Surface Sensitization Techniques and Recognition Receptors Immobilization on Biosensors and Microarrays

  • Vincent Dugas
  • Abdelhamid Elaissari
  • Yves Chevalier
Chapter

Abstract

The quality of a biosensing system relies on the interfacial properties where bioactive species are immobilized. The design of the surface includes both the immobilization of the bioreceptor itself and the overall chemical preparation of the transducer surface. Hence, the sensitivity and specificity of such devices are directly related to the accessibility and activity of the immobilized molecules. The inertness of the surface that limits the nonspecific adsorption sets the background noise of the sensor. The specifications of the biosensor (signal-to-noise ratio) depend largely on the surface chemistry and preparation process of the biointerface. Lastly, a robust interface improves the stability and the reliability of biosensors. This chapter reports in detail the main surface coupling strategies spanning from random immobilization of native biospecies to uniform and oriented immobilization of site-specific modified biomolecules. The immobilization of receptors on various shapes of solid support is then introduced. Detection systems sensitive to surface phenomena require immobilization as very thin layers (two-dimensional biofunctionalization), whereas other detection systems accept thicker layers (three-dimensional biofunctionalization) such as porous materials of high specific area that lead to large increase of signal detection. This didactical overview introduces each step of the biofunctionalization with respect to the diversity of biological molecules, their accessibility and resistance to nonspecific adsorption at interfaces.

Keywords

Functionalization Biofunctionalization Surface chemical modification Native biomolecules Modified biomolecules Staudinger ligation Click-chemistry Native chemical ligation Expressed protein ligation Silanization Self-assembled monolayer Entrapment Nanoparticles Sol–gel process Adsorption Chemisorption Silica Silicon Gold layer Streptavidin Biotin Protein DNA Carbohydrate Enzyme Ligand capture Protein capture Site-directed immobilization Site-specific immobilization 

Abbreviations

μ-TAS

Micro-total analysis system

AAPS

N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane

ALD

Atomic layer deposition

APTS

Aminopropyltriethoxysilane

Asp

Aspartic acid

BSA

Bovin serum albumin

DIOS

Desorption/ionization on silicon

DMP

Dimethyl pimelimidate

DMS

Dimethyl suberimidate

DMSO

Dimethylsulfoxide

DNA

Desoxyribonucleic acid

DTT

Dithiothreitol

EDTA

Ethylenediamine tetraacetic

ELISA

Enzyme-Linked immunosorbent assay

ENFET

Enzymatic field-effect transistor

EPL

Express protein ligation

ET

Electron transfer

Glu

Glutamic acid

GOD

Glucose oxidase

GPTS

3-glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane

IDA

Iminodiacetic acid

IPL

Intein-mediated protein ligation

ISE

Ion-selective electrodes

ISFET

Ion-selective field-effect transistor

ITO

Indium Titanium oxide

Lys

Lysine

M2C2H

4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexan-1-carboxylhydrazide

MALDI

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization

MESNA

2-Mercaptoethansulfonate

MPAA

(4-carboxymehtyl)thiophenol

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

NCL

Native Chemical Ligation

NHS

N-hydroxysuccinimide

NTA

Nitrolotriacetic acid

ODN

Oligodesoxyribonucleotides

PAMAM

Poly(amino)amine

PCP

Peptide carrier protein

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PDITC

Phenylenediisothiocyanate

PDMS

Polydimethylsiloxane

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PNA

Peptide nucleic acid

SAM

Self-assembled monolayer

SIAB

Succinimidyl 4-(N-iodoacetyl)aminobenzoate

SMCC

Succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate

SMPB

Succinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidophenyl)butyrate

SPDP

N-succinimidyl-3(2-pyridyldithio)propionate

s-SIAB

Sulfosuccinimidyl 4-(N-iodoacetyl)aminobenzoate

TCEP

Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine

TEOS

Tetraethoxysilane

TMOS

Tetramethoxysilane

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vincent Dugas
    • 1
  • Abdelhamid Elaissari
  • Yves Chevalier
  1. 1.Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques, UMR5180, Bâtiment CPEVilleurbanne CedexFrance

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