Psychological Issues in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

  • Jeffrey S. Gonzalez
  • Sabrina A. Esbitt
  • Havah E. Schneider
  • Patricia J. Osborne
  • Elyse G. Kupperman
Chapter

Abstract

Accumulating research suggests that the prevalence of a number of psychological disorders, including mood, anxiety, eating, and psychotic disorders, may be higher in adults with type 2 diabetes than in the general population. Furthermore, these disorders, along with subclinical presentations of psychological distress, have serious implications for the management of type 2 diabetes and are associated with worse health outcomes. In this chapter, we consider the evidence linking various psychological disorders with diabetes and review important assessment and treatment issues in the context of type 2 diabetes. Psychological intervention in type 2 diabetes patients who are experiencing psychological problems has the potential to improve psychological health, quality of life, and health outcomes. We emphasize the importance of treatment approaches that focus on the role of health behaviors and treatment adherence when addressing psychological problems in patients with type 2 diabetes, in order to maximize the potential health benefits of treatment.

References

  1. Aina, Y., & Susman, J. L. (2006). Understanding comorbidity with depression and anxiety disorders. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 5(2), 9–14.Google Scholar
  2. Ali, S., Stone, M., Peters, J., Davies, M., & Khunti, K. (2006). The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetic Medicine, 23, 1165–1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison, K. C., Crow, S. J., Reeves, R. R., West, D. S., Foreyt, J. P., DiLillo, V. G., et al. (2007). Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes. Obesity (Silver Spring), 15(5), 1287–1293.Google Scholar
  4. Allison, D., Mentore, J., Heo, M., Chandler, L., Cappelleri, J., Infante, M., et al. (1999). Antipsychotic-induced weight gain: A comprehensive research synthesis. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(11), 1686–1696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. American Diabetes Association. (2004). Smoking and diabetes. Diabetes, 27(Suppl 1), 74–75.Google Scholar
  6. American Diabetes Association. (2009). Standards of medical care in diabetes – 2009. Diabetes Care, 32(Suppl 1), 13–61.Google Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (Revised 4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (2002). Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder (revised). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  9. Americans Diabetes Association, American Psychiatry Association, & American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. (2006). Consensus development conference on antipsychotic drugs and obesity and diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 267–272.Google Scholar
  10. Anderson, R. M. (1995). Patient empowerment and the traditional medical model. A case of irreconcilable differences? Diabetes Care, 18, 412–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Anderson, R. J., Freedland, K. E., & Clouse, R. E. (2001). The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 24, 1069–1078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Anderson, R. J., Grigsby, A. B., Freedland, K. E., de Groot, M., McGill, J. B., Clouse, R. E., et al. (2002). Anxiety and poor glycemic control: A meta-analytic review of the literature. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 32(3), 235–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Banerjea, R., Sambamoorthi, U., Smelson, D., & Pogach, L. (2008). Expenditures in mental illness and substance use disorders among veteran clinic users with diabetes. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 35(3), 290–303.Google Scholar
  14. Barnett, A. H., Mackin, P., Chaudhry, I., Farooqi, A., Gadsby, R., Heald, A., et al. (2007). Minimising metabolic and cardiovascular risk in schizophrenia: Diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemia. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 21(4), 357–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Basu, A., & Meltzer, H. Y. (2006). Differential trends in prevalence of diabetes and unrelated general medical illness for schizophrenia patients before and after the atypical antipsychotic era. Schizophrenia Research, 86(1–3), 99–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Battaglia, M. R., Alemzadeh, R., Katte, H., Hall, P. L., & Perlmuter, L. C. (2006). Brief report: Disordered eating and psychosocial factors in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(6), 552–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  18. Bellivier, F. (2005). Schizophrenia, antipsychotics and diabetes: Genetic aspects. European Psychiatry, 4, 335–339.Google Scholar
  19. Berland, N. W., Thompson, J. K., & Linton, P. H. (1986). Correlation between the EAT-26 and the EAT-40, the eating disorders inventory, and the restrained eating inventory. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5(3), 569–574.Google Scholar
  20. Bijl, R. V., & Ravelli, A. (2000). Current and residual functional disability associated with psychopathology: Findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Psychological Medicine, 30, 657–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Black, S. A. (2002). Diabetes, diversity, and disparity: What do we do with the evidence? American Journal of Public Health, 92(4), 543–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Black, S. A., Markides, K. S., & Ray, L. A. (2003). Depression predicts increased incidence of adverse health outcomes in older Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 26, 2822–2828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bogner, H., & de Vries, H. (2010). Integrating type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression treatment among African Americans: A randomized controlled pilot trial. The Diabetes Educator, 36, 284–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bonds, D. E., Zaccaro, D. J., Karter, A. J., Selby, J. V., Saad, M., & Goff, D. C. (2003). Ethnic and racial differences in diabetes care. Diabetes Care, 26, 1040–1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Boyle, S., Allan, C., & Millar, K. (2004). Cognitive-behavioural interventions in a patient with an anxiety disorder related to diabetes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42(3), 357–366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Bulik, C. M., Berkman, N. D., Brownley, K. A., Sedway, J. A., & Lohr, K. N. (2007). Anorexia nervosa treatment: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40(4), 310–320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Burroughs, T. E., Desikan, R., Waterman, B. M., Gilin, D., & McGill, J. (2004). Development and validation of the Diabetes Quality of Life Brief Clinical Inventory. Diabetes Spectrum, 17, 41–49.Google Scholar
  28. Bushe, C., Haddad, P., Peveler, R., & Pendlebury, J. (2005). The role of lifestyle interventions and weight management in schizophrenia. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 19(Suppl 6), 28–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Bushe, C., & Holt, R. (2004). Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in patients with schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184(Suppl 47), 67–71.Google Scholar
  30. Cantwell, R., & Steel, J. M. (1996). Screening for eating disorders in diabetes mellitus. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 40(1), 15–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Carrizo, E., Fernandez, V., Connell, L., Sandia, I., Prieto, D., Mogollon, J., et al. (2009). Extended release metformin for metabolic control assistance during prolonged clozapine administration: A 14-week, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study. Schizophrenia Research, 113, 19–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Carroll, L., & Owen, M. (2009). Genetic overlap between autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Genome Medicine, 1(10), 102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Carroll, P., Tiggemann, M., & Wade, T. (1999). The role of body dissatisfaction and bingeing in the self-esteem of women with type II diabetes. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22(1), 59–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). National diabetes fact sheet: General information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2005. Retrieved October 10th, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/Diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2005.pdf.
  35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses – United States, 2000–2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 57(45), 1227–1232. Retrieved February 21st, 2009 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5745a3.htm.Google Scholar
  36. Chaudieu, I., Beluche, I., Norton, J., Boulenger, J. P., Ritchie, K., & Ancelin, M. L. (2008). Abnormal reactions to environmental stress in elderly persons with anxiety disorders: Evidence from a population study of diurnal cortisol changes. Journal of Affective Disorders, 106(3), 307–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Citrome, L., Blonde, L., & Damatarca, C. (2005). Metabolic issues in patients with severe mental illness. Southern Medical Journal, 98(7), 714–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Citrome, L., & Vreeland, B. (2008). Schizophrenia, obesity, and antipsychotic medications: What can we do? Postgraduate Medicine, 120(2), 18–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Clark, R., Weir, S., Ouellette, R., Zhang, J., & Baxter, J. (2009). Beyond health plans: Behavioral health disorders and quality of diabetes and asthma care for Medicaid beneficiaries. Medical Care, 47(5), 545–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Colton, P., Olmsted, M., Daneman, D., Rydall, A., & Rodin, G. (2004). Disturbed eating behavior and eating disorders in preteen and early teenage girls with type 1 diabetes: A case controlled study. Diabetes Care, 27(7), 1654–1659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. G. (1987). Eating disorder examination (EDE): A semi-structured interview for the assessment of the specific psychopathology of eating disorders. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6(6), 1–8.Google Scholar
  42. Cox, D. J., Irvine, A., Gonder-Frederick, L., Nowacek, G., & Butterfield, J. (1987). Fear of hypoglycemia: Quantification, validation, and utilization. Diabetes Care, 10(5), 617–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Cramer, J. A., & Pugh, M. J. (2005). The influence of insulin use on glycemic control: How well do adults follow prescriptions for insulin? Diabetes Care, 28(1), 78–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Crow, S. J., Keel, P. K., & Kendall, D. (1998). Eating disorders and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Psychosomatics, 39(3), 233–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Crow, S. J., Kendall, D., Praus, B., & Thuras, P. (2001). Binge eating and other psychopathology in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 30(2), 222–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Daneman, D., Rodin, G., Jones, J. M., Colton, P., Rydall, A., Maharaj, S. I., et al. (2002). Eating disorders in adolescent girls and young adult women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum, 15, 83–105.Google Scholar
  47. de Groot, M., Anderson, R., Freedland, K. E., Clouse, R. E., & Lustman, P. J. (2001). Association of depression and diabetes complications: A meta-analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 619–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. de Leon, J., Susce, M., Diaz, F., Rendon, D., & Velásquez, D. (2005). Variables associated with alcohol, drug, and daily smoking cessation in patients with severe mental illnesses. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(11), 1447–1455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Diaz, F., James, D., Botts, S., Maw, L., Susce, M., & de Leon, J. (2009). Tobacco smoking behaviors in bipolar disorder: A comparison of the general population, schizophrenia, and major depression. Bipolar Disorders, 11(2), 154–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. DiMatteo, M. R., Lepper, H. S., & Croghan, T. W. (2000). Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: Meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence. Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 2101–2107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dinan, T. G. (2004). Stress and the genesis of diabetes mellitus in schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184(Suppl 47), 72–75.Google Scholar
  52. Diwan, A., Castine, M., Pomerleau, C., Meador-Woodruff, J., & Dalack, G. (1998). Differential prevalence of cigarette smoking in patients with schizophrenic vs mood disorders. Schizophrenia Research, 33(1–2), 113–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Dixon, L., Weiden, P., Delahanty, J., Goldberg, R., Postrado, L., Luckstead, A., et al. (2000). Prevalence and correlates of diabetes in national schizophrenia samples. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26, 903–912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Domino, M., & Swartz, M. (2008). Who are the new users of antipsychotic medications? Psychiatric Services, 59(5), 507–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Eaton, W., Martins, S., Nestadt, G., Bienvenu, O., Clarke, D., & Alexandre, P. (2008). The burden of mental disorders. Epidemiologic Reviews, 30, 1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ehlert, U., Gaab, J., & Heinrichs, M. (2001). Psychoneuroendocrinological contributions to the etiology of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and stress-related bodily disorders: The role of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis. Biological Psychology, 57, 141–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. El-Mallakh, P. (2006). Evolving self-care in individuals with schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 20(2), 55–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. El-Mallakh, P. (2007). Doing my best: Poverty and self-care among individuals with schizophrenia and diabetes mellitus. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 21(1), 49–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Elmslie, J. L., Silverstone, J. T., Mann, J. I., Williams, S. M., & Romans, S. E. (2000). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in bipolar patients. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61(3), 179–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Eren, I., Erdi, O., & Mehmet, S. (2008). The effect of depression on quality of life of patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 98–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Fagiolini, A., Frank, E., Houck, P. R., Mallinger, A. G., Swartz, H. A., Buysse, D. J., et al. (2002). Prevalence of obesity and weight change during treatment in patients with bipolar disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63, 528–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Fairburn, C. G., & Beglin, S. J. (1994). Assessment of eating disorders: Interview or self-report questionnaire? The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16(4), 363–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Fernandez-Egea, E., Bernardo, M., Parellada, E., Justicia, A., Garcia-Rizo, C., Esmatjes, E., et al. (2008). Glucose abnormalities in the siblings of people with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 103(1–3), 110–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fernandez-Egea, E., Miller, B., Bernardo, M., Donner, T., & Kirkpatrick, B. (2008). Parental history of type 2 diabetes in patients with nonaffective psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 98(1–3), 302–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Fisher, L., Chesla, C. A., Mullan, J. T., Skaff, M. M., & Kanter, R. A. (2001). Contributions to depression in Latino and European-American patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 24, 1751–1757.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fisher, L., Mullan, J., Arean, P., Glasgow, R., Hessler, D., & Masharani, U. (2010). Diabetes distress but not clinical depression or depressive symptoms is associated with glycemic control in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Diabetes Care, 33, 23–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fisher, L., Skaff, M. M., Mullan, J. T., Arean, P., Glasgow, R., & Masharani, U. (2008). A longitudinal study of affective and anxiety disorders, depressive affect and diabetes distress in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 25(9), 1096–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fisher, L., Skaff, M. M., Mullan, J. T., Arean, P., Mohr, D., Masharani, U., et al. (2007). Clinical depression versus distress among patients with type 2 diabetes: Not just a question of semantics. Diabetes Care, 30(3), 542–548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Folnegovic-Smalc, V., Jukic, V., Kozumplik, O., Mimica, N., & Uzun, S. (2004). Olanzapine use in a patient with schizophrenia and the risk of diabetes. European Psychiatry, 19(1), 62–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Fowler, M. J. (2007). Diabetes: Magnitude and mechanisms. Clinical Diabetes, 25(1), 25–28.Google Scholar
  71. Frayne, S., Halanych, J., Miller, D., Wang, F., Lin, H., Pogach, L., et al. (2005). Disparities in diabetes care: Impact of mental illness. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165(22), 2631–2638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Friedman, S., Vila, G., Timsit, J., Boitard, C., & Mouren-Simeoni, M. C. (1998). Anxiety and depressive disorders in an adult insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (IDDM) population: Relationships with glycaemic control and somatic complications. European Psychiatry, 13(6), 295–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Garner, D. M., & Garfinkel, P. E. (1979). Eating attitudes test. Psychological Medicine, 9(2), 273–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Garner, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., & Polivy, J. (1983). Eating disorder inventory. Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 2(2), 15–34.Google Scholar
  75. Glasgow, R. E., Boles, S. M., McKay, G., Feil, E. G., & Barrera, M., Jr. (2003). The D-Net diabetes self-management program: Long-term implementation, outcomes, and generalization results. Preventive Medicine, 36, 410–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Goebel-Fabbri, A., Firkan, J., Franko, D., Pearson, K., Anderson, B., & Weinger, K. (2008). Insulin restriction and associated morbidity and mortality in women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 31, 415–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Goldberg, J. F. (2008, October 31). Management of hypothyroidism in patients on lithium prophylaxis for bipolar disorder. Retrieved January 28, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/581200.
  78. Golden, S. H. (2007). A review of the evidence for a neuroendocrine link between stress, depression and diabetes mellitus. Current Diabetes Reviews, 3(4), 252–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Gonzalez, J. S., McCarl, L., Wexler, D., Cagliero, E., Delahanty, L., Soper, T., et al. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in type 2 diabetes. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24(4), 329–343.Google Scholar
  80. Gonzalez, J. S., Peyrot, M., McCarl, L., Collins, E., Serpa, L., Mimiaga, M., et al. (2008). Depression and diabetes treatment nonadherence: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 31, 2398–2403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Gonzalez, J. S., Safren, S. A., Cagliero, E., Wexler, D. J., Delahanty, L., Wittenberg, E., et al. (2007). Depression, self-care, and medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: Relationships across the full range of symptom severity. Diabetes Care, 30, 2222–2227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Gonzalez, J. S., Safren, S. A., Cagliero, E., Wexler, D. J., Meigs, J. B., & Grant, R. W. (2008). Symptoms of depression prospectively predict poorer self-care and medication adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 25, 1102–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Goodnick, P. J. (2001). Use of antidepressants in treatment of comorbid diabetes mellitus and depression as well as in diabetic neuropathy. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 13, 31–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Goodnick, P. J., Henry, J. H., & Buki, V. M. (1995). Treatment of depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 56, 128–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Goodwin, R. D., Hoven, C. W., & Spitzer, R. L. (2003). Diabetes and eating disorders in primary care. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 33(1), 85–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Gorin, A. A., Niemeier, H. M., Hogan, P., Coday, M., Davis, C., DiLillo, V. G., et al. (2008). Binge eating and weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes: Results from the look AHEAD trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(12), 1447–1455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Gough, S., & Peveler, R. (2004). Diabetes and its prevention: Pragmatic solutions for people with schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 106–111.Google Scholar
  88. Grant, R., Hamrick, H., Sullivan, C., Dubey, A., Chueh, H., Cagliero, E., et al. (2003). Impact of population management with direct physician feedback on care of patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 26(8), 2275–2280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Green, L., Feher, M., & Catalan, J. (2000). Fears and phobias in people with diabetes. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 16(4), 287–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Grey, M., Boland, E. A., Davidson, M., Li, J., & Tamborlane, W. V. (2000). Coping skills training for youth with diabetes mellitus has long-lasting effects on metabolic control and quality of life. The Journal of Pediatrics, 137(1), 107–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Grigsby, A. B., Anderson, R. J., Freedland, K. E., Clouse, R. E., & Lustman, P. J. (2002). Prevalence of anxiety in adults with diabetes: A systematic review. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53(6), 1053–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Grilo, C. M., Masheb, R. M., & Wilson, G. T. (2001). Different methods for assessing the features of eating disorders in patients with binge eating disorder: A replication. Obesity Research, 9(7), 418–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Haddad, P., & Sharma, S. (2007). Adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics: Differential risk and clinical implications. CNS Drugs, 21(11), 911–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Haire-Joshu, D., Glasgow, R., & Tibbs, T. (2004). Smoking and diabetes. Diabetes Care, 27(Suppl 1), 74–75.Google Scholar
  95. Harris, M. I., Flegal, K. M., Cowie, C. C., Eberhardt, M. S., Goldstein, D. E., Little, R. R., et al. (1998). Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Diabetes Care, 21, 518–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Harris, M. A., & Lustman, P. J. (1998). The psychologist in diabetes care. Clinical Diabetes, 16, 91–93.Google Scholar
  97. Hartz, A., Kent, S., James, P., Xu, Y., Kelly, M., & Daly, J. (2006). Factors that influence improvement for patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 74, 227–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Healton, C. G., Vallone, D., McCausland, K. L., Xiao, H., & Green, M. P. (2006). Smoking, obesity, and their co-occurrence in the United States: Cross sectional analysis. British Medical Journal, 333(7557), 25–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Henry, J. L., Wilson, P. H., Bruce, D. G., Chisholm, D. J., & Rawling, P. J. (1997). Cognitive-behavioural stress management for patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 2(2), 109–118.Google Scholar
  100. Herpertz, S., Albus, C., Wagener, R., Kocnar, M., Wagner, R., Henning, A., et al. (1998). Comorbidity of diabetes and eating disorders. Does diabetes control reflect disturbed eating behavior? Diabetes Care, 21(7), 1110–1116.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Herpertz, S., Wagener, R., Albus, C., Kocnar, M., Wagner, R., Best, F., et al. (1998). Diabetes mellitus and eating disorders: A multicenter study on the comorbidity of the two diseases. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 44(3–4), 503–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Himelhoch, S., Leith, J., Goldberg, R., Kreyenbuhl, J., Medoff, D., & Dixon, L. (2009). Care and management of cardiovascular risk factors among individuals with schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes who smoke. General Hospital Psychiatry, 31(1), 30–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Ho, P., Rumsfeld, J., Masoudi, F., McClure, D., Plomondon, M., Steiner, J., et al. (2006). Effect of medication nonadherence on hospitalization and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(17), 1836–1841.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Holt, R., & Peveler, R. (2006). Association between antipsychotic drugs and diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism, 8(2), 125–135.Google Scholar
  105. Holt, R., Peveler, R., & Byrne, C. (2004). Schizophrenia, the metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 21(6), 515–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Hudson, J. I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H. G., Jr., & Kessler, R. C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61(3), 348–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Ingersoll, K. S., & Cohen, J. (2008). The impact of medication regimen factors on adherence to chronic treatment: A review of literature. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 31(3), 213–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Ismail, K. (2008). Eating disorders and diabetes. Psychiatry, 7(4), 179–182.Google Scholar
  109. Ismail, K., Winkley, K., & Rabe-Hesketh, S. (2004). Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of psychological interventions to improve glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The Lancet, 363, 1589–1597.Google Scholar
  110. Jacobson, A. M. (1996). The psychological care of patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The New England Journal of Medicine, 334(19), 1249–1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Jain, A. K., Kaplan, R. A., Gadde, K. M., Wadden, T. A., Allison, D. B., Brewer, E. R., et al. (2002). Bupropion SR vs. placebo for weight loss in obese patients with depressive symptoms. Obesity Research, 10(10), 1049–1056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Joffe, H., Cohen, L., Suppes, T., Hwang, C., Molay, F., Adams, J., et al. (2006). Longitudinal follow-up of reproductive and metabolic features of valproate-associated polycystic ovarian syndrome features: A preliminary report. Biological Psychiatry, 60(12), 1378–1381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Johnson, K., Bazargan, M., & Cherpitel, C. (2001). Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use and the onset of type 2 diabetes among inner-city minority patients. The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 14(6), 430–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Kahn, L. S., Fox, C. H., McIntyre, R. S., Tumiel-Berhalter, L., Berdine, D. E., & Lyle, H. (2008). Assessing the prevalence of depression among individuals with diabetes in Medicaid managed-care program. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 38, 13–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Karlsen, B., Idsoe, T., Dirdal, I., Hanestad, B. R., & Bru, E. (2004). Effects of a group-based counseling programme on diabetes-related stress, coping, psychological well-being and metabolic control in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Patient Education and Counseling, 53(3), 299–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Katon, W., Fan, M., Unützer, J., Taylor, J., Pincus, H., & Schoenbaum, M. (2008). Depression and diabetes: A potentially lethal combination. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23, 1571–1575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Katon, W. J., Lin, E. H., Russo, J., Von Korff, M., Ciechanowski, P., Simon, G., et al. (2004). Cardiac risk factors in patients with diabetes mellitus and major depression. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19, 1192–1199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Katon, W. J., Rutter, C., Simon, G., Lin, E. H., Ludman, E., Ciechanowski, P., et al. (2005). The association of comorbid depression with mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 28, 2668–2672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Katon, W., Von Korff, M., Ciechanowski, P., Russo, J., Lin, E., Simon, G., et al. (2004). Behavioral and clinical factors associated with depression among individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 27(4), 914–920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Katon, W., Von Korff, M., Lin, E., Simon, G., Ludman, E., Bush, T., et al. (2003). Improving primary care treatment of depression among patients with diabetes mellitus: The design of the Pathways Study. General Hospital Psychiatry, 25, 158–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Katz, I. R. (1996). On the inseparability of mental and physical health in aged persons: Lessons from depression and medical comorbidity. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 4, 1–16.Google Scholar
  122. Keller, M. B., & Hanks, D. L. (1995). Anxiety symptom relief in depression treatment outcomes. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 56(Suppl 6), 22–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Kelly, S., Howe, C., Hendler, J., & Lipman, T. (2005). Disordered eating behaviors in youth with type 1 diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 31, 572–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kenardy, J., Mensch, M., Bowen, K., Green, B., & Walton, J. (2002). Group therapy for binge eating in type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial. Diabetic Medicine, 19(3), 234–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P. A., Bruce, M. L., Koch, J. R., Lask, E. M., Leaf, P. J., et al. (2001). The prevalence and correlates of untreated serious mental illness. Health Services Research, 36, 987–1007.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Kessler, R. C., Borges, G., & Walters, E. E. (1999). Prevalence of and risk factors for lifetime suicide attempts in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 617–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and ­comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 617–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Kichler, J. C., Foster, C., & Opipari Arrigan, L. (2008). The relationship between negative communication and body image dissatisfaction in adolescent females with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(3), 336–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Kilbourne, A. M., Cornelius, J. R., Han, X., Pincus, H. A., Shad, M., Salloum, I., et al. (2004). Burden of general medical conditions among individuals with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 6, 368–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Klerman, G. L., & Weissman, M. M. (1989). Increasing rates of depression. Journal of the American Medical Association, 261, 2229–2235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Klerman, G. L., & Weissman, M. M. (1992). The course, morbidity, and costs of depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 831–834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Kohen, D. (2004). Diabetes mellitus and schizophrenia: Historical perspective. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 64–66.Google Scholar
  134. Koro, C. E., Fedder, D. O., L’Italien, G. J., Weiss, S. S., Magder, L. S., Kreyenbuhl, J., et al. (2002). Assessment of independent effect of olanzapine and risperidone on risk of diabetes among patients with schizophrenia: Population based nested case-control study. British Medical Journal, 325(7358), 243–247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Kreyenbuhl, J., Buchanan, R., Dickerson, F., & Dixon, L. (2010). The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): Updated treatment recommendations 2009. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36(1), 94–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Kreyenbuhl, J., Dixon, L. B., McCarthy, J. F., Soliman, S., Ignacio, R. V., & Valenstein, M. (2008). Does adherence to medications for type 2 diabetes differ between individuals with vs without schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin (Advance online publication). doi:10.1093/schbul/sbn106.Google Scholar
  137. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. International Journal of General Medicine, 16(9), 606–613.Google Scholar
  138. Kupka, R. W., Nolen, W. A., Post, R. M., McElroy, S. L., Altshuler, L. L., Denicoff, K. D., et al. (2002). High rate of autoimmune thyroiditis in bipolar disorder: Lack of association with lithium exposure. Biological Psychiatry, 51(4), 305–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Larkin, M. E., Capasso, V. A., Chen, C., Mahoney, E. K., Hazard, B., Cagliero, E., et al. (2008). Measuring psychological insulin resistance: Barriers to insulin use. The Diabetes Educator, 34(3), 511–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Lasser, K., Boyd, J., Woolhandler, S., Himmelstein, D., McCormick, D., & Bor, D. (2000). Smoking and mental illness: A population-based prevalence study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(20), 2606–2610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Lee, P., Greenfield, J., & Campbell, L. (2009). Managing young people with type 1 diabetes in a ‘rave’ new world: Metabolic complications of substance abuse in type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 26(4), 328–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Li, C., Barker, L., Ford, E. S., Zhang, X., Strine, T. W., & Mokdad, A. H. (2008). Diabetes and anxiety in US adults: Findings from the 2006 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Diabetic Medicine, 25(7), 878–881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Li, C., Ford, E., Zhao, G., Balluz, L., Berry, J., & Mokdad, A. (2010). Undertreatment of mental health problems in adults with diagnosed diabetes and serious psychological distress: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2007. Diabetes Care, 33(5), 1061–1064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Li, C., Ford, E. S., Zhao, G., Strine, T. W., Dhingra, S., Barker, L., et al. (2009). Association between diagnosed diabetes and serious psychological distress among U.S. adults: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2007. International Journal of Public Health, 54, S43–S51.Google Scholar
  145. Lin, E. H., Korff, M. V., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M. C., Anthony, J., Bromet, E., et al. (2008). Mental disorders among persons with diabetes – Results from the World Mental Health Surveys. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 65, 571–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Livingstone, C., & Rampes, H. (2006). Lithium: A review of its metabolic adverse effects. Psychopharmacology, 20, 347–355.Google Scholar
  147. Llorente, M. D., & Uruita, V. (2006). Diabetes, psychiatric disorders, and the metabolic effects of antipsychotic medications. Clinical Diabetes, 24(1), 18–24.Google Scholar
  148. Loh, C., Meyer, J., & Leckband, S. (2008). Accuracy of body image perception and preferred weight loss strategies in schizophrenia: A controlled pilot study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 117(2), 127–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Lucksted, A., McGuire, C., Postrado, L., Kreyenbuhl, J., & Dixon, L. (2004). Specifying cigarette smoking and quitting among people with serious mental illness. The American Journal on Addictions, 13(2), 128–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Ludman, E., Katon, W., Russo, J., Simon, G., Von Korff, M., Lin, E., et al. (2006). Panic episodes among patients with diabetes. General Hospital Psychiatry, 28(6), 475–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Lustman, P. J., Anderson, R. J., Freedland, K. E., de Groot, M., Carney, R. M., & Clouse, R. E. (2000). Depression and poor glycemic control: A meta-analytic review of the literature. Diabetes Care, 23, 934–942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Lustman, P., Clouse, R., Griffith, L., & Carney, R. (1997). Screening for depression in diabetes using the Beck Depression Inventory. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59(1), 24–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Lustman, P. J., Griffith, L. S., Clouse, R. E., Freedland, K. E., Eisen, S. A., Rubin, E. H., Carne, R. M., & McGill, J. B. (1995). Effects of alprazolam on glucose regulation in diabetes. Results of double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Care, 18(8), 1133–1139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Lustman, P. J., Williams, M. M., Sayuk, G. S., Nix, B. D., & Clouse, R. E. (2007). Factors influencing glycemic control in type 2 diabetes during acute- and maintenance-phase treatment of major depressive disorder with bupropion. Diabetes Care, 30, 459–466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. MacGillivray, S., Arroll, B., Hatcher, S., Ogston, S., Reid, I., Sullivan, F., et al. (2003). Efficacy and tolerability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors compared with tricyclic antidepressants in depression treated in primary care: Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 326, 1014–1020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Mannucci, E., Tesi, F., Ricca, V., Pierazzuoli, E., Barciulli, E., Moretti, S., et al. (2002). Eating behavior in obese patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity (Silver Spring), 26(6), 848–853.Google Scholar
  157. Marder, S., Essock, S., Miller, A., Buchanan, R., Davis, J., Kane, J., et al. (2002). The Mount Sinai Conference on the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 28(1), 5–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Markowitz, S., Gonzalez, J., Wilkinson, J., & Safren, S. (2011). Treating depression in diabetes: Emerging findings. Psychosomatics, 52(1), 1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. McClave, A., Dube, S., Strine, T., Kroenke, K., Caraballo, R., & Mokdad, A. (2009). Associations between smoking cessation and anxiety and depression among U.S. adults. Addictive Behaviors, 34(6–7), 491–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. McCreadie, R. G. (2003). Diet, smoking and cardiovascular risk in people with schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 183, 534–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. McEvoy, J., & Allen, T. (2003). Substance abuse (including nicotine) in schizophrenic patients. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 16(2), 199–205.Google Scholar
  162. McEvoy, J., Meyer, J., Goff, D., Nasrallah, H., Davis, S., Sullivan, L., et al. (2005). Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia: Baseline results from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial and comparison with national estimates from NHANES III. Schizophrenia Research, 80(1), 19–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. McGinnis, R. A., McGrady, A., Cox, S. A., & Grower-Dowling, K. A. (2005). Biofeedback-assisted relaxation in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 28, 2145–2149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. McGuffin, P., Rijsdijk, F., Andrew, M., Sham, P., Katz, R., & Cardno, A. (2003). The heritability of bipolar affective disorder and the genetic relationship to unipolar depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 497–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. McIntyre, R. S., Konarski, J. Z., Misener, V. L., & Kennedy, S. H. (2005). Bipolar disorder and diabetes mellitus: Epidemiology, etiology, and treatment implications. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 17(2), 83–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. McKibbin, C., Patterson, T., Norman, G., Patrick, K., Jin, H., Roesch, S., et al. (2006). A lifestyle intervention for older schizophrenia patients with diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial. Schizophrenia Research, 86(1–3), 36–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Mezuk, B., Eaton, W. W., Albrecht, S., & Golden, S. H. (2008). Depression and type 2 diabetes over the lifespan: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 31(12), 383–390.Google Scholar
  168. Miller, M., & Pumariega, A. (2001). Culture and eating disorders: A historical and cross-cultural review. Psychiatry, 64(2), 93–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Miranda, J., Chung, J. Y., Green, B. L., Krupnick, J., Siddique, J., Revicki, D. A., et al. (2003). Treating depression in predominantly low-income young minority women: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 57–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Mitsonis, C., Dimopoulous, N., & Psarra, V. (2009). Clinical implications of anxiety in diabetes: A critical review of the evidence base. European Psychiatry, 24(1), 526.Google Scholar
  171. Mollema, E. D., Snoek, F. J., Ader, H. J., Heine, R. J., & van der Ploeg, H. M. (2001). ­Insulin-treated diabetes patients with fear of self-injecting or fear of self-testing: Psychological comorbidity and general well-being. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 51(5), 665–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Mollema, E. D., Snoek, F. J., Heine, R. J., & van der Ploeg, H. M. (2001). Phobia of self-injecting and self-testing in insulin-treated diabetes patients: Opportunities for screening. Diabetic Medicine, 18(8), 671–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Morse, S. A., Ciechanowski, P. S., Katon, W. J., & Hirsch, I. B. (2006). Isn’t this just bedtime snacking? The potential adverse effects of night-eating symptoms on treatment adherence and outcomes in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 29(8), 1800–1804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Mueser, K., & Gingerich, S. (2006). The complete family guide to schizophrenia. New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  175. Mueser, K., & McGurk, S. (2004). Schizophrenia. The Lancet, 363(9426), 2063–2072.Google Scholar
  176. Musselman, D., Betan, E., Larsen, H., & Phillips, L. (2003). Relationship of depression to diabetes types 1 and 2: Epidemiology, biology, and treatment. Biological Psychiatry, 54(3), 317–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Myers, V. H., Boyer, B. A., Herbert, J. D., Barakat, L. P., & Scheiner, G. (2007). Fear of hypoglycemia and self reported posttraumatic stress in adults with diabetes type I treated by intensive regimens. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 14(1), 11–21.Google Scholar
  178. Nair, R., Lawler, L., & Miller, M. (2007). Chronic pancreatitis. American Family Physician, 76(11), 1679–1688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Neumark-Sztainer, D., Patterson, J., Mellin, A., Ackard, D. M., Utter, J., Story, M., et al. (2002). Weight control practices and disordered eating behaviors among adolescent females and males with type 1 diabetes: Associations with sociodemographics, weight concerns, familial factors, and metabolic outcomes. Diabetes Care, 25(8), 1289–1296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Newman, S., Steed, L., & Mulligan, K. (2004). Self-management interventions for chronic illness. The Lancet, 364, 1523–1537.Google Scholar
  181. Nielsen, S., Emborg, C., & Molbak, A.-G. (2002). Mortality in concurrent type 1 diabetes and anorexia nervosa. Diabetes Care, 25, 309–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Norris, S. L., Engelgau, M. M., & Venkat Narayan, K. M. (2001). Self-management training in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 24, 561–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Norris, S., Zhang, X., Avenell, A., Gregg, E., Bowman, B., & Serdula, M. (2004). Long-term effectiveness of lifestyle and behavioral weight loss interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. The American Journal of Medicine, 117, 762–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. O’Kane, M. J., Bunting, B., Copeland, M., & Coates, V. E. (2008). Efficacy of self monitoring of blood glucose in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (ESMON study): Randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 336, 1177–1180.Google Scholar
  185. Okada, S., Ichiki, K., Tanokuchi, S., Ishii, K., Hamada, H., & Ota, Z. (1994). Effect of an anxiolytic on lipid profile in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Journal of International Medical Research, 22(6), 338–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Osborn, C. Y., Trott, H. W., Buchowski, M. S., Patel, K. A., Kirby, L. D., Hargreaves, M. K., et al. (2010). Racial disparities in the treatment of depression in low-income persons with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 5, 1050–1054.Google Scholar
  187. Papelbaum, M., Appolinario, J. C., Moreira Rde, O., Ellinger, V. C., Kupfer, R., & Coutinho, W. F. (2005). Prevalence of eating disorders and psychiatric comorbidity in a clinical sample of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 27(2), 135–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Parks, J., Svendsen, D., Singer, P., Foti, M., & Mauer, B. (2006). Morbidity and mortality in people with serious mental illness. National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors. Retrieved November 11, 2009 from http://www.nasmhpd.org.
  189. Peet, M. (2004). Diet, diabetes and schizophrenia: Review and hypothesis. The British Journal of Psychiatry. Supplement, 47, 102–105.Google Scholar
  190. Pendlebury, J., & Holt, R. (2008). Supporting the lifestyle modification and treatment of type 2 diabetes for people with severe mental illness. European Diabetes Nursing, 5(2), 58–63.Google Scholar
  191. Pennix, B. W., Guralnik, J. M., Lerrucci, L., Simonsick, E. M., Deeg, D. J., & Wallace, R. B. (1998). Depressive symptoms and physical decline in community-dwelling older persons. Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 1720–1726.Google Scholar
  192. Pennix, B. W., Leveille, S., Ferrucci, L., van Eijk, J. T., & Guralnik, J. M. (1999). Exploring the effects of depression of physical disability: Longitudinal evidence established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1346–1352.Google Scholar
  193. Petrak, F., Herpertz, S., Albus, C., Hirsch, A., Kulzer, B., & Kruse, J. (2005). Psychosocial factors and diabetes mellitus: Evidence-based treatment guidelines. Current Diabetes Reviews, 1(3), 255–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Peveler, R. C., Bryden, K. S., Neil, H. A., Fairburn, C. G., Mayou, R. A., Dunger, D. B., et al. (2005). The relationship of disordered eating habits and attitudes to clinical outcomes in young adult females with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 28(1), 84–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Peyrot, M., McMurry, J. F., & Kruger, D. F. (1999). A biosocial model of glycemic control in diabetes: Stress, coping, and regimen influence. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 141–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Peyrot, M., & Rubin, R. (1997). Levels and risks of depression and anxiety symptomatology among diabetic adults. Diabetes Care, 20(4), 585–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Philip, N., Carpenter, L., Tyrka, A., & Price, L. (2008). Augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics: A review of the current literature. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 34–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Phillips, P., & Johnson, S. (2001). How does drug and alcohol misuse develop among people with psychotic illness? A literature review. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 36(6), 269–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Piette, J. D., Heisler, M., Ganoczy, D., McCarthy, J. F., & Valenstein, M. (2007). Differential medication adherence among patients with schizophrenia and comorbid diabetes and hypertension. Psychiatric Services, 58(2), 207–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Polivy, J., & Herman, C. (1985). Dieting and bingeing: A casual analysis. The American Psychologist, 40(2), 193–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Polonsky, W. (2002). Emotional and quality-of-life aspects of diabetes management. Current Diabetes Reports, 2(2), 153–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Polonsky, W. H., Davis, C. L., Jacobson, A. M., & Anderson, B. J. (1992). Correlates of hypoglycemic fear in type I and type II diabetes mellitus. Health Psychology, 11(3), 199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Polonsky, W. H., Fisher, L., Earles, J., Dudl, R. J., Lees, J., Mullan, J. T., et al. (2005). Assessing psychosocial stress in diabetes. Diabetes Care, 28, 626–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Pramming, S., Thorsteinsson, B., Bendtson, I., & Binder, C. (1991). Symptomatic hypoglycaemia in 411 type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetic Medicine, 8(3), 217–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Pratt, L., Dey, A., & Cohen, A. (2007). Characteristics of adults with serious psychological distress as measured by the K6 scale: United States, 2001-04. Advance Data, 382, 1–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Purcell, S., Wray, N., Stone, J., Visscher, P., O’Donovan, M., Sullivan, P., et al. (2009). Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Nature, 460(7256), 748–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES–D Scale: A self report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.Google Scholar
  208. Ravert, R. (2009). Alcohol management strategies of college students with diabetes. Patient Education and Counseling, 77(1), 97–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Regenold, W. T., Thapar, R. K., Marano, C., Gavirneni, S., & Kondapavuluru, P. V. (2002). Increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among psychiatric in patients with bipolar I affective and schizoaffective disorders independent of psychotropic drug use. Journal of Affective Disorders, 70(1), 19–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Riggs, P., Levin, F., Green, A. I., & Vocci, F. (2008). Comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders: Recent treatment research. Substance Abuse, 29(3), 51–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Risérus, U., & Ingelsson, E. (2007). Alcohol intake, insulin resistance, and abdominal obesity in elderly men. Obesity (Silver Spring), 15(7), 1766–1773.Google Scholar
  212. Rodin, G., Craven, J., Littlefield, C., & Murray, M. (1991). Eating disorders and intentional insulin undertreatment in adolescent females with diabetes. Psychosomatics, 32(2), 171–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Rodin, G., & Daneman, D. (1992). Eating disorders and IDDM. A problematic association. Diabetes Care, 15(10), 1402–1412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Rodin, G., Olmsted, M. P., Rydall, A. C., Maharaj, S. I., Colton, P. A., Jones, J. M., et al. (2002). Eating disorders in young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53(4), 943–949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Rosenzweig, S., Reibel, D., Greeson, J., Jasser, S., & McMearty, K. (2007). Mindfulness-based stress reduction is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 13, 36–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Rouillon, F., & Sorbara, F. (2005). Schizophrenia and diabetes: Epidemiological data. European Psychiatry, 20(Suppl 4), 345–348.Google Scholar
  217. Rubin, R. (2005). Adherence to pharmacologic therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The American Journal of Medicine, 118(Suppl 5A), 27–34.Google Scholar
  218. Rubin, R. R., & Peyrot, M. (2001). Psychological issues and treatments for people with diabetes. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(4), 457–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Rubin, R., Peyrot, M., & Saudek, C. (1993). The effect of a comprehensive diabetes education program incorporating coping skills training on emotional wellbeing and diabetes self-efficacy. The Diabetes Educator, 19(3), 210–214.Google Scholar
  220. Russell, L. B., Suh, D. C., & Safford, M. A. (2005). Time requirements for diabetes self-management: Too much for many? The Journal of Family Practice, 54, 52–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Ruzickova, M., Slaney, C., Garnham, J., & Alda, M. (2003). Clinical features of bipolar disorder with and without comorbid diabetes mellitus. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48(7), 458–461.Google Scholar
  222. Ryan, M., Gallanagh, J., Livingstone, M. B., Gaillard, C., & Ritz, P. (2008). The prevalence of abnormal eating behaviour in a representative sample of the French diabetic population. Diabetes & Metabolism, 34(6 Pt 1), 581–586.Google Scholar
  223. Rydall, A. C., Rodin, G. M., Olmsted, M. P., & Devenyi, R. G. (1997). Disordered eating behavior and microvascular complications in young women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The New England Journal of Medicine, 336(26), 1849–1854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Safren, S., Gonzalez, J., & Soroudi, N. (2008a). CBT for depression and adherence in individuals with chronic illness: Client workbook (treatments that work). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  225. Safren, S., Gonzalez, J., & Soroudi, N. (2008b). CBT for depression and adherence in individuals with chronic illness: Therapist guide (treatments that work). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  226. Safren, S. A., O’Cleirigh, C., Tan, J., Raminani, S., Reilly, L. C., Otto, M. W., et al. (2009). A randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in HIV-infected individuals. Health Psychology, 28(1), 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Saydah, S. H., Fradkin, J., & Cowie, C. C. (2004). Poor control of risk factors for vascular disease among adults with previously diagnosed diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(3), 335–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Schenck, C. H. (2006). A study of circadian eating and sleeping patterns in night eating syndrome (NES) points the way to future studies on NES and sleep-related eating disorder. Sleep Medicine, 7(8), 653–656.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Schraufnagel, T. J., Wagner, A. W., Miranda, J., & Roy-Byrne, P. P. (2006). Treating minority patients with depression and anxiety: What does the evidence tell us? General Hospital Psychiatry, 28, 27–36.Google Scholar
  230. Sclar, D. A., Robinson, L. M., Skaer, T. L., & Galin, R. S. (1998). Trends in the prescribing of antidepressant pharmacotherapy: Office-based visits, 1990-1995. Clinical Therapeutics, 20, 871–884.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Sernyak, M. J., Leslie, D. L., Alarcon, R. D., Losonczy, M. F., & Rosenheck, R. (2002). Association of diabetes mellitus with use of atypical neuroleptics in the treatment of schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(4), 561–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Seymour, H., Gilman, D., & Quin, J. (1996). Severe ketoacidosis complicated by ‘ecstasy’ ingestion and prolonged exercise. Diabetic Medicine, 13(10), 908–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Shaw, J., Sicree, R., & Zimmet, P. (2010). Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 87(1), 4–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Sheldon, B. H., & Quin, J. D. (2005). Diabetes and illicit drug use. Practical Diabetes International, 22(6), 222–224.Google Scholar
  235. Smith, M., Hopkins, D., Peveler, R. C., Holt, R., Woodward, M., & Ismail, K. (2008). First-v. second-generation antipsychotics and risk for diabetes in schizophrenia: Systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 192, 406–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Snoek, F. J., Mollema, E. D., Heine, R. J., Bouter, L. M., & van der Ploeg, H. M. (1997). Development and validation of the Diabetes Fear of Injecting and Self-Testing Questionnaire (D-FISQ): First findings. Diabetic Medicine, 14, 871–876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Snoek, F. J., & Skinner, T. C. (2002). Psychological counselling in problematic diabetes: Does it help? Diabetic Medicine, 19(4), 265–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Soo, H., & Lam, S. (2009). Stress management training in diabetes mellitus. Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 933–943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Soroudi, N., Perez, G., Gonzalez, J., Greer, J., Pollack, M., Otto, M., et al. (2008). CBT for medication adherence and depression (CBT-AD) in HIV-infected patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 15, 93–106.Google Scholar
  240. Spangler, J., Summerson, J., Bell, R., & Konen, J. (2001). Smoking status and psychosocial variables in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Addictive Behaviors, 26(1), 21–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Spencer, M. S., Kieffer, E. C., Sinco, B. R., Palmisano, G., Guzman, J., James, S., et al. (2006). Diabetes specific emotional distress among African Americans and Hispanics with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 17, 88–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Linzer, M., Hahn, S. R., Williams, J. B., deGruy, F. V., III, et al. (1995). Health-related quality of life in primary care patients with mental disorders. Results from the PRIME-MD 1000 Study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 274, 1511–1517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B., & Lowe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092–1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Steel, J. M., Young, R. J., Lloyd, G. G., & Clarke, B. F. (1987). Clinically apparent eating disorders in young diabetic women: Associations with painful neuropathy and other complications. British Medical Journal, 294(6576), 859–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Stewart, W. F., Ricci, J. A., Chee, E., Hahn, S. R., & Morganstein, D. (2003). Cost of lost productive work time among US workers with depression. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 3135–3144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009). Results from the 2008 national survey on drug use and health: National findings. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies (NSDUH Series H-36, HHS Publication No. SMA 09-4434).Google Scholar
  247. Sultan, S., Epel, E., Sachon, C., Vaillant, G., & Hartemann-Heurtier, A. (2008). A longitudinal study of coping, anxiety and glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes. Psychology & Health, 23(1), 73–90.Google Scholar
  248. Surwit, R. S., Van Tilburg, M. A., Zucker, N., McCaskill, C. C., Parekh, P., Feinglos, M. N., et al. (2002). Stress management improves long-term glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25(1), 30–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Takii, M., Uchigata, Y., Tokunaga, S., Amemiya, N., Kinukawa, N., Nozaki, T., et al. (2008). The duration of severe insulin omission is the factor most closely associated with the microvascular complications of type 1 diabetic females with clinical eating disorders. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41(3), 259–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. Thakore, J. H. (2005). Metabolic syndrome and schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 455–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Thase, M., Haight, B., Richard, N., Rockett, C., Mitton, M., Modell, J., et al. (2005). Remission rates following antidepressant therapy with bupropion or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: A meta-analysis of original data from 7 randomized controlled trials. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66(8), 974–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Thomas, P., Raymondet, P., Charbonnel, B., & Vaiva, G. (2005). Are there specific care requirements for patients with schizophrenia and diabetes or with a risk of diabetes? European Psychiatry, 20, 358–363.Google Scholar
  253. Tierney, S., Deaton, C., & Whitehead, J. (2009). Caring for people with type 1 diabetes mellitus engaging in disturbed eating or weight control: A qualitative study of practitioners’ attitudes and practices. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18(3), 384–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. Tuncay, T., Musabak, I., Gok, D. E., & Kutlu, M. (2008). The relationship between anxiety, coping strategies and characteristics of patients with diabetes. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 6(79). doi:10.1186/1477-7525-6-79.
  255. U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010). Healthy people 2020: The road ahead. Retrieved on January 3rd, 2011 from http://www.health.gov/healthypeople/url/.
  256. Vileikyte, L., Leventhal, H., Gonzalez, J. S., Peyrot, M., Rubin, R. R., Ulbrecht, J. S., et al. (2005). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and depressive symptoms: The association revisited. Diabetes Care, 28(10), 2378–2383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Vileikyte, L., Peyrot, M., Gonzalez, J. S., Rubin, R. R., Garrow, A. P., Stickings, D., et al. (2009). Predictors of depressive symptoms in persons with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A longitudinal study. Diabetologia, 52(7), 1265–1273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Wang, P., Sachs, G., Zarate, C., Marangell, L., Calabrese, J., Goldberg, J., et al. (2006). Overweight and obesity in bipolar disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40(8), 762–764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Weinberger, A., & George, T. (2009). Nicotine and tobacco use in patients with schizophrenia. In J. Meyer & H. Nasrallah (Eds.), Medical illness and schizophrenia (2nd ed., pp. 223–243). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  260. Weinger, K. (2007). Psychosocial issues and self-care. The American Journal of Nursing, 107(6), 34–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Weinger, K., & Jacobson, A. M. (2001). Psychosocial and quality of life correlates of glycemic control during intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes. Patient Education and Counseling, 42, 123–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Weinger, K., & Lee, J. (2006). Psychosocial and psychiatric challenges of diabetes mellitus. The Nursing Clinics of North America, 41(4), 667–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Weiss, A. P., Henderson, D. C., Weilburg, J. B., Goff, D. C., Meigs, J. B., Cagliero, E., et al. (2006). Treatment of cardiac risk factors among patients with schizophrenia and diabetes. Psychiatric Services, 57(8), 1145–1152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Whitebird, R. R., Kreitzer, M. J., & O’Connor, P. J. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum, 22(4), 226–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Wild, D., von Maltzahn, R., Brohan, E., Christensen, T., Clauson, P., & Gonder-Frederick, L. (2007). A critical review of the literature on fear of hypoglycemia in diabetes: Implications for diabetes management and patient education. Patient Education and Counseling, 68, 10–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Willi, C., Bodenmann, P., Ghali, W., Faris, P., & Cornuz, J. (2007). Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(22), 2654–2664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. Wu, R. R., Zhao, J. P., Jin, H., Shao, P., Fang, M. S., Guo, X. F., et al. (2008). Lifestyle intervention and metformin for treatment of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299, 185–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Yi, J. P., Yi, J. C., Vitaliano, P. P., & Weinger, K. (2008). How does anger coping style affect glycemic control in diabetes patients? International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15(3), 167–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Young, E. A., Abelson, J. L., & Cameron, O. G. (2004). Effect of comorbid anxiety disorders on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis response to a social stressor in major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 56, 113–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Zambanini, A., Newson, R. B., Maisey, M., & Feher, M. D. (1999). Injection related anxiety in insulin-treated diabetes. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 46(3), 239–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. Zhang, X., Norris, S. L., Gregg, E. W., Cheng, Y. J., Beckles, G., & Kahn, H. S. (2005). Depressive symptoms and mortality among persons with and without diabetes. American Journal of Epidemiology, 161, 652–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. Ziedonis, D. M., & George, T. P. (1997). Schizophrenia and nicotine use: Report of a pilot smoking cessation program and review of neurobiological and clinical issues. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 23(2), 247–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Ziedonis, D., Williams, J. M., & Smelson, D. (2003). Serious mental illness and tobacco addiction: A model program to address this common but neglected issue. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 326(4), 223–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey S. Gonzalez
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sabrina A. Esbitt
    • 3
  • Havah E. Schneider
    • 3
  • Patricia J. Osborne
    • 3
  • Elyse G. Kupperman
    • 3
  1. 1.Clinical Psychology Ph.D. Program with Health EmphasisFerkauf Graduate School of PsychologyBronxUSA
  2. 2.Diabetes Research CenterAlbert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  3. 3.Ferkauf Graduate School of PsychologyYeshiva UniversityBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations