Perceptions of Efficacy, Control, and Risk: A Theory of Mixed Control

  • Erik Monsen
  • Diemo Urbig
Part of the International Studies in Entrepreneurship book series (ISEN, volume 24)

Entrepreneurship involves the establishment of new organizations and the development of new economic activities. Its consequences have not been experienced before and thus are rife with risk and uncertainty. Those who engage in such activities have consequently been considered as being willing to take on more risk and uncertainty than others. Empirical work, however, has demonstrated that entrepreneurs are not willing to take more risks than non-entrepreneurs (Busenitz and Barney 1997; Miner and Raju 2004; Palich and Bagby 1995; Wu and Knott 2006). Therefore, a corresponding difference in general risk propensity hypothesis is not supported by research findings. Alternatively, a difference in risk perception hypothesis has been suggested. In other words, even if entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs have similar risk preferences, entrepreneurs may perceive less risk by overestimating their chances for success (Baron 1998).


Risk Perception Collective Efficacy Entrepreneurial Intention Control Belief Internal Locus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max Planck Institute of EconomicsEntrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy GroupGermany

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