Forgiveness in Spite of Denial, Revisionism, and Injustice

  • Ani Kalayjian
Part of the Peace Psychology Book Series book series (PPBS)


This chapter focuses on how to forgive in the presence of denial, revisionism, and injustice. In particular, it addresses coping with the denial of the Ottoman-Turkish Genocide of the Armenians. Additionally, two cases are presented to illustrate the challenge of forgiveness and how, when governmental denial exists, the practice of forgiveness is not only a challenge, but an unending process. A seven-step Biopsychosocial and Eco Spiritual Model is presented as the approach used for transforming anger, hatred, and resentment into forgiveness, in both individual and group settings (Kalayjian, 2002). Since 1989, this model has been applied worldwide in more than 20 post-disaster humanitarian outreach projects, as part of the Mental Health Outreach Programs (MHOP) organized by this author. It is distilled here into its most essential form. However, it can be adapted for application in a wide range of situations.


Vicious Cycle Phobic Disorder Emotional Pain Generational Transmission Mass Trauma 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Meaningful Word and Fordham UniversityNJUSA

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