Worldwide Observations of Infrasonic Waves

  • P. Campus
  • D. R. Christie


The international monitoring system (IMS) is designed to ensure compliance with the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). The infrasound component of the IMS consists of a 60-station network of infrasound monitoring stations distributed uniformly over the face of the globe. This network is designed to reliably detect and locate atmospheric nuclear explosion. IMS infrasound monitoring stations are located in a wide variety of environments ranging from the hot and humid equatorial tropics, to barren wind-swept deserts and the ice-covered wastes of the Polar regions. A large number of signals from a wide variety of sources have been recorded at IMS infrasound stations. Some types of signal are routinely detected at all stations, while other types may be unique to a particular station or region. This chapter provides a thorough survey of the various types of infrasonic signals that have been detected at stations in the global network and a discussion of the potential benefits of the use of infrasonic data from this unique global network in international scientific projects and in geophysical hazard warning systems.


Properties of infrasonic waves Observations of infrasonic waves Applications of IMS infrasound data Volcanic eruptions Global warming 



Paola Campus expresses her thanks to the Département, Analyse, Surveillance de l’Environment (CEA/DAM/DIF/DASE) for the use of PMCC software.


  1. Abdullah AJ (1966) The “musical” sound emitted by a tornado. Mon Weather Rev 94:213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Axefors B, Backteman O, Bennerhult O, Nilsson NA (1985) Infrasound: a bibliography of articles up till April 1983, Swedish Defense Materiel Admin., Strockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  3. Arendt S, Fritts D (2000) Acoustic radiation by ocean surface waves. J Fluid Mech 415:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnoult KM, Wilson CR, Olson JV, Szuberla CAL (2005) Infrasound associated with Mt Steller avalanche. Inframatics 12:4–7Google Scholar
  5. Assink JD, Evers LG, Holleman I, Paulssen H (2008) Characterization of infrasound from lightning. Geophys Res Lett 35:L15802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baird HF, Banwell CJ (1940) Recording of air-presure oscillations associated with microseisms at Christchurch, New Zealand. J Sci Technol 21B:314–329Google Scholar
  7. Balachandran NK (1982) Acoustic and electric signals from lightning. J Geophys Res 88:3879–3884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balachandran NK, Donn WL (1971) Characteristics of infrasonic signals from rockets. Geophys J R astr Soc 26:135–148Google Scholar
  9. Balachandran NK, Donn WL, Rind DH (1977) Concorde sonic booms as an atmospheric probe. Science 197:47–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barruol G, Reymond D, Fontaine FR, Hyvernaud O, Maurer V, Maamaatuaiahutapu K (2006) Characterizing swells in the southern Pacific from seismic and infrasonic noise analyses. Geophys J Int 164:516–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bass HE, Tenney S, Clark P, Noble J, Gibson R, Norris D, Bhattacharyya J, Bondar I, Israelsson H, North R, Skov M, Woodward R, Yang X, Whitaker R, Sandoval T, Revelle D, Bedard A, Nishiyama R, Gasiewski A, Drob D, Hedlin M, D’Spain G, Murray J, Rovner G, Berger L, Garcés M, Hetzer C, Herrin E, Hayward C (2003). Report to the Department of Defense on Infrasonic Re-entry Signals from the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) (Revision 3.0). American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2003, abstract #U32B-02Google Scholar
  12. Brackteman O, Kohler J, Sjoberg L (1985) Infrasound: a summary of interesting articles, Swedish Defense Materiel Admin., Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  13. Bedard AJ Jr, (1988) Infrasound from natural sources in Internoise 88. Proceedings from the 1988 International Conference on Noise Control Engineering, Avignon, FranceGoogle Scholar
  14. Bedard AJ Jr (1993) Low-frequency sound waves associated with avalanches, atmospheric turbulence, severe weather, and earthquakes. J Acoust Soc Am 94(3):1872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bedard AJ Jr, (1994) Evaluation of atmospheric infrasound for monitoring avalanches. Proceedings of the 7th international symposium on acoustic remote sensing and associated techniques of the atmosphere and oceans, Boulder, Colorado, 3–5 October 1994.Google Scholar
  16. Bedard AJ Jr, (1998) Infrasonic detection of severe weather. Proceedings of the 19th conference on severe local storms, American Meteor Society, Minneapolis, MN, Paper 6.6Google Scholar
  17. Bedard AJ Jr (2005) Low frequency atmospheric acoustic energy associated with vortices produced by thunderstorms. Mon Weather Rev 133:241–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brachet N, Brown D, Le Bras R, Mialle P, Coyne J (2010) Monitoring the earth’s atmosphere with the global IMS infrasound network. This volume, pp. 73–114Google Scholar
  19. Bedard AJ Jr, Bartram BW, Keane AN, Welsh DC, Nishiyama RT (2004a) The infrasound Network (ISNET): Background, design details, and display capability as an 88D adjunct tornado detection tool. Proceedings of the 22nd conference on severe local storms, American Meteor Society, Hyannis, MA, Paper 1.1Google Scholar
  20. Bedard AJ Jr, Bartram BW, Entwistle B, Golden J, Hodanish S, Jones RM, Nishiyama RT, Keane AN, Mooney L, Nicholls M, Szoke EJ, Thaler E, Welsh DC (2004b) Overview of the ISNET data set and conclusions and recommendations from a March 2004 workshop to review ISNET data. Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on severe local storms, American Meteor Society, Hyannis, MA, Paper 2.8Google Scholar
  21. Benioff H, Gutenberg B (1939) Waves and currents recorded by electromagnetic barographs. Bull Amer Met Soc 20:421–426Google Scholar
  22. Bowman HS, Bedard AJ (1971) Observations of infrasound and subsonic disturbances related to severe weather. Geophys J R astr Soc 26:215–242Google Scholar
  23. Brown PG, Whitaker RW, ReVelle DO, Tagliaferri E (2002a) Multi-station infrasonic observations of two large bolides: Signal interpretation and implications for monitoring of atmospheric explosions. Geophys Res Lett 29:1636. doi: 10.1029/2001GL013778 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown P, Spalding RE, ReVelle DO, Tagliaferri E, Worden SP (2002b) The flux of small near-Earth objects colliding with the Earth. Nature 420:314–316Google Scholar
  25. Campus P (2003) The CTBT IMS infrasound network: Status of the actual installations and examples of infrasound signals recorded at the existing stations. Proceedings of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting 2003, San Francisco, California, 8–12 December 2003Google Scholar
  26. Campus P (2004) The IMS infrasound network and its potential for detection of events: examples of a variety of signals recorded around the world. Inframatics 6:14–22Google Scholar
  27. Campus P (2005) The IMS infrasound network and monitoring of volcanoes. Proceedings of the 2005 Infrasound Technology Workshop, Tahiti, 28 November–2 December 2005Google Scholar
  28. Campus P (2006a) Monitoring volcanic eruptions with the IMS infrasound network. Inframatics 15:6–12Google Scholar
  29. Campus P (2006b) Monitoring volcanoes at the CTBT IMS infrasound network. Proceedings of the 2006 Infrasound Technology Workshop, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 25–28 September 2006Google Scholar
  30. Campus P (2007a) The IMS infrasound network: detection of a large variety of events, including volcanic eruptions. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Theoretical and Computational Acoustics, Heraklion, Crete, 02-06 July 2007.Google Scholar
  31. Campus P (2007b) The IMS infrasound network: detection of a large variety of events including volcanic eruptions. Proceedings of the 2007 Infrasound Technology Workshop, Tokyo, Japan, 13–16 November 2007.Google Scholar
  32. Campus P (2007c) Eruptions detected with the global infrasonic array network of the International Monitoring System. Proceedings of the second international workshop on acoustic remote sensing of volcanoes, Shimabara, Japan, 18 November, 2007Google Scholar
  33. Campus P (2008) The IMS infrasound network and its potential for detections of a wide variety of man-made and natural events. Proceedings Infrasound Technology Workshop, Bermuda, 3–7 November 2008Google Scholar
  34. Campus P, Christie DR, Brown D (2005) Detection of infrasound from the eruption of Manam volcano on January 27, 2005. Proceedings of the 2005 infrasound technology workshop, Tahiti, 28 November – 2 December 2005 and Proceedings of the first international workshop on acoustic remote sensing of volcanoes, Quito, 22 January, 2006Google Scholar
  35. Cansi Y (1995) An automatic seismic event processing for detection and location: the PMCC method. Geophys Res Lett 22:1021–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cansi Y, Le Pichon A (2008) Infrasound event detection using the progressive multi-channel correlation algorithm. Handbook of signal processing in acoustics, Chapter 77, 1425–1435, Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Ceranna L, Le Pichon A (2006) The Buncefield fire: a benchmark for infrasound analysis in Europe. Proceedings of the 2006 infrasound technology workshop, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 25–28 September 2006Google Scholar
  38. Chen P, Christie DR (1995) Infrasonic detection of volcanic explosions by the International Monitoring System: implications for aviation safety. 2nd meeting international civil aviation volcanic ash warning study group, Montreal, Canada, 2 November 1995Google Scholar
  39. Chimonas G (1977) A possible source mechanism for mountain-associated infrasound. J Atmos Sci 34:806–811Google Scholar
  40. Christie DR (1989) Long nonlinear waves in the lower atmosphere. J Atmos Sci 46:1462–1491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Christie DR (1992) The Morning Glory of the Gulf of Carpentaria: a paradigm for non-linear waves in the lower atmosphere. Aust Meteor Mag 41:21–60Google Scholar
  42. Christie DR (2004) Observations of infrasound in central Australia. Proceedings Infrasound Technology Workshop, Hobart, Australia, 29 November–3 December 2004Google Scholar
  43. Christie DR, Kennett BLN (2007) Detection of nuclear explosions using infrasound techniques. Final Report AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2007-1151, Air force research laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA, Available from United States Technical Information ServiceGoogle Scholar
  44. Christie DR, Campus P (2010) The IMS infrasound network: design and establishment of infrasound stations. This volume, pp. 27–72Google Scholar
  45. Christie DR, Muirhead KJ, Hales AL (1978) On solitary waves in the atmosphere. J Atmos Sci 35:805–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Christie DR, Kennett BLN, Tarlowski C (2005) Detection of regional and distant atmospheric explosions. Proceedings of the 27th Seismic Research Review, Rancho Mirage, California, 20–22 September 2005, 817–827Google Scholar
  47. Chrzanowski P, Green G, Lemmon KT, Young JM (1961) Travelling pressure waves associated with geopmagnetic activity. J Geophys Res 66:3727–3733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cook RK (1971) Infrasound radiated during the Montana Earthquake of 1959 August 18. Geophys J R astr Soc 26:191–198Google Scholar
  49. Cotten DE, Donn WL, Oppenheim A (1971) On the generation and propagation of shock waves from apollo rockets at orbital altitudes. Geophys J Int 26:149–159Google Scholar
  50. Cotton DE, Donn WL (1971) Sound from Apollo rockets in space. Science 171:656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cox EF (1949) Abnormal audibility zones in long distance propagation through the atmosphere. J Acoust Soc Am 21:6–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Davidson M, Whitaker RW (1992) Miser’s Gold, Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Report: LA-12074-MS, FebruaryGoogle Scholar
  53. Dessler AJ (1973) Infrasonic thunder. J Geophys Res 78:1889–1896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Donn WL (1978) Exploring the atmosphere with sonic booms. Am Sci 66:724–733Google Scholar
  55. Donn WL, Balachandran NK (1981) Mount St. Helens eruption of 18 May 1980: air waves and explosive yield. Science 213:539–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Donn WL, Naini B (1973) Sea wave origin of microbaroms and microseisms. J Geophys Res 78:4482–4488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Donn WL, Rind D (1971) Natural infrasound as an atmospheric probe. Geophys J R astr Soc 26:111–133Google Scholar
  58. Donn WL, Rind D (1972) Microbaroms and the temperature and winds in the upper atmosphere. J Atmos Sci 29:156–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Donn WL, Shaw DM (1967) Exploring the atmosphere with nuclear explosions. Rev Geophys 5:53–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Donn WL, Balachandran NK, Kaschak G (1974) Atmospheric infrasound radiated by bridges. J Acoust Soc Am 56:1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Drob DP, Picone JM, Garcés MA (2003) The global morphology of infrasound propagation. J Geophys Res 108, doi:10.1029/2002JD003307Google Scholar
  62. Drob D, O’Brien M, Bowman R (2006) HWM upgrade for infrasound propagation calculations. Proceedings of the 2006 Infrasound Technology Workshop, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 25–28 September 2006Google Scholar
  63. Drob DP, Garcés M, Hedlin M, Brachet N (2007) The temporal morphology of infrasound propagation. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Tokyo, Japan, 13–16 November 2007Google Scholar
  64. de Groot-Hedlin C, Hedlin MAH, Walker KT (2008) Evaluation of infrasound signals from the shuttle Arlantis using a large seismic network. J Acoust Soc Am 124:1442–1451Google Scholar
  65. de Groot-Hedlin C, Hedlin M, Walker K, Drob D, Zumberge M (2007) Study of infrasound propagation from the shuttle Atlantus using a large sesimic network. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Tokyo, Japan, 13–16 November 2007Google Scholar
  66. Edwards WN, Brown P, ReVelle DO (2006) Estimates of metereoid kinetic energies from observations of infrasonic waves. J Atmos Solar-Terrestrial Phys 68:1136–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Evers L (2005) Infrasound monitoring in the Netherlands. J Netherlands Acoust Soc (Nederlands Akoestisch Genootschap) 176:1–11Google Scholar
  68. Evers LG (2008) The inaudible symphony: on the detection and source identification of atmospheric infrasound. Ph. D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, ISBN 978-90-71382-55-0Google Scholar
  69. Evers L, Haak H (2001) Recent observations at the Deelen Infrasound array. Proceedings Infrasound Technology Workshop, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 12–15 November 2001Google Scholar
  70. Evers LG, Haak HW (2003) Tracing a meteoric trajectory with infrasound. Geophys Res Lett, 30(24): 2246, doi: 10.1029/2003GL017947
  71. Evers LG, Haak HW (2005) The detectability of infrasound in The Netherlands from the Italian volcano Mt Etna. J Atmos Sol Terr Phys 67:259–268. doi: 10.1016/j.jastp. 2004.09.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Evers L, Haak H (2006) Seismo-acoustic analysis of explosions and evidence for infrasonic forerunners. Proceedings of the 2006 infrasound technology workshop, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 25–28 September 2006Google Scholar
  73. Evers L, Haak H (2007) Infrasonic forerunners: Exceptionally fast acoustic phases. Geophys Res Lett 34:L10806. doi: 10.1029/2007GL029353 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Evers L, Ceranna L, Haak HW, Le Pichon A, Whitaker RW (2007) A seismoacoustic analysis of the gas-pipeline explosion near ghislenghien in Belgium. Bull Seism Soc Am 97(2):417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Farges T, Blanc E, Le Pichon A, Neubert T, Allin TH (2005) Identification of infrasound produced by sprites during the Sprite2003 campaign. Geophys Res Lett 32:L01813. doi: 10.1029/2004GL021212 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Few AA (1970) Lightning channel reconstruction from thunder measurements. J Geophys Res 75(36):7517–7523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Few AA (1985) The production of lightning-associated infrasonic acoustic sources in thunderclouds. J Geophys Res 90:6175–6180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Greene GE, Howard J (1975) Natural infrasound: a one year global study, NOAA, TR, ERL 317-WPL-37Google Scholar
  79. Garcés M, Hetzer C, Merrifield M, Willis M, Aucan J (2003) Observations of surf infrasound in Hawai’i. Geophys Res Lett 30(24):2264, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018614
  80. Garcés M, Willis M, Hetzer C, Le Pichon A, Drob D (2004a) On using ocean swells for continuous infrasonic measurements of winds and temperature in the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. Geophys Res Lett 31:L19304. doi: 10.1029/2004GL020696 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Garcés M, Bass H, Drob D, Hetzer C, Hedlin M, Le Pichon A, Lindquist K, North R, Olson J (2004b) Forensic studies of infrasound from massive hypersonic sources. EOS 85(43):433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Garcés M, Fee D, Steffke A, McCormack D, Servranckx R, Bass H, Hetzer C, Hedlin M, Matoza R, Yepes H, Ramon P (2008) Capturing the acoustic fingerprint of stratospheric ash injection. EOS, Tran Am Geophys Union, 89: 377–378Google Scholar
  83. Georges TM (1973) Infrasound from convective storms: Examining the evidence. Rev Geophys Space Phys 11:571–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Goerke VH, Woodward MW (1966) Infrasonic observation of a severe weather system. Mon Weather Rev 94:395–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Goerke VH, Young JM, Cook RK (1965) Infrasonic observations of the 1963 volcanic explosion on the island of Bali. J Geophys Res 70:6017–6022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Green D (2008). Assessing the detection capability of the International Monitoring System infrasound network. AWE Report 629/08, AWE Aldermaston, p. 91Google Scholar
  87. Green D, Bowers D, Drob D, Hort M (2006) The Buncefield oil depot explosion: extending signal coverage using airwaves recorded on seismometers. Proceedings of the 2006 infrasound technology workshop, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, 25–28 September 2006Google Scholar
  88. Greene GE, Bedard AJ (1986) Infrasound from distant rocket launches, national oceanic and atmospheric administration technical report No: NOAA-TM-ERL-WPL-131, February NTIS Number: PB86-182771/HDMGoogle Scholar
  89. Grover FH (1968) Research notes: a note on infrasonics at U.K.A.E.A. Blacknest. Geophys J R astr Soc 16:311Google Scholar
  90. Grover FH (1973) Geophysical effects of Concord sonic boom. Q Jl R astr Soc 14:141–160Google Scholar
  91. Grover FH, Marshall PD (1968) Ground to air coupled waves from a distant earthquake. Nature 220:686–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gutenberg B (1939) The velocity of sound waves and the temperature in the stratosphere in Southern California. Bull Am Met Soc 20:192–201Google Scholar
  93. Gutenberg B, Benioff H (1941) Atmospheric pressure waves near Pasadena. Trans Amer Geophys Union 22:424–426Google Scholar
  94. Hagerty M, Kim WY, Martysevhich P (2002) Infrasound detection of large mining blasts in Kazakstan. Pure Appl Geophys 159(5):1063–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hedin AE (1991) Extension of the MSIS thermosphere model in the middle and lower atmosphere. J Geophys Res 96:1159–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hedin AE, Fleming EL, Manson AH, Schmidlin FJ, Avery SK, Clark RR, Franke SJ, Fraser GJ, Tsuda T, Vial F, Vincent RA (1996) Empirical wind model for the upper, middle and lower atmosphere. J Atmos Terr Phys 58:1421–1444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hetzer C, Waxler R, Talmadge C, Garcés M, Gilbert K, Bass H (2007) Hurricane studies using infrasound. Proceedings Infrasound Technology Workshop, Tokyo, Japan, 13–16 November 2007Google Scholar
  98. Itikari I, Campus P, Martysevich P, Hoffman T (2003) IS40 and infrasound waves from volcanic explosions. Proceedings of the 2003 Infrasound Technology Workshop, La Jolla, California, USA, 27–30 October 2003Google Scholar
  99. Kunhikrishnan PK, Krishna Murthy BV (1982) Atmospheric pressure perturbations during total solar eclipse on 16 February 1980, Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy 48A, suppl. 3: 238Google Scholar
  100. Larson RJ, Craine LB, Thomas JE, Wilson CR (1971) Correlation of winds and geographic features with production of certain infrasonic signals in the atmosphere. Geophys J R astr Soc 26:201–214Google Scholar
  101. Le Pichon A, Cansi Y (2003) PMCC for infrasound data processing. Inframatics 2:1–9Google Scholar
  102. Le Pichon A, Drob D (2004) Probing high-altitude winds using infrasound from volcanoes. Inframatics 8:1–16Google Scholar
  103. Le Pichon A, Guilbert J, Cansi Y (2001) Infrasonic waves from natural sources. Proceedings infrasound technology workshop, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 12–15 November 2001Google Scholar
  104. Le Pichon A, Guilbert J, Vallée M, Dessa JX, Ulziibat M (2003) Infrasonic imaging of the Kunlun Mountains for the great 2001 China earthquake. Geophys Res Lett 30(15): 1814, doi: 10.1029/2003GL017581
  105. Le Pichon A, Blanc E, Drob D (2005a) Probing high-altitude winds using infrasound. J Geophys Res 110:D20104. doi: 10.1029/2005JD006020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Le Pichon A, Blanc E, Drob D, Lambotte S, Dessa JX, Lardy M, Bani P, Vergniolle S (2005b) Infrasound monitoring of volcanoes to probe high-altitude winds. J Geophys Res 110:D13106. doi: 10.1029/2004JD005587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Le Pichon A, Herry P, Mialle P, Vergoz J, Brachet N, Garcés M, Drob D, Ceranna L (2005c) Infrasound associated with 2004–2005 large Sumatra earthquakes and tsunami. Geophys Res Lett 32:L19802. doi: 10.1029/2005GL023893 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Le Pichon A, Antier K, Drob D (2006a) Multi-year validation of the NRL-G2S wind fields using infrasound from Yasur. Inframatics 16:1–9Google Scholar
  109. Le Pichon A, Ceranna L, Garcés M, Drob D, Millet C (2006b) On using infrasound from interacting ocean swells for global continuous measurements of winds and temperature in the stratosphere, J Geophys Res 111, doi:10.1029/2005JD006690Google Scholar
  110. Le Pichon A, Mialle P, Guilbert J, Vergoz J (2006c) Multistation infrasonic observations of the Chilean earthquake of 2005 June 13. Geophys J Int 167:838–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Le Pichon A, Vergoz J, Blanc E, Guilbert J, Ceranna L, Evers L, Brachet N (2009) Assessing the performance of the International Monitoring System infrasound network: geographical coverage and temporal variabilities. J Geophys Res, 114:D08112. doi: 10.1029/2008JD010907
  112. Lees JM, Gordeev EI, Ripepe M (2004) Explosions and periodic tremor at Karymsky volcano, Kamchatka. Russia Geophys J Int 158:1151–1167Google Scholar
  113. Lin TL, Langston CA (2007) Infrasound from Thunder: A Natural Seismic Source. Geophys Res Lett 34:L14304. doi: 10.1029/2007GL030404 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Liszka L (1974) Long-distance propagation of infrasound from artificial sources. J Acoust Soc Am 56:1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Liszka L (2004) On the possible infrasound generation by sprites. J Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control 23:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Liszka L (2008a) Infrasound: A summary of 35 years of research. IRF Scientific Report 291, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Umeå, Sweden, p. 150Google Scholar
  117. Liszka L (2008b) Listening to meteors. IRF Scientific Report 295, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Umeå, Sweden, p. 66 ppGoogle Scholar
  118. Liszka L, Garcés MA (2002) Infrasonic observations of the Hekla eruption of February 26, 2000, J. Low Freq. Noise, Vibration, and Active Control 21: 1–8Google Scholar
  119. Liszka L, Hobara Y (2006) Sprite-attributed infrasonic chirps – their detections, occurrence and properties between 1994 and 2004. J Atmos Solar-Terrestrial Phys 68:1179–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Liszka L, Waldemark K (1995) High resolution observations of infrasound generated by the supersonic flight of the Concorde. J. Low Frequency Noise and Vibration 14(4):181–192Google Scholar
  121. Longuet-Higgens MS (1950) A theory of the origin of microseisms. Phil Trans R Soc Lond A 243:1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Maeda K, Young J (1966) Propagation of pressure waves produced by auroras. J. Geomagn., Kyoto, 18: 275–299Google Scholar
  123. Matoza RS, Hedlin MAH, Garcés MA (2007) An infrasound array study of Mount St. Helens. J Volcanology Geothermal Res 160: 249–262Google Scholar
  124. McIntosh BA, ReVelle DO (1984) Traveling Atmospheric Pressure Waves Measured During a Solar Eclipse. J Geophys Res 89:4953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. McIntosh BA, Watson MD, ReVelle DO (1976) Infrasound from a radar-observed meteor. Can J Phys 54:655–662Google Scholar
  126. Melton BS, Bailey LF (1957) Multiple signal correlators. Geophysics 22:565–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mutschlecner JP, Whitaker RW (2005) Infrasound from earthquakes. J Geophys Res 110, doi:10.1029/2004JD005067Google Scholar
  128. McKisic JM (1996) Infrasound and the infrasonic monitoring of atmospheric nuclear explosions: an annotated bibliography, Department of Energy and Phillips Laboratory Air Force Materiel Command, PL-TR-96-2282Google Scholar
  129. Mutschlecner JP, Whitaker RW, Auer LH (1999) An empirical study of infrasound propagation, Los Alamos Nat. Lab. Tech Rep. LA-13620-MSGoogle Scholar
  130. Olson J (2004) Infrasound signal detection using the Fisher F-statistics. Inframatics 6:1–8Google Scholar
  131. Olson J, Wilson CR, Hansen RA (2003) Infrasound associated with the 2002 Denali fault earthquake. Alaska Geophys Res Lett 30:2195. doi: 10.1029/2003GL018568 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Posey JW, Pierce AD (1971) Estimation of nuclear explosion energies from microbaragraph records. Nature 232:253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Posmentier ES (1967) A theory of microbaroms. Geophys J Int 13:487–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Posmentier ES (1971) Preliminary observations of 1–16 Hz natural background infrasound and signals from Apollo 14 and aircraft. Geophys J R astr Soc 26:173–177Google Scholar
  135. Procunier RW (1971) Observations of acoustic aurora in the 1–16 Hz range. Geophys J R astr Soc 26:183–189Google Scholar
  136. Reed JW (1969) Climatology of airblast propagations from nevada test site nuclear airbursts, Sandia National Laboratory Report SC-I.R.-69-572 m DecemberGoogle Scholar
  137. Reed JW (1987a) Air pressure waves from Mount St. Helens eruptions. J Geophys Res 92(11):979Google Scholar
  138. Reed JW (1987b) Climatological assessment of expolosion airblast propagation, Sandia National Laboratory Terchnical Report No. SAND-86-2180C (Conference Proceedings), NTIS Number: DE87010510/HDMGoogle Scholar
  139. ReVelle DO (1976) On meteor-generated infrasound. J Geophys Res 81:1217–1229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. ReVelle DO (1997) Historical detection of atmospheric impacts by large bolides using acoustic-gravity waves. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 822, Near-Earth Objects: The United Nations Conference, 284–302Google Scholar
  141. Richardson J, Fitzgerald K, Pennington W (2008) Seismic and acoustic observations of Bering Glacier calving events. EOS Trans. AGU, 89 (83), Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract C11A-0479Google Scholar
  142. Rind D (1977) Heating of the lower thermosphere by the dissipation of acoustic waves. J Atmos Terrestrial Phys 39:445–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Rind D (1978) Investigation of the lower thermosphere results of ten years of continuous observations with natural infrasound. J Atmos Terr Phys 40:1199–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Rind D, Donn WL (1975) Further use of natural infrasound as a continuous monitor of the upper atmosphere. J Atmos Sci 32:1694–1704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Rind D, Donn WL, Dede E (1973) Upper air wind speeds calculated from observations of natural infrasound. J Atmos Sci 30:1726–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Rockway JW, Hower GL, Craine LB, Thomas JE (1974) Application of ray-tracing to observations of mountain-associated infrasonic waves. Geophys J R astr Soc 35:259–266Google Scholar
  147. Scott ED, Hayward CT, Kubichek RF, Hamann JC, Pierre JW, Comey B, Mendenhall T (2007) Single and multiple sensor identification of avalanche-generated infrasound. Cold Reg Sci Technol 47:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sorrells G, Bonner J, Herrin ET (2002) Seismic precursors to space shuttle shock fronts. Pure Appl Geophys 159:1153–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Symons GJ (ed) (1888) The eruption of Kraktoa and subsequent phenomena. Harrison and Sons, LondonGoogle Scholar
  150. Thomas JE, Pierce AD, Flinn EA, Craine LB (1971) Bibliography on infrasonic waves, Geophys J. R. astr Soc 26:399Google Scholar
  151. Thomas JE, Pierce AE, Flinn EA, Craine LB (1972) Supplement to ‘Bibliography on Infrasonic Waves, Geophys J. R. astr Soc 30:1Google Scholar
  152. Walker KT, Zumberge MA, Hedlin MAH, Shearer PM (2008) Methods for determining infrasound phase velocity direction with an array of line sensors. J Acoust Soc Am 124:2090–2099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Whitaker R (2007) Infrasound signals as basis for event discriminants. Proceedings of the 29th Monitoring Research Review, Denver, Colorado, 25–27 September 2007, 905–913Google Scholar
  154. Whitaker R (2008) Infrasound signals from ground-motion sources. Proceedings of the 30th monitoring research review, Portsmouth, Virginia, 23–25 September 2008, 912–920Google Scholar
  155. Wilson CR (1967) Infrasonic pressure waves from the aurora; a shock wave model. Nature 214:1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wilson CR (1971) Auroral infrasonic waves and poleward expansions of auroral substorms at Inuvik, N.W.T., Canada. Geophys. J. R. astr. Soc., 26: 179-181Google Scholar
  157. Wilson CR (2005) Infrasound from auroral electrojet motions at I53US. Inframatics 10:1–13Google Scholar
  158. Wilson CR, Olson JV (2003) Mountain associated waves at I53US and I55US in Alaska and Antarctica in the frequency passband from 0.015 to 0.10 Hz. Inframatics 3:6–10Google Scholar
  159. Wilson CR, Olson JV (2005a) Frequency domain coherence between high trace-velocity infrasonic signals at I53US and video data from pulsating aurora. Inframatics 9:27–30Google Scholar
  160. Wilson CR, Olson JV (2005b) 153US and 155US signals from Manam Volcano. Inframatics 9:31–35Google Scholar
  161. Wilson CR, Szuberla CAL, Olson JV (2010) High-latitude observations of infrasound from Alaska and Antarctica: mountain associated waves and geomagnetic/auroral Infrasonic signals. This volume, pp. 409–448Google Scholar
  162. Wilson CR, Olson JV, Osborne DL, Le Pichon A (2003) Infrasound from Erebus Volcano at I55US in Antarctica. Inframatics 4:1–8Google Scholar
  163. Young JM, Greene GE (1982) Anamalous infrasound generated by the Alaskan earthquake of 28 March 1964. J Acoust Soc Am 71:334–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CTBTO, PTS/IDC, Vienna International CentreViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations