Toward A Contextual Model of Entrepreneurial Intentions

Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors challenge the existing linear views of entrepreneurial intentions by proposing a contextual model of entrepreneurial intentions (EIM). This model, initially proposed by Elfving (2008), bridges self-efficacy, motivations, and intentions, in particular it addresses the role that specific goals and motivations play in intentionality. In addition, the chapter addresses the issues of the inconsistent effect of social norms on entrepreneurial intentions. It builds upon the prior work of a broad range of researchers, including those represented in the other chapters in this cluster on entrepreneurial intentions within this volume.

References

  1. Ajzen I, Fishbein M (2005) The Influence of Attitudes on Behavior. In: Albarracin D, Johnson B, Zanna M (eds.) The Handbook of Attitudes. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp. 173–221Google Scholar
  2. Allport GW (1935) AttitudesIn: Murchison CM (eds.) Handbook of Social Psychology. Clark University Press, Winchester, MA, pp. 798–844Google Scholar
  3. Bagozzi R, Dholakia U (1999) Goal Setting and Goal Striving in Consumer Behavior. Journal of Marketing, 63: 19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura A (1977) Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review 84: 191–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandura A (1982) Self-efficacy mechanisms in human agency, American Psychologist 37: 122–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura A (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura A (1989) Regulation of Cognitive Process Through Perceived Self-Efficacy. Developmental Psychology 25: 729–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandura A (2001) Social Cognitive Theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology 52: 1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baum J, Locke E (2004) The Relationship of Entrepreneurial Traits, Skill, and Motivation to Subsequent Venture Growth. Journal of Applied Psychology 89: 587–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Betz N, Hackett G (1981) The relationship of career-related self-efficacy expectations to perceived career options in college woman and men. Journal of Counseling Psychology 28: 399–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyd N, Vozikis G (1994) The Influence of Self-Efficacy on the Development of Entrepreneurial Intentions and Actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18: 63–77Google Scholar
  12. Bryant T, Bryant J (1998) Wetlands and entrepreneurs: Mapping the fuzzy zone between ecosystem preservation and entrepreneurial opportunity. Journal of Organizational Change Management 11: 112–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brännback M, Carsrud A, Elfving J, Kickul J, Krueger N (2006a) Why Replicate Entrepreneurial Intentionality Studies? prospects, perils, and academic reality. Paper presented at SMU Edge Conference, Singapore.Google Scholar
  14. Brännback M, Carsrud A, Elfving J, Krueger N (2006b) Sex, Drugs and... Entrepreneurial Passion: An Exploratory Study. Paper presented at Babson conference, Bloomington Indiana.Google Scholar
  15. Carsrud A, Krueger N, Brännback M, Kickul J, Elfving J (2007) The Family Business Pipeline: Where Norms and Modeling Make a Difference. Paper presented at Academy of Management Conference, 2007.Google Scholar
  16. Davidsson P, Wiklund J (1997) Values, beliefs and regional variations in new firm formations rate. Journal of Economic psychology 18: 179–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Elfving J (2008) Contextualizing Entrepreneurial Intentions, Åbo Akademi Press, ÅboGoogle Scholar
  18. Eckhardt J, Shane S (2003) Opportunities and entrepreneurship. Journal of Management 29: 333–349Google Scholar
  19. Gartner, WB, Shaver KG, Carter NM, Reynolds PD (2004) Handbook of Entrepreneurial Dynamics: The Process of Business Creation. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.Google Scholar
  20. Gollwitzer P, Brandstätter V (1997) Implementation Intentions and effective Goal Pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73: 186–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gustafsson V (2006) Entrepreneurial Decision-Making: Individuals, Tasks and Cognition. Edward Elgar, Northampton.Google Scholar
  22. Kaish S, Gilad B (1991) Characteristics of opportunities search of entrepreneurs versus executives: Sources, interests, general alertness. Journal of Business Venturing 6: 45–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kelman HC (1974) Attitudes are alive and well and gainfully employed in the sphere of action. American Psychologist 29: 310–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kickul J, Krueger NF (2004) A cognitive processing model of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intentionality. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research 2004. Babson College, Wellesley, MA, pp. 607–619Google Scholar
  25. Kourilsky ML, Walstad WB.(1998) Entrepreneurship and female youth: Knowledge, attitudes, gender differences and educational practices. Journal of Business Venturing 13: 77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Krueger NF (1993) The Impact of Prior Entrepreneurial Exposure on Perceptions and New Venture Feasibility and Desirability. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 18: 5–21Google Scholar
  27. Krueger NF (2000) The cognitive infrastructure of opportunity emergence. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice 24: 5–23Google Scholar
  28. Krueger NF, Brazeal D (1994) Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 18: 91–104Google Scholar
  29. Krueger NF, Carsrud AL (1993) Entrepreneurial intentions: Applying theory of planned behaviour. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 5: 315–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Krueger NF, Kickul J (2006) So you thought the intentions model was simple?: Navigating the complexities and interactions of cognitive style, culture, gender, social norms, and intensity on the pathways to entrepreneurship. Paper presented at USASBE conference, Tuscon, AZ.Google Scholar
  31. Krueger NF, Reilly M, Carsrud AL (2000) Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing 15: 411–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kuratko D, Hornsby J, Naffziger D (1997) An Examination of Owner’s Goals in Sustaining Entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management 35: 24–33Google Scholar
  33. Lent R, Hackett G (1987) Career Self-Efficacy: Empirical Status and Future Directions. Journal of Vocational Behavior 347–382.Google Scholar
  34. McBroom WH, Reed FW (1992) Toward a Reconceptualization of Attitude-Behavior Consistency. Social Psychology Quarterly 55: 205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. McGrath R, MacMillan I (1992) More like each other than anyone else?: A cross-cultural study of entrepreneurial perceptions. Journal of Business Venturing 7: 419–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Palich E, Bagby D (1995) Using cognitive theory to explain entrepreneurial risk-taking: challenging conventional wisdom. Journal of Business Venturing 10: 425–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shane S (2008) The Illusions of Entrepreneurship. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  38. Shane S, Venkataraman S (2000) The Promise of Entrepreneurship as a Field of Research. Academy of Management Review 25: 217–226Google Scholar
  39. Shapero A (1975) Who Starts New Businesses? The Displaced, Uncomfortable Entrepreneur. Psychology Today 9: 83–88Google Scholar
  40. Shapero A, Sokol L (1982) Social Dimensions of Entrepreneurship. In: Kent C, Sexton D, Vesper K (eds.), The Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, pp. 72–90.Google Scholar
  41. Shaver K, Scott L (1991) Person, process, choice: the psychology of new venture creation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 16: 23–45Google Scholar
  42. Wilson F, Marlino D, Kickul J (2004) The Embodied Mind, Cognitive Science and Human Experience. MIT Press, London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennie Elfving
    • 1
  • Malin Brännback
    • 2
  • Alan Carsrud
    • 3
  1. 1.Rödsövägen 149KarlebyFinland
  2. 2.Dept. Of Business StudiesChair of International Business, Åbo Akademi UniversityÅboFinland
  3. 3.Loretta Rogers Chair in Entrepreneurship, Professor of Entrepreneurship and StrategyTed Rogers School of Management, Ryerson UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations