difference does gender make? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1438–1452.Google Scholar
  96. Neugarten, B., Moore, J. W., & Lowe, J. C. (1965). Age norms, age constraints, and adult socializations. In D. A. Neugarten (Ed.), The meanings of age: Selected papers of Bernice L. Neugarten (pp. 24–33). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  97. Norman, M. A., Evans, J. D., Miller, S. W., & Heaton, R. K. (2000). Demographically corrected norms for the California Verbal Learning Test. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 22, 80–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Ochse, R., & Plug, C. (1986). Cross-cultural investigation of the validity of Erikson’s theory of personality development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1240–1252.Google Scholar
  99. Pals, J. (1999). Identity consolidation in early adulthood: Relations with ego-resiliency, the context of marriage, and personality change. Journal of Personality, 67, 295–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Park, D. C., Smith, A. D., Lautenschlager, G., Earles, J. L., Frieske, D., Zwahr, M., et al. (1996). Mediators of long-term memory performance across the life span. Psychology and Aging, 11, 621–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Patterson, C. J. (1995). Sexual orientation and human development: An overview. Developmental Psychology, 31, 3–11.Google Scholar
  102. Peterson, B. E. (2002). Longitudinal analysis of midlife generativity, intergenerational roles, and caregiving. Psychology and Aging, 17, 161–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Pliner, P., Chaiken, S., & Flett, G. L. (1990). Gender differences in concern with body weight and physical appearance over the life span. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 263–273.Google Scholar
  104. Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., & Mikels, J. A. (2006). The aging mind and brain: Implications of enduring plasticity for behavioral and cultural change. In P. B. Baltes, P. A. Reuter-Lorenz, & F. Rosler (Eds.), Lifespan development and the brain: The perspective of biocultural co-constructivism (pp. 255–276). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Richardson, V. E. (1999). Women and retirement. Journal of Women & Aging, 11(2/3), 49–66.Google Scholar
  106. Roberts, B. W. (1997). Plaster or plasticity: Are adult work experiences associated with personality change in women? Journal of Personality, 65, 205–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rowe, J., & Kahn, R. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  108. Rubin, R. M. (1997). The economic status of older women. In J. M .Coyle (Ed.), Handbook on women and aging (pp. 75–92) Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  109. Ryff, C. D., & Migdal, S. (1984). Intimacy and generativity: Self-perceived transitions. Signs, 9, 470–481.Google Scholar
  110. Salthouse, T. (2000). Adulthood and aging: Cognitive processes and development. In A. E. Kazdan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (vol. 1., pp. 69–74). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  111. Salthouse, T. A. (2004). What and when of cognitive aging. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13, 140–144.Google Scholar
  112. Salthouse, T. A. (2007). Implications of within-person variability in cognitive and neuropsychological functioning for the interpretation of change. Neuropsychology, 21, 401–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Saucier, M. G. (2004). Midlife and beyond: Issues for aging women. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 420–425.Google Scholar
  114. Schaie, K. W., & Willis, S. L. (1996). Adult development and aging (4th ed.). New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  115. Schiedel, D. G., & Marcia, J. E. (1985). Ego identity, intimacy, sex role orientation, and gender. Developmental Psychology, 21, 149–160.Google Scholar
  116. Schope, R. D. (2005). Who’s afraid of growing old? Gay and lesbian perceptions of aging. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 45(5) 23–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Shabsigh, R. (2003). Urological perspectives on andropause. Psychiatric Annals, 33, 501–506.Google Scholar
  118. Siefert, K., Finlayson, T. L., Williams, D. R., Delva, J., & Ismail, A. I. (2007). Modifiable risk and protective factors for depressive symptoms in low-income African American mothers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77, 113–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Silver, C. B. (2003). Gendered identities in old age: Toward (de) gendering. Journal of Aging Studies, 17, 379–397.Google Scholar
  120. Simpson, R. (2004). Masculinity at work: The experiences of men in female-dominated occupations. Work, Employment, and Society, 18, 349–368.Google Scholar
  121. Skultety, K. M., & Whitbourne, S. K. (2004). Gender differences in identity processes and self-esteem in middle and later adulthood. Journal of Women & Aging, 16, 175–188.Google Scholar
  122. Smith, J., & Baltes, M. M. (1998). The role of gender in very old age: Profiles of functioning and everyday life patterns. Psychology and Aging, 13, 676–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Snarey, J., Son, L., Kuehne, V. S., Hauser, S., & Vaillant, G. (1987). The role of parenting in men’s psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of early adulthood infertility and midlife generativity. Developmental Psychology, 23, 593–603.Google Scholar
  124. Sneed, J. R., & Whitbourne, S. K. (2006). Trust, identity, and ego integrity: Modeling Erikson’s core stages over 34 years. Journal of Adult Development, 13, 148–157.Google Scholar
  125. Staudinger, U. M. (1999). Older and wiser? Integrating results on the relationship between age and wisdom-related performance. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23, 641–664.Google Scholar
  126. Staudinger, U. M., & Baltes, P. B. (1996). Interactive minds: A facilitative setting for wisdom-related performance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 746–762.Google Scholar
  127. Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Stewart, A. J., & Healy, J. M. (1989). Linking individual development and social change. American Psychologist, 44, 30–42.Google Scholar
  129. Stewart, A. J., & Ostrove, J. M. (1993). Social class, social change, and gender: Working-class women at Radcliffe and after. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 475–497.Google Scholar
  130. Stewart, A. J., & Vandewater, E. A. (1993). The Radcliffe class of 1964: Career and social clock projects in a transitional cohort. In K. D. Hulbert & Diane T. Schuster (Eds.), Women’s lives through time: Educated American women of the twentieth century (pp. 235–258) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  131. Stewart, A. J., & Vandewater, E. A. (1998). The course of generativity. In D. P. McAdams & E. de St. Aubin (Eds.), Generativity and adult development (pp. 75–100). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  132. Stewart, A. J., & Vandewater, E. A. (1999). “If I had it to do over again…”: Midlife review, midcourse corrections, and women’s well-being in midlife. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 270–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Sugimura, K. (2007). Transitions in the process of identity formation among Japanese female adolescents: A relational viewpoint. In R. Josselson, A. Lieblich, & D. P. McAdams (Eds.), The meaning of others: Narrative studies of relationships (pp. 117–142). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  134. Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  135. Sweet, S., & Moen, P. (2007). Integrating educational career in work and family: Women’s return to school and family life quality. Community, Work and Family, 10, 231–250.Google Scholar
  136. Takahashi, M., & Overton, W. F. (2002). Wisdom: A culturally inclusive developmental perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 269–277.Google Scholar
  137. United States Census Bureau. Data from 2002. Retrieved September 15, 2007. http://www.census.gov/
  138. United States Department of Labor. (2007). Women in the labor force, 2007. Retrieved May 4, 2008. http://https://www.youth2work.gov/wb/factsheets/Qf-laborforce-07.htm
  139. Vaillant, G. E. (1977). Adaptation to life. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  140. Vaillant, G. E. (1993). The wisdom of the ego.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  141. Van Manen, K-J., & Whitbourne, S. K. (1997). Psychosocial development and life experiences in adulthood: A 22-year sequential study. Psychology and Aging, 12, 239–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Whitbourne, S. K., & Skultety, K. M. (2006). Aging and identity: How women face later life transitions. In J. Worell & C. D. Goodheart (Eds.), Handbook of girls’ and women’s psychological health (pp. 370–378) New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  143. Whitbourne, S. K., & Willis, S. L. (Eds.) (2006). The baby boomers grow up: Contemporary perspectives on midlife. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  144. Whitbourne, S. K., Zuschlag, M. K., Elliot, L. B., & Waterman, A. S. (1992). Psychosocial development in adulthood: A 22-year sequential study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 260–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Wigfield, A., Battle, A., Keller, L. B., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). Sex differences in motivation, self-concept, career aspiration, and career choice: Implications for cognitive development. In A. McGillicuddy-De Lisi & R. De Lisi (Eds.), Biology, society, behavior: The development of sex differences in cognition (pp. 93–124). Westport, CT: Ablex.Google Scholar
  146. Wilson, R. S., Bennett, D. A., Beckett, L. A., Morris, M. C., Gilley, D. W., Bienias, J. L., et al. (1996). Cognitive activity in older persons from a geographically defined population. Journals of Gerontology, 54B, 155–159.Google Scholar
  147. Winter, D. G., Torges, C. M., Stewart, A. J., Henderson-King, D., & Henderson-King, E. (2007). Pathways to the third age: Studying a cohort from the “golden age.” In J. B. James, P. Wink, & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), The crown of life: Dynamics of the early postretirement period (pp. 103–130) New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  148. Wood, D., & Roberts, B. W. (2006). The effect of age and role information on expectations for big five personality traits. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1482–1496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Wrosch, C., & Heckhausen, J. (2005). Being on-time or off-time: Developmental deadlines for regulating one’s own development. In A. Perret-Clermont (Ed.), Thinking time: A multidisciplinary perspective on time (pp. 110–123). Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber.Google Scholar
  150. Zucker, A. N., Ostrove, J. M., & Stewart, A. J. (2002). College-educated women’s personality development in adulthood: Perceptions and age differences. Psychology and Aging, 17, 236–244. 208 Col No: 87Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abigail J. Stewart
    • 1
  • Nicky J. Newton
    • 1
  1. 1.University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations